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tLit?{- e- 17 D 
































I 1814. 

1 I • 

• t 




FoUGEROUX DE BONDAROY (Augustus Dennis); 
a learned Frenchman^- and member of the academy of 
sciences, was born at Paris Oct. 10, 1732. He was th^ 
nephew of the celebrated Duhamel, and acquired a skniiai^ 
taste for those studies that end iij^^jeqts of real utility. He 
travelled over Anjou and Britt^^^^rtrivj^tigate the nature 
of the slate-quarries, and then \ve.i1 1 to tuples to make ob» 
servations on the alum mines and other paturai productions; 
On his return he had the n^^fortuiie to 4^e his tutor and 
«ncle Duhamely to. whose es^;|^'4s<e succeeded^ and on 
which he carried on very extensW agricultural improve* 
fnents and experiments, and acquired by his amiable pri* 
•vate character the esteem of every one who knew him. 
He died Dec. 28, 1789, leaving the following valuable 
j>i»blicattons : 1. <* Memoires sur la formation des Os,*^' 
1760, 8vo, in which, with some discoveries of his own, 
he ably defends his uticle^s theory on that part of physio- 
Jogy. a. " Uart de PArdoisier," 1762. 2. « L'art de 
travailler les cuirs dor^s." 4. " L'art de Tonnelier," 
1752. 5, " L'art de. Coutelier,'* / All these form part of 
the Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences. 6. '* Rechercfaes 
aur les mines d' Herculeuieum, et sur les lumieres qm 
peuvent en resulter ; av^c un trait6 sur la fabrication des 
mosaiques,'' 1769, 8vo: 7. " Observations faites. snr les 
^otes de Normandie," 1773, 4to. He was the author also 
of a great number of miscellaneous papers in the Memoirs 
-of the Academy.^ /, 

1 Elogcs del Aeademici«S8, vol. V.— Diet Hist. 

Vol. XV. B 

i fOUlLLOU. 

FOUILLOU (James), a celebrated licentiate of the 
Sorbonne, was born in 1670 at Rochelle, where he studied 
ethics in the Jesuits* college. . He went afterwards to 
Paris, and continued his studiesjip, the community of M. 
Giliot, at the coUeg^e of St Barbe^ including the time of 
his being licentiate, and was immediately nominated theo- 
logal of Rocbelle ; this office, however, he declined, nor 
had he ever any benefice, but the commendatory priory 
of Stp Martin de Pronieres, in th^ diocese of Mende. M. 
Foaillon having engaged in the aflair of the '* Case of Coo- 
science," was obliged to conc6ai himself in 1703, and to 
retire into Holland about 1705 ; but the air of that country 
not agreeing with him, he was seized with an asthma, which 
proved incurable^ He returned to Paris about 1720, and 
died there September 21, 1736, aged sixty-six, leaving 
several thedogicat works, all anooyoious, and all discoH 
Tering great opposttiod to the b^U Unigeniius. Thm 
principal are, 1. ^* Considerations aur la Censure (of the 
Cas de Conscience) de M. Tfiveque d'Apt,'' 2. << Defense 
des Theologtens centre M. de Cbartres,'' 12mo. 3* << Traitt 
aur le Silence respectueux," 3 vol&. 12mo. ^ ** ha Chi»> 
mere du Jansenisme, et le Renversepoent de la Doctrine 
de St. Augustin, par rOrdonnance de Lu^on, et de la 
Rocbelle," 12mo. $. '< Traite de TEquilibre," a smati 
piece containing observations on the 101 propositions .cen* 
sured by the bull Unigeniius, FouiUou bad also a great 
ahare in the first edition of ^^ L'Aotioa de Dieu sur lea 
Creatures,*' 4to, or 6 vols. I2mQ; ^^ GemissemenssurPer^ 
Bo'iaV 12mo; ** Grands Hexaples," 1721, 7 vx>ls. 4tG^ 
and << THistoire du Cas de Comcience," 1705, a voliu 

FOULIS (Robert and Andssw), two learned oriiiten 
^t Sc6dand, were, it is supposed, natives of Glasgow^ 
and passed their early days in obscurity* Ingenuity and 
perseverance, however, enabled tbeaa to establish a. press 
from which have issued some of the finest specimMa of 
correct and elegant printing which the eighteenth cen* 
tury has produced. Even Bodoni of Parma, or Barbou of 
Paris, have not gone beyond some of the productions from 
the press of Robert and Andrew Foulis. It would ba 
highly agreeable to trace the progress of these ingenious 
men, but their history has been neglected by their coiiti*' 

) ]«orerL->L'Avocal't DUt Hfst^ 

* tJ L I ^. . ^ 

tfymen, and at thh distai^ce little cati Ibe recovered. Ro- 
bert Foiilis began printing about 1 740, iarrd one of hlS first 
e^sayft iiras a good edition of Detnetriiis Pbalereus, in 4to. 
In 1^44 be brought out bis celebrated immaculate edition 
6f Horace, 12mo, and soon aft<ir#ard« was In partnership 
with his brother Andrew. ' Of this edition of Horace, the 
sheets, as they were printed, were hung up in the dolleg^ 
of Glasgow, and a reward Ifas offered to those who should 
discover an inaccuracy. It has been several times re- 
printed at Glasgow, but not probably with the same fidelity. 
The two brothers then proceeded ki producing, for thir^ 
y^rs, a series of correct and well printed books, particu- 
larly classics, which, either id Greek or Latin, are as re- 
markable for their beauty and exactness as any in the 
Aldine series. Among those classics we may enumerate 
1. " Homer," 4 vols. fol. Gr. 2. " Herodotus," 9 vols. 
12mo. 3. *• Thucydides," 8 vols. 12mo. 4. " Xeno- 
pbon," 8 vols;. 12mo. 5. " Epictetus," 12mo. 6. ** Lon- 
ginns," i2mo. 7. " Ciceronis Opera,'* 20 vols. 12mo. 
«.*< Horace,** I2mo and 4to. 9. "Virgil," i2mo. 10. 
** TibuUus and Propertius," 12mo. li. "Cornelius Ne- 
pos," 3 vols. 12mo. 12. ** Tacitus," 4 vols. 12mo. 13; 
'* Juvenal and Persius," 12mo. 14. "Lucretius,'* 12mo. 
To these may be added a beautiful edition of the Greek 
Testament, small 4to ; Gray*s Poems ; Pope's Works ; 
Hales of Eton, &c: &c. &c. 

' It is a melancholy reflection that the taste of these 
Worthy men for the fine arts at last brought about their 
ruin ; for having engaged in the establishment of an aca- 
demy for the instruction of youth in painting and sculpture 
in Scotland, llie enormous expence of sending pupils to 
Italy, to study and copy the ancients, gradually brought 
on their decline in the printing business j and they found 
the city of Glasgow no fit soil to transplant the imitative 
arts^into, although the literary genius of Greece and Rome 
had already produced them ample fortunes. Unsuccessful 
as they were, however, in this prcgect, it ought not to be 
forgot that Robert Foulis, with whom it originated,, was 
the iirst who endeavoured to establish a school *of the li- 
bera) arts in Great Britain. Andrew Foulis died in 1774 ; 
and Robert in 1776 exhibited and sold at Christie's iri 
Pall Mall, the remainder of his paintings.' The catalogue 
forms 3 vols. ; and tbe result of the sale was, that after ail 
the concomitant ezpences were defrayed^ the balance ia 

B 2 


1% tB 

Be<£sctf taeiaae jcav *<* *^ recam to 
FOL'LON or FOLLLOX Joax Eu&s , 

tfce cr^er of :::e JcM».aL Hb taany obscrn 

pm '■■^ny a.a>ptcd to ts^ csr^es cf » 
; took care to iasCrBct feiai in t^ reqKisiss for 
m^ de njk ^^ rue^ iyikce, aad he hrriir celedcaicd km his 

e tiuji c&iTtT jean^ as ve^ aa ior 
!edge, wbicb es^JMacea eroy bcxacb of 
He ms tocccwTcij appoiBted lector of tue ool* 
leges at H:nr ar«d Tootb^, aod iLed of a podlental dis- 
orier vb ti:«e i^ttgy citT, ia l6od. He b koOTii as aa aurhnc 
hf watnr tjaec4ogkal pieces pankra^^r.j ^ CoauBentara 
liMoncA et Morales ad libcos L et IL Macmtiwrocmm, 
ac^iius l/rxxioru^os Excoisibvu,'* io 2 Tois. foiio; ai^d b j 
Ills '^ UHtoria Lecdicfli^tSy per Epbcopormn et Piiocipma 
Serieai «i«zc9ta ab otigioe popoli oKjue ad Feidinaodi Ba- 
tari temport,^ &c in 3 toU. fcH. Tkb wock, tiio og h 
not verf aSlj executed, is nid to tbrov nmcfa light oo the 
hiitofy *A tbe Lotr Coantiie».* 

tOiSUyS ^WiLLL&3f), a Doteh Latin po^ stvled by 
himself^ in aL jsion a> hb teal name, Gulieimus GnaphKos, 
was bom in 1 495, at the Hagoe, aod became master of a 
school in that place. He wrote several comedies io Latin, 
which sometimes have been souobt br foreign collector^ 
Other as rare than for their inuindc merit; jet the " Aco- 
lastos*^ is comrooo and cheap in thb coouixy. We know 
pf three of these comedies: 1. ^ Martvriom Johaimis 
Pistorijy** Lejden. 2. *' Uypocrisis," a tragi>comedy, 
1554. 3. '^ Acohstnsy de filio prodigo,'' a comedy: ail 
in Hro. He died at Horden in Friezeiandy where he had 
arri?ed to the rank of a burgomaster, in 1 5 58. Many criti<:$ 
woold say that nothing rery lively conld be expected ia 
the comcxlies of a Dutch buigomaster. His <^ Acolastus'* 
was reprinted at Pans, in 1554, with elaborate notes by 
Gabriel Prateolns ; aod is said, in the title, to be form^ 
•o diligently of sentences from Plautus and Terence, that 
to interpret it might serve as an extensive comment oa 
both those authors.^ 

> !f icbo!«*f Bowyer.— Lemoine'i Hist, of Primtii^. 
* yiunru^l'oppm Bibt Udg . > Ibid. 

F O U N T A I N E. S 

FOOIJTAINE (Slit Andrew), knt. whose ancestors 
wer4^ ^ated at Narford^ in Norfolk/ so early as the reign 
of Henry II L was c^jfcated as a commoner of Christ- 
churchy Oxford, under the care of that eminent encou- 
rager of literature, Dr. Aldrich. He at the same time 
studied under Dr. Hickes the Anglo-Saxon language, and 
its antiquities ; of which he published a specimen in 
Hickes's *' Thesaurus,** under the title of *^ Numismata 
Anglo-*Sa;xonica et Anglo^Danica, breviter illustrataab An* 
dreiPountaine, eq. aur. & aedis Christi Oxon. ahimno. Oxon; 
170V' in which year Mr. Heame dedicated to him his 
edition cK Justin the historian. He received the honour of 
knighthood from king WiHiam ; and .travelled over most 
parts pf Europe, where he made a large and valuable coU 
lection of pictures, ancient statues, medals, and inscrip- 
tions; and, while in Italy, acquired such a knowledge of 
virtitf that the dealers in antiquities were not able to im- 
pose oa him. In 1709 bis judgment and iabcy were ex- 
erted jn embellishing the <' Tale of a Tub** with designs 
almost equal to the excellent satire they illustrate. At 
this period he enjoyed the friendship of the most distini 
goished wits, and of Swift in particular, who repeatedly 
mentions him in the Journal fa Stella in terms of high re- 
gard. In December, 1710, when sir Andrew was given^ 
over by bis physicians, 'Swift Tisited him, foretold his re- 
covery, and ^rejoiced at it ; though he humourously says^' 
" I have lost a legacy by bis living ; for he told ine he had' 
left me a picture and some books,** &c. Sir Andrew was^ 
vice*chadiberlatn to queen Caroline while princess of 
Wales, and after she was queen. ^ He was also tutor to^ 
prince William, for whom he was' installed' (as proxy)', 
knight of the Bath, and had on that occasion a patent • 
granted ^him, dated Jan. 14, 1725, for lidding supporters' 
to his arms. Elisabeth his sister, married colonel Clent- 
of Knightwick, in Worcestershire. Of bis skill and judg- 
ment in medals ancient and modern, he made no trifling' 
profit, by furnishing the most considerable cabinets of this' 
kingdom; but if, as Dr. Warton tells us, Annius in the 
^< Donciad*'' was meant for him, bis traffic was not always' 
of the most honourable kind.' In 1727 be was appointed' 
wardea of tbe^ttiint, an office which he held tillnis death,' 
which happened Sept. 4, 1753. He was buried at Nar- 
ford, in Norfolk, wnere he had erected an elegant s^fity. 
and formed a fine collection of old china ware, a yaluable 


^brary, an excellent collection of pictareB, t<At%f ind 
maoy curious pieces of antiquity. Sir Andrew lost many 
miniatures by a fire |it White's original chocolate^house^ 
in St* James's-street, where he had hired two rooms for bis 
jcoUections. A portrait of him, by Mr. Hoare of Badi, is 
fxi the collection at Wilton house ; and two medals of him 
fire engraved in Snelling's " English Medals/' 1776. Mont* 
/^ucoui in the preface to ^^ L'Aptiquit^ Expliqu^e/' calls 
§ir Andrew Fountaine an able antiquary, and says that, 
during bis stay at Paris, that gentleman furnished him with 
every piece of antiquity that he bad collected, which conid 
t>e of use to his work ; several were accordingly engraved 
^id described, as appears by sir Andrew's name on the 
plates* * 

FQUQUIERES (James), a Flemish painter of the 17th 
century, born at Antwerp in 1 5S6^ was one of the most 
learned and jcelebrated of landscape painters. Some have 
pJlaced him so near Titian, as to make the difielrence of 
their p^ctjures consist^ rather in the countries ifepresented^ 
tbaii in the goodness of the pieces. The principles tbcy 
went upon are the same> and their colouring alike goad 
and regular* He painted for Rubens, of whom he learned 
the esstentials. of his art The elector palatine employed 
him at Heidelberg, and frpqi thence he went to Paris, where^ 
t})QugU he worked a long time, and was well paid, yet be 
i;rew pQor for want of conduct, and died :1Q^9, m the 
iQUse,.of an ordinary painter called Silvain, who lived in 
\e, suburbs of St. Jaques.' 
FOURCllOY (Anthony Francis), an eminent French 
c^'bemist, was born at Paris June 15, 1755, where bis fa« 
tber was an apothecary, of the same family with the sub- 
ject of the succeeding article. In bis ninth year he was 
sent tol the coljlege of Hai^court, and at fourteen he com- 
pleted the studies which were at that time thought neces-* 
spgry. fl^yipg an early attachment to music and lively 
poetry,; he attempted to write for the theatre^ and had no 
hi^er ambitiop tbap to becon>e a player, bnt the bad 
success of one of his Mends who had encoUitaged t;his taste, 
cured him of it, and for two years he directed his atten- 
tion to commerce At the end of this time an intimate 
friend of bis fatheir persuaded him to study medicine, and 

1 KiehoVf Bowyer^r-Sowles's edit of Pope,. vol. V. p. 302.'«*Swift>« Wotrki; ' 
tMtaO^x. s D'ArgeoYille.— PilkiQgtoD, and StrutU 


AlseorSiogly fae deTioted bia talents to aDatokny^ bolatij%. 
ctettii^ry^ and nataral history. About two years after, in 
1776y. ha pQUifihed a ticai|3lation of Ramazzini, ^^ on tke 
diaewes of artisans/' whidi \^e enriched with notes and 
iUustratiotis derived from chemiQal theories which were 
then ^ quite new^ In 17B0» be .received the degree of 
IM. D. and regent of that fiaouky, in. spite of a very oon» 
sideiable oppoeition from bis brethren, and. from this time 
bis cfaeoilcai opinions aild dtsooveries, i^endered him uni** 
vaersally known mad .respeeted. The fertility of his in>agi« 
nation, joined to a style* dcpiaiiy easy and elegant,, witk 
gsefllt precisioil, attraeibd the attention of a numerous 
8elU>ol. In 17^4, on* ^be death of Macquer, he obtained 
the profcBsorsbip of chttmistry in the Royal Gardens, and 
the y^eav following be was admitted intO' the aoadtoiyof 
aeieaeds, of the section of anatomy, but was afterwarda 
admired to that of chemdstryy -for which he was more emt* 
nently .tpialified. In 1787, he in conjunction with his 
aMtatrynsen De Morv^eau, Lawadsier, and Bertbollet, pro- 
posed the Qdw chemical nomenclature, which after somw 
oppoaition^. eSeoted> a revolation in chemical 'Studies.^ 
(See LAVOiainRi) AUtbough ooostahtly .oocapied in . seien^ 
tific cxpferimciits, and in publishing various works, on snb-«( 
jeotB of vlediciae, cbemistiiy^ rand natural history^ be felt 
into the popular delasionaboot thi^ tiaie of the revolutsooy^ 
and in 1792 waaiappoiated elisctor oi the tity' of Paris, and 
s^erwards provisionsi iiepnty to. ithe (national convention^ 
whieh, however, he did not enter until after the death of 
tiie ksB^ 

' lo Sqst 1793, lie dbtaioad the adciptian 'Of a project hi 
the regulatimi of weights and aseaaums^ was chosen .se** 
M0tary in Octob^r^ and in. Deiceaiber- following pnssideni 
of the Jabobins^^ who. denounced biai for his silence in the 
ooovention. This be answered by. pleading; his avdcationk 
and chemical labours, .by whicb, he wh6 had been bom w^th-* 
out any fonaiae, had been aUe, to maiatain his father and 
sistets. In Sept» 17:04, lie bsniame a mariiber ^ the com^ 
jnittee, of ^public :safialiyy aiyl was againv exacted to dt in 
Be\^, ll96*. Besides proposing «o&ie , thd 

Suipment. of the arnifies, jv^ick )were Jtben ooi|l?endiog 
tball the powers of I^urape, he^ waa partioularly engaged 
i»sohoote and.asiabiisfametUa'fOr'edutation, to wbich^^tieti^ 
RiiaeB^ as polytecfeaki nMnal^ £ccl; wer^ gt^eii^ tbait ibey 
arif^aons^' to oblivaoul^ aaiBnudb as^jpfbsAbk tte anewii 

9 F O U R C R O Y. 

iostitdtions of France: The re^'election of two thirds o^i 
the convention removed him to the council of elders^ » 
one> of Che fantastical modes of gov^roment estabUshad ini 
179^5, where, in November, be had to refute several'^ 
charges levelled against him respecting the murder of La-i 
voisier. He was afterwards nx)miniated professor o£ che*; 
mistry, and a member of the 'institute; and in:May 1791^ 
left the council. During the time he could spare from: his.^ 
public employments, he continued ito cultivate his more. 
boooAirable studies, and had attained the highest rank/ 
aibong, the men of science whom the revolutionary tri-: 
btmals had spared, when Jie died Dec. 16, .1809, At.tbisi 
period be was a counsellor of state for. life^ a: count of theK 
empire, a commander of .the ilegion of honour, divectorr? 
general, of public instructionVs^ member of the. nationalr 
institute, professor of chemistry in the medial ^nd poly-> 
techtitc schools, and in the museuni of natuia]t h-istbry, and> 
a niember of most of the learned societies of Eiicope. . .i 
 Fourcroy's works rank among the most: cousideraUe* 
which France has. produced iu.chemistry,. Bod .must be,al«; 
lowed in a great measure to: confirm tbe:higb e;iieoimtt9i8> 
which his countrymen have bestowed on him, not only as* 
a. profound, but a pleasing and elegant writer. He puh<t 
lished, 1.^^ The translation jo£.Bama2zini,'' be£ore-men> 
tiozfecd. 2« ^^ Lemons elementaires d'histoire naturella et 
decbimie,^ 17S2, 12. vols. 8v6, of which there have; been^ 
many editions, the <last in 1794,. 5 vols. Evo.- 3.: ^^ Me^; observations pour servir doisuite aux elemens dar 
chimie,^' 1784, Svo. 4. *^ Principes de chimie a Tun^e :der 
yecoleVeterinaire," 2 vols. Ifimol ; '5i ". L!^tvde connoitre 
€t d'employer les medicameas: dans les maladies qui ati«: 
taquent le corps humain,'* 1785,. 2 vols. 8vo. 6. ^< EntOH* 
mologia ParisiensisV by Geoffrey,, an. improved edition^' 
1785, 2 vols. 12mo; 7. ^' Methodede nbikienclature.ebi«> 
mique proposer par M0rvea%:&c;?' system .'o£; 
chemical characters, 1787, 8Vo. 8. ^^ Essai'surle phlo«« 
gistique, et sur la constitution des acides,V from the £ngl« 
}ish of Kir wan, • with notes by Morveau,- Lavoisier, Bec^. 
thole€,.and Fourcroy, 1788, 8 vo; 9. ^< Analyse chimiqud 
de I'eau sulpbureuse d'Engbein, pour 'servir' a Phistoim 
de» eaux sulpbureuse en * geaeral,^^ by Fourcroy &^ Lm 
Porte, 1788, 'Svo. 10. f^Ajoaales de Chimie," by Four-» 
cv^ and aji 4he French chemiats^ published pariocticallg^ 
frAm i789j to 1794, jlfi vol^, Svo; U* **I-a Medicine 

F O U R C RO Y- » 

ecXditie par- Ics - sciences pWysiques," 1 79 1 ," i 792, 1 2 vbli. 
m^ ^''Philosophie cbimique^'* 1792. Fourcroy wrote also 
]R tbe *^ Magastn encyclope'clique/' ai)d the ** Journal de 
T-^cole polytechnique," and drew up several r^orts for 
the national convention, whioh were published in the Mo- 
tiiteur, &c/ His last publications were, I ^. '^ Tableaux pour 
servir de resume aux lemons de- cbimie faites a Tecole de 
medicine de Paris pendant 1799 et 1800. 14. <' Systeme 
des'connoissan^es cbimiques, 'et de leiirs applications aux 
f^l^omenes deia nature et de I'art," 1800^ 10 vols. Svo, 
and 5 vtris. 4to. To these exMdstve labours may be added 
the 'cbemichU articles dn the Eneydoptedia. Fourcroy left 
aPH^E^^aluilblelibraiy; wbith was sold by auction at Paris, 
in 1810, and -of which Messrs, Tilliard, the booksdilersy-^ 
j^iiMisHed a welUatrttiged catalogue; - Several of his wo^ks 
ha^e been ti^^tated into English.* ^ 

-^POURClROY (Charles Ren^* de), cansp,^ 
j^alkl drbto^of 'the order of St. Louis, director of the royal; 
cjcnrps 6f*enginfeersv member of the eoaticil at war and of 
thev^sikiL -council, and free associaite of 'the academy of' 
0^i6n^s; was' bbtn at Paris Jan. 19, 1715. ^ He was the^ 
son of Cbitfle^'de Fourcroy, an emrnenC deun^ilor at lawy 
0nA Elizabeth L^Heritier* Destined to the bar as- an he- 
reditary profession, bis incUilaf ion impelled him into the* 
' pittbs of science, and accident led -> him into t)ie corps of 
engineers. An officer of • tha&corps wa» involved in an 
important law-suit, which he chose M*.de Fourcroy to 
ccnn^aet M. de Fourcroy directed his son to converse 
witb^^be officer for the purpose of procuring every infor« 
mation ile^esdary to' the success of Uscaude; but the youth, * 
whose thirst of- science was already conspicuous^ shewed 
less attention^ to the particulars of tiieiawsuit, than desire 
eo'be acqiiaitited with* what concerned '''tbe service of an' 
engineer; and being informed of the preliniinary studies 
i^quisite to an admission into that body, he was soon ena* 
bled to offer himself for examination. 

^ >in'1736 he was admitted into the corps, ^nd was era-* 
ployed ^n(ier marshal^ d'Asi^d. > His activity, 2eal, and 
kiM^e^e 'above bis years,.'pcocnred -him the confidence 
^^bis comm^hder ; but, remairking an error in a project 
which the niarshal communicated to Hmy he informed him 

.1 1 . J • 

1 1 

* ^ Jiki^&aL'rT'I^f^;»Mo^^riK^*'''^9''^Mtvi^ prefixed .to||ftlofq« qf- 
k|sLH>?ary. • 


qC it For this sit first' be received tbooks ; but' uoloeUljr 
be was iinprudeiit enough to entrust this little secr^of bii^ 
iwiity to his mother, and her maternal tendemesa wsm 
equaUy indiscreet. The marshal had not greatoesli of 
mind enough to be indulgent^ or ability enough not to be 
afraid of avowing that be w^ liable to. mistime ; and it ivm. 
long evident that be had not forgiven M. de Fouroroy^ 
bolb (roai the commissions which he gave . bim» and bia 
gcffiieral regulations, which always tended to prevent bia 
promotion. From this treatment .M. de Fourcroy learnt* at; 
at^ early period to expect aotbing but from bis aeri^icQs ; 
amd he was destined to prove by bis exampie, th?t virtue 
19 one of the roads to fortunei and perhaps not the least 

£i%aged in every campaign of the war of IHO^ be Waa 
charged, though young, with some importafit commisMOM ;. 
1^ fais application during the peace ^prpcored hitia eii* 
ployment m the . sacceeding war^ He mad^ three can* 
paigna in Germany, and in 1761 was commander of the. 
eaigineer^ on the coast of Brittany^ when the Siiglisb took 
BeUeisle. In 1 762 be made a campaign in Portu|^^ where 
hfi. was present at the siege of Aimeyda. Every day ML 
de Fourcroy worked fourteen hours in bia closet, when the 
duties of the service did not compel him to quit it. Ao 
itresistible propensity to the study of natural pbilosophir; 
would have led biai far, bad be not been incessantly called, 
from it to the duties of his stajtioa. From these be some* 
times stole time for making observations ; but, guarding, 
against the illusions of self-love, he communicated xoosi 
qf bia researches to meo of learning, who have iniierted 
them in their works. The microscopical obsarvatioua ia 
the ^ Tfeatiseoo the Heart,' ' which, does so much honour 
tp Mn Seoac, are almost all by M. de Fouicroy. Many 
(rf bis remarks and observationa make a part of M. I>u-^ 
hamel'S ^< Treatise .on flsbing," in which we find tbe Ant 
traces of Spallanzani's experiments on hybridous ftsb*- 
M. de FAUrcroy bad seen these experiments in a fisb^-pond 
in Germany, and gave an .account of them to Mr. Dubam 
9ael« To bim M. Dubamel was indebted alfio for . aoma 
wperimenta with which he baa enriched bis ^^ Treatise om 
Foresia/' M. de Ja Laode, too, baa acknowledged that h% 
owes bim many facts and reflections, of which he baa 
#MM Ittroself in bis wdrk on Tides. Amongst the ewaya 
that M. de Fourcroy published separately^ is one in wtdch 

F O U R C R O Y. II 

lie examines how we may judge of the hei^t to #hich 
certain birds of passage raise themselves, by knowing that 
of the point at which they cease to be visible. He pub<« 
lished the '* Arc of Brick-making,'* which forms a part of 
ibe collection of the academy, to. which he also sent se** 
veral essays that were approved and inserted in their works. 
The margin of his Collection of the Academy relative to 
the Arts he has filled with notes> as it was his practice 
when he read it to examine the calculations, and correct 
them if they were not accurate. 

M* de Fourcroy was employed successively in yarioos 
parts of the kingdom ; prinoipallyy indeed, at Calais^ at 
]^usillon^ and in Corsiica. Everywhere he served with 
diligence, and everywhere he acquired esteem and venera^ 
tion. Of this conduct be received the reward in the most 
flattering manner. M^ de St Germain being appointed 
minister at war, wished to avail himself in his oflSce of the- 
abilities of some superior officer in the corps of engineers* 
On thi» he consulted the directors of that corps, then as- 
sembled at Versailles. All with an'unanimous voice pointed 
out M. de Fourciroy, as the most c^>able of fulfilling the 
intentions of the minister. M. de St. Getmain, who was 
scarcely acquainted with M* de Fourcroy, wrote to him 
to come to Perpignan, where he resided. When the 
mi||ltter told this gentleman that be had sent for brim 
wi^ut knowing him, to fill a post near himself, and that 
he was recommended by the officers of his corps, his as*" 
tooishment inay easily be conceived. Of the opiliion 
given of him he shewed himself worthy ; and his conduct' 
both public and private, made him honoured and respected. 

A life thus busy was rendered more happy by a senti* 
ment, which, born at 'an early period, expired but with 
his life. The daughter of M. Le Maistre, the neighbour 
and friend of his father, and like bimi famous at the bar, 
wa& the companion of his youthful qM>rta, and ibsensiblj 
chosen by him as the partner of his future days. Whilst 
M. de Fourcroy was studying under able masters to render 
himself useful to bis country by bis talents and acquire- 
ments, miss Le Maistre learned fifom a pious and charitable 
mother to succour and console the suffeilings of her fellow* 
creatures. The vacations of each year l^rought together 
the two yojung friends, whose minds were so attuned to 
each other, as if they had never been separated. At that 
s^e, wimthe hdart experiences the want of a nolore Uvely 

12 F O U R C R O Y. 

aerithneAt, the tender friendship ^hich umted them left 
thela at liberty for no other choice. Both without fortune; 
they; contented themselves with loving each other always; 
and seeing each other sometimes, till prudence shotild per- 
mit them a closer union. - Both sure of themselves, as of 
the objects of their affedtion, fourteen years passed with- 
oat any inquietude but what absence occasioned. After 
marriage, enjoyment weakened not their passion, as the 
sacrifice tb'^y. had made of it to reason had not disturbed 
their tranquillity. Similar in opinion, their thoughts arid 
their sentiments were common. Separated from the world 
equally by the simplicity of their tastes, and the pUrity of 
their principles, they reciprocally found in the esteeni of 
each other the sole support, thie sole reward, of which 
their virtue* bdd need. Every day they tasted the pleasure 
of that intimate union of souls, which every day saw re-» 
newed. The difference of their characters, which offered 
the. striking contrast of gentleness and inflexibility, served- 
only 'to show them the power of the sympathy of theiic^ 
hearts.. Different from most both in their love and in their" 
rirtues, time, which almost always seemis ib approach vts* 
to happiness only to carry us the'farther froni it afterwards,- 
seemed to have fixed it with then^. Perhaps we have not 
another instance of a passion continuing seventy years, al*' 
wayis tender,": always the chief (nay the sole, rin'ce Aat 
they bore for an only daughter constituted a part of it),' 
which! la^sted uniformly from itifaitcy to old age^ flot weak^- 
ened, i^ibtonce obscured by the leswt cloud, not dnce dis** 
turbed by the, slightest coldness or negligence.' ' 

. Employed to his la&t moment irt * his country^s service, * 
M. de. Fourcroy died January 12, 1791, regretted by his 
family; his friends, and his country.^ • ^*' 

FOURMONT (Stephen), professor of the Arabic arid 
Qhiriese languages at vParis, was the son of a surgeon, and* 
born at Herbelki, near Paris, iii 1683.- He learned the 
elements of Latin from the curate of the' place ; but losing * 
his father when very young, he came under the cafe 6i 
an uncle, who removed him. to his bouse at Paris, and su- ^ 
p>erintended his studies. He went -through the corirses of 
logic, rhetoric, and philosophy, in different colleges; and- meet with -the abb6 Sevin, i«*o loved study * 
^ well 'as himself, tliey formed a scheme of reading ^ 

> f £>o^ des Acadenucieni, v(d« V,«-fDiot. I^t.^^'Evropean M«rt 

f p V R M Q N T. 03 

Jthe Greek axtd Latin poets together. But astb^ ezerdi^eft 
.of the society employed most of tbeir hours by day^ they 
found means to continue this task ^ secretly by nightj and 
this being considered as a breach of discipline, the supe- 
.rior thought fit to ex(;lude them fro oi the comununity. 
Fourmon^ retired to the college of Montaigq, and ha.d the 
.very chambers which formerly belonged to Erasmus ; and 
here the abb^ Sevin continued to yisit him, wb^n they wqut 
on with their work without interruption. Fourinont joined 
to this pursuit the study of the oriental languages^ in 
.which he made a very uncommon progress. ^ 

He afterwards was employed in reading lectures : he 
explained the Greek fathers to some, and the Hebrew and 
Syiiac languages to others. After that^ he undertook .the 
education of the sons of the duke d'An^in, who w^re com- 
^naitted to his care, and studied in the college of Harcou((. 
He was at the same time received an advocate ; but the 
law not being suited to his taste, he returned to his former 
studies. He then contracted an acquaintance with the 
ixbhi Bignon, at whose instigation he applied himself ,to 
jthe Chinese tongue, and succeeded beyond his.expepta- 
tions, for he had a prodigious n^em(^ry, and a particular 
turn for languages. He now became very famous. He 
held conferences at his own house, once or twice a w«ek, 
upon subjects of literature ; at which foreigners, a^ i^ell 
^svVench, were admitted and assisted. Hence he becai^^ 
known to the count de Toledo, who was infinitely pleas^ed 
with his cpnversation^ and made him great offers, if be 
would go ir^to Spain; but Fourmont refused. In 1715 h^ 
succeeded M. Galland to the Arabic chair in the royal coU 
lege. The same year be was admitted a member of the 
aca;demy of inscriptions ; of the royal society at Lon* 
idon in,17S8 ; and of that of Berlin in 174],. He was often s 
Consulted by the duke of Orleans, who had a particabf 
(esteem for him, and made him one of his secretaries. He 
died at Paris in 1743. • 

His mo^t considerable works are, I. " The Roots of tji^^ 
Latin tongue in. metre.*' 2. ^^ Critical Reflections upon 
- Ancient History, ,tp the time of Cyrus," 2 vols. .4tp. 
3. " Meditationes Sinicae," fol. 4. ** A Cliine^e Graip- 
mar, in Latin," fol. 5. "Several Dissenations, primed 
iri the Memoirs of the Academy of Inscription*,'^ &c. 
He left several works in manuscript. In 1 731 he published 
in 12mo, a catalogue of all his works^ printed and mauu* 

14 t OV KMOift. 

script^ with ndtes, some particulars of bis fife, and unM 
lettern pretended to be addressed to him requesting hith 
to publbb such a work, and others which were so in re- 
-ality* Fourmont appears to have been a scholar of vast 
industry and merits but perfectly conscious of the rank he 
held. H^ had a younger brother, Michael Fourmont, 
who was an ecclesiastic, a professor of the Syriac tongpu^ 
in the royal college, and a meniber also of the acadasiy of 
inscriptions, who died in 1746.' ' 

FOURNIER (Peter Simon), a French engraver anA 
letter-founder, was born at Paris in 1712, and excelled ih 
his profession. His letters not onIy«embelli8faed the ty-* 
pographical art, but his genius illostrated and enlarged it. 
He published in 1737 a table of proportions to be observed 
between letters, in order to determine their height and 
relations to each other. This ingenious artist ascended to 
the yery origin of printing, for the sake of knowing it 
thoroughly* He produced at different times several his* 
torical and critical dissertations upon the rise and progress 
of the typographical art, which have since been collected 
and published in i vol. 8vo, divided into three parts ; the 
last including a curious history of the engravers in wood. 
Bat the most important work of Fournier, is his *^ Manuel 
Typographique, utile aux gens de Lettres, et a ceux qui 
•zercent les differents parties de PArt de PImprimerie,** 
in 2 vols. 8vo. The author meant to have siidded two 
Miore, but was prevented by his death, which happened 
in 1768. In this ** Manuel*^ are specimens of all the dif- 
ferent characters he invented. He was of the most pleasmg 
manners, and a man of virtue and piety.* 

FOWLER (Christopher), a clergyman originally of 
the church of England, was the son of John Fowler of 
Mariborough, in Wiltshire, where- he was born in 1610 ot 
1611, In 1627 he was admitted a servitor at Magdalen^* 
eirflege, Oxford, and continued there until be took hi^ 
hachelor^s degree; and then went to Edonind-hall, and 
look that of master. Having entered into holy orders, he 
preached, some time in and near Oxford ; and afterward$ 
St West-Woodhay, iiear Donnington casthe, in Berkshire.- 
In 1641 he took 'the covenant, and joined the 'presbyte- 
rians ; being then, as Wood imagines, miotster of Mar** 

. 1 Moreri, from ht« Life pttbTii^ed in 1747. 

' Diet. Hi«t.«— Dibdin's Biblieoaaiuii. 

F O W L E H. 14 

:gBtet?iB^ Lolfat»iu7» bftt bis name does not ocetfr in the 
registers until 1652. In 1641 he became vicar of St. 
Mary^s, Readings, and an assislianc to the comniisiiouerB 
of Berkshire, for the ejection of sueh as were then styled 
^* scandalous, ignorant, and insufficient ministers and 
schoolmasters.'^ He was at length, a fellow of Eton isA^ 
'cfge^ though he had refused the engagement, as it was 
caUed. After the restoration, he lost his fellowship of 
Eton, and, being deprived of the vicarage of St. Mary^i 
for non-conformity, be retired to London, and afterwards 
to Kennington, in Surrey, where he continued to preach, 
although privately. JFor some time before his d^ath, he 
was much disordered in his understanding, and died lit 
Sottthwark, Jan. 15, 1676, and was buried' within thepre^ 
eincts of SL John Baptist's church, near Dowgate. He it 
said by Wood to have used odd gesture^ and antic be« 
haviour in the pulpit, unbecoming the serious gravity of 
the place, but which made him popular in those times; 
His character by Mr. Cooper, who preached his funeral 
lermon, is more favourable, being celebrated ** as an able,* 
holyi faithful, indefatigable servant of Christ. He wai 
^uick in apprehension, solid in his notions, clear in his 
conceptions, sound in the faith, strong and demonstrative 
in arguing, mighty in convincing, and zealous for the 
truth against all errors." We are told, likewise, that *^ he 
had a singular gift in chronology, not for curious specula-* 
tion or ostentation, but as a key and measure to know the 
signs of the times," &c. 

His works are, 1. ^' Daemonium meridianum, or Satan at 
noon ; being a sincere and impartial relation of the pro* 
eeedings of the eommissioners of the countj of Berks, au« 
ihorized by the ordinance for ejection, against John Por* 
di|ge, late minister of ^radfield, in the name county,** 
Lend. 1655, 4to. This Pordage appeared to these com^* 
missioners to be unsound in the doctrine of the IVtnity^ 
JK* *^ DsBmonium meridianum, the second part, disco-* 
f:ering the slandersi and calumnies cast upon some corpo- 
iwtions^ with forged and false articles upon the author, in . 
H jpampblet entitled ^ The case of Reading rightly stated,^ 
by the adherenta and abettort of the said J. Pordage,'*" 
Lpiidi l*56>.4tOi To this is subjomed " A Word to In- 
fetnt Baptism," fco, Fowler likewise pubftshed a few oc^^^ 
casional Sermoni^; and ** A sober answer to an angry 
^istle directed to all public teachers in this nation," pre^ 


fixed ta a book- called *^ Christ's innoc^ncy pleaded agaioft^ 
the cry of the Chief Priests," by Thomas Speed, quakeVg 
^c. Lond. 1656. In tt^ he was assisted by Simon Ford^ 
vicar of St. Lauren ce, Reading, and it, was apimadvertod 
on by George Fox, J in one of his pubUcations.V 

FOWLER (Edwahi?), a le?irned English prelate, was 
born in 1632, at Westerleigh, in Gloucestershire; of 
mrhich place his father was minister, but ejected for non- 
conformity after the restoration* He was sent to tbe^ 
College-school in Gloucester, where be was educated 
tinder William Russel, who had married bis sister. In tbe 
beginning of 1650 he became clerk of Carpus Christie cpl- 
\^S^> Oxford, and being looked upon, says Wood, ^f bs 
a young man well endowed with the spirit, ,and gifted with 
extemporary prayer, he was admitted one of the chaplains 
thereof in 1653, and the same year took a bachelor of art$ 
degree,'* Afterwards removing to Can^ridge, he took 
his master^s degree as a member of Trinity college, and 
returning to Oxford, was incorporated in the same degree 
July 5, 1656. About the same time he became cbaplaiii 
to Arabella, countess dowager of Kent, who presented him 
to the rectory of Northill, in Bedfordshire. Having been, 
educated a presbyterian, he scrupled about conformity at 
the restoration, but conformed afterwards, and became^a 
great ornament to the church. His excellent moral writings 
gendered him so considerable, that archbishop Sheldon,^ 
in order to introduce him into the metropolis, poUated him 
in August 1673, ,to the rectory of All-hallows, Bread** 
street. In February 1675-6, he was -made prebendary of 
Gloucester; and in March 1681, vicar of St. Giles's, Crip*;? 
plegate, on which he resigned the living of Allhallows* 
The same year, he accumulated the degrees of bachelor 
and doctor of divinity. During the struggle between pro- 
testantism and popery in this kingdom, he appeared to 
ereat advantage in defence of the former ; but this ren- 
dered him obnoxious to the court, and in all probabilitjr 
yfSLS the secret cause of a prosecution against hiin, in 1685, 
by some of his parishioners, who alledged that he was 
guilty of Whiggism, that he admitted to the commuoioa. 
excommunicated persons before they were absolved, &p. 
We are told this matter was carried so far, that, after- a 
Ijial at Doctors'-commons, he was suspended, under tha 
... . . • ' . • • 

, . > Ath. Ox. vol. II.-r~CalaBay.<— Coatefi's m$L of Reading. 

.# S) W/L I B. 5iI7 

-|irbtdicfe ofqbftMn^aetfeiKL''iB ie^emloivtpessts pditiUy no 

the cabons tifi lbe)c[hUlrcbi This.aflVobt^JgKHine«er^ ilid- noftdb- 

tiitiitlaie hiiiiifrQiodohig|wbaitiMil1ioaghtln$:duty * forhewM 

iiae s^ocmd^fwlfoiU 16A8^.'|i^ed. theiresoluijhpn of tbe L<ni- 

4oji ^iergjy irait to ,i<eaiA>kiag-..Jafne9?9 n«tw declarauon for 

liberty (^f cooftoiax^t v He.wlis revvArdbd for this and otif^c 

;aervic^ at .^tte: .rtvoJtii^o i for in IB^hi be ,wa» preferxed 

'^o theseie of 'GiQiii^es^r^ . and contiotied; tbere) till bis 

'-deatb^iwfaioh happened at Chelsea, A^g. Sfiiiill] 4, iii his 

etgbtyt;f«f;ond[year. • Hi$^,widow surrviyed.biiiijSottiejyears, 

dyilig. A|Hril^^» 1732» She was bis second- wife» tbe 'widow 

ohi^ibir^Y't JDFw.£aek!iel iBurton, and .dai%b2^ of i^Ralph 

Trt^of^ oi London, .iiiie^c)»&nt* His firjt -wtCe^ by whom 

he.hMialkrge familyi; w$» daughter of Arth«iW'Barnardi»- 

^n, oo^o^f^e- notasteciniix chapcej:y. She died. De6. I9, 

1^9^,' and.was boriediraft well as the bishop, in Hendon 

d^i^h-j^jftrd, :Middl6seai^i ii>.the{ chaiicel of whioh cfauroh is 

r« »^»W«i^to his oiemcpry.jj? .' ^ ' ' 

.r fi^e^wiai^hf^iatitbQr of n]iany)e^QiJl0ntworks^ as,' 1. "The 

-P|^j{<i»ipJ€^:;^ild( Practices i^) a/^irjtain moderate, divines ctf 

the Cburtcrh. ^ ^England,. aj><i9ive)y called. Latitudinarians, 

greatly .Qii3updersitood> truly fepresented ^ai^d defe«ded>!^ 

r6^70^:3¥o. jtThis is.wriiitieR:,in- the way of : dialog^e^ [ 2. 

ff^The D«sigi^fof iChrUtiani^^y^f^or, a pl^n; defnonsitratioli 

.and impiVivitintnt.of this proposition, .vi^;:.^|^, the enduing 

Hieu wit)h,ij|Wfiir4,iseal rigbt^pflsfi^sd.a.Qd ttrii e* holiness,^ hi«^ 

the^^^^lioii^tViend of Our Savi^or^s cpniing anto the'worli^ 

and iis,(EhQrg^at* ii^t^ndtni^t of his blessoU Gospel,-' 167i, 

'Syo. t.^J[<4|n.Bniiyan, the author of the Pilgrim's P/qgress, 

,ba¥i{)gj'>$t%ck«d. this l^ok, the author vindicated it in.^ 

j>e^mpj^'|twHb. a yeiy c.oarse title ; 3. ^', Dirt wiped out<; 

(O;?) at rrlt^ai^ifi^il^ disQOvejry of the :gro6s ignorance, erro- 

^eou^iess;' Ar^ most unchristian and wicked spirit of one 

John B^fiyan} Lay-pi!eacher in Bedford, &q." 1672, 4to, 4. 

;^' ^b)^ta3 £vfM;»gelica; or,:a Discourse of Christian Liibertjjf. 

3oing ^ fjiirther pursuauc^ of The Design of Christianity^ 

JL680) 8vo. ^4 Some piec^ against |>opery ; as, " The Re^- 

•i^pl|it^0n4»f thisc^kseof conscience, whether the Church of 

^England's sypiboji^ingy so far as it doth with the Church 

9f Rome, makes' it lawful to hold communion with the 

Church of Rome ?" 1683, 4to, " A Defence of the Re^ 

solution, &c." 1684, 4to. " Examination of Cardinal ^ 

Bellar miners fburth note of the Church, viz. Amplitude^ 

or Multitude and Varleiy of Believers.'* " The texta 

Vol. XV. C, 

V18 .^.OW/LdA. 

j«rbidi' Baapi^KitMiotit of the iBibte,^ fpr ictei ptoof ^ 4«ir 
dbetritie c0iii(reniiii^ the obsbiiKtyitof dbe^fibly Soriflumi, 
^examhii^d,'' l«8i7<, (4ito; TMirmibatftore printed 911^ ^^^Tbe 
'Frdserviitire 4i^aioit I^e»3^^'' foltki:. : Hie -pttblUlMsdv aiMy 
i6; T)fM!pieoes^ovi i^e>dootni»e'olf the'Tri;ifuyi ^{iertttin 
JRfbpostcidbt^ by kvhieh iJie* dectiiikie of «be Holy iTniMty is 
'w> expttfiMd/^«cQdidi»g to the ani^ieint'fetber^^ «s«(» ftpisik 
'it not cdtitvidicvory to niatural rMionv Togeeber with- % 
^^feticse <or ttie;^;^c/? l^S^^ 4lo. << A S<^ond<D«feOlie 
.of the f^ropcuitioDH, &e." 169^5, 4to. ''- 7. EighttM' Oeita* 
siitodfl 'J3€^raiofi«r ; one <if which Was on << The greiM^wixtheA* 
'tiet^iaWd '4Sii<9chi€ftou^ effctets of Skftd^riiig, prauibcid in 
^thepattisU^btrrcli of St. Gito»'«) Nov. 13, 16£5» oft^Ptiilm 
-cL 5^ witte i* Jut^e pi^face of %he a\sitbor^ «Bd coikdu^ieii 
in b}& Wn^rtdioatioth*' 1686/ 4to.' S. ^^Ati >Atfl^er lb 
the Papey* dcftivered by Mr. Afl(h«dti€tth»ex»c«tiotH''*t^i90, 
^to. ^. ^< A Discourse cmr^hegr^tdisiingenMiy^ainfd' wry- 
reasonableness of repining at 'dieting PMvMMim^ ttUd 
«f the ihguence wbit^k'ith^J^ (^u^bt to baireupM m6; ipub- 
itsbed'ttpon odoa^on of- ib& dt^th of queen M(ai<y ^ with k 
<preftioe c6iitiuning dome dbt^efvations toucMng her «xee)* 
lent ^ntl^meiffts and 'excmpUry life," 16^5^, ^'Svo. 

InJ^be'rtgisitcfs of 48t. ©ilea's, Ortpj^egate,- whioh Mr. 
M^)<^Mai app«iii% to bave>ek^i>i%ed with t'Hre, tre find no 
|paefli%i(>n'tli(id^'0faf)ylitigi6iM& proceedings l^e pariri»- 
««l4eris'aga¥iMt Dr. f'-Owle)*;! b«it on the <son4ir»ry,^4}here sxte 
4be fblk>Wit)g elitries, \tbieh 'ufaow how mueh -he wtts'v^ 
^pectecl by them aPberthe'^teit^tetion : *^ FA. '7, 1700. 
Ordered, that -ill considertftidn the bishop 4f -Gloucester 
iiAls a Idng time, at his ^^v/rt charge^ provided |[f>l^ttir^r iti 
khh ^thky und been otherwise kind af)d>bo«irttiAlt^k> >tfafe 
-tMime, thiat th^ chancel of thii p^tish ^bui^dh be Ibrftwkk 
put m good repair at the charge «f -the ^parieh.'? 4ti'rrot 
ie represented to the ve?s«ty that he wai 'g|ioL#tt<^-80ex«- 
^emely i'nfinjn and old, he co«ld no longer pifeaiStr'iii a 
mbrniiig ; and havings targe family, with botsoiaH^ofils 
ftoiri the vicarage, jfcogether wkh having pr&viderf d Ipe^ 
<:cirer for twenty^fifveyerirs past at his own cibarge,'*he'fiO# 
4e*it*reated them to 'ctect Ofte themselves, whitsh- ibl^y iKd, 
^ith many acknowledgments for his lordsbip^^fatheriy colsv 
^et towards them. V .' . « ..> i. . 

Vimea.^BircK*5 Life f/ Tillotson.— Atb. Ox, toI. II,-Ht3ent Mae. ▼<>)• ^t W^9 
€^«<curi^ anecdote iffott blslM]^, n/lko i^fts ft Miev^r M gItMitli, 

F O W L S S. I> 

mited CrikMT of New coUeg?, in 0](fpnl» in i ssSj afMr 
iir0 j€9m of probtti^n, wb«r^ also be took bU mai^^ 
id#gfM» PiH leftimg fo e^qnply witb ^ tains of pipr 
-tavuint «Miforiii«iy ift qpeao £1^^ beicsigned 

M» iMomAip, nfto' bol^ing^ il abom four yei^^ and» 
laa^g Engiandt took «poa bim tba trade if priatiog^ 
iabicb be eaenriaod fviXy U Antveip,- and partly at Lou- 
ma; and tbii« <Ud sigml «erviee to tfie papUts, in printing 
tb^r ibofka agaioat the proieitant wrker9. Wood $aya 
.that be wa« w^ •killed in Greek and I^atin, a tolerable 
l»oet mid eratofy a tbeologift net to be contemned ; and ae 
irersed abio im oriticism and otber polke literature, that be 
Wgbt bare passed for aaotber Koben or Henry Ste|rfiens. 
.Be redaeed imo a eeaipendtnni tbe '* Summa TbeglogisB^^ 
of Tbovas Aqninas, nnder tbe title of ^ Lqc9^ Commnnia 
Tbeniogica,'* and wrote '' Additiones in Cbrofiica Gene- 
biancU ;''. a *' Psalter |br Cadiolic$»'* wbicb was answered 
i>y Sampson Dean, of CbiistHebarcb* Oxford, 157S; also 
epsgvMNy and other Teieses. He also ttaasbuod from Latin 
into Englii^), *^ Tbe Epistle of Osorins," and «' Tbe Oia>. 
tioo of Bei, Frariny of Antwerp, against the unlawful in«- 
anrr^etian of the protestwts, under pretence to reform 
leligien/' Aatwerp, 156e. This was answered by Wil*- 
liaos Falke» diHoity-professor in Cambridge. Foa^ died 
at Newmsrfc, in Oeraany, Feb. IS, 1579.^ 

FOWUCR {Tfi^QUAs), m En^iili physiciao, was born 
ait Yorb, 'Jan. %2f I73(p, and, after baviog gone throngh a 
0E>ar«e #f alassical and medical edneatioa, set up as an 
apotheeary in bis.naiife city, iq 1760. In 1774, bowever, 
itts selfiaqni^ted this briMuth of pfactice, in order to apply 
iiiinself mom etesely to. the stady of medical science ; and 
far this fsityiesebe went no Edinboigb, where be graduated 
an U%9^ He Cben settled ait S^flbrd, and was soon aftar 
elected pbysioiao to the infirmary at that phee, a4iece he 
faactaaed with conaideraUe repatatioo and success nntil 
If J!49 wbea he returned to York. Hare he met with the 
AlOPt flattodng enoonragement ; but his ardent attention 
t»b»s pre fcss a m al duties and studies was considerably in> 
tenttpted in July 17S3>, by an attack of a painful aaocpa^ 
Ims diaease of .the eh(nl, whiflh he described as ^' &ts oC 
apasmodic asthnuiy attended with most of the pain&d 

* Ath. Ox. fol, L— >Fiiq«p^^ WoiUm<s^^9^UI'b Church Hist. tol. I. 

C 2 


Symptoms of the angina pectoris.'* After consulting many 
eminent physicians, and trying a variety of me^icities^ 
*with partial- anil transient relief, for twoyear9> be was 
agreeably surprised by a spontaneous and gradual decline 
of the symptoms, and was at length totally free from them; 
Notwithstanding the check to his exertions which he re* 
ceived from this complaint, his professional emolumeols 
and reputation continued to increase ; and in 1796 he was 
appointed, 'withotit solicitation, and even whhout his 
knowledge, physician to the lunatic asylum, near York^ 
called the " Retreat," 'established by the society of qua- 
kers, for the relief of the insane members of their cotxi^ 
munity. He was a member of the medical societies of 
Edinburgh, of the medical society of London, and of the 
Bristol medical society. Dr. Fowler contpinued his useful 
career, active in every duty that benevolence could dic- 
tate, or friendship demand, and, in the exereise of his 
profession, an example of generosity, unwearied diligencie 
and humanity^ until 1801, when he died, on July 32d^ 
while upon a visit to some friends in London* 

In the course of his studies and practice, he exemplified 
the method recommended by lord Bacon for the improve* 
ment of medicine, perhaps moi^ than any of his predecies* 
sors or contemporaries ; and some idea of bis indefatigable 
labours may be conceived, when we mention that he left 
in man'uscnpt the history of more than six thousand cases, 
which fell under his own inspection and treatment From 
this' store of experimental knowledge he published several 
works. The first of these was entitled ** Medical Reports 
on the effects of Tobacco," which was puWtsbed in 17S5; 
and in the year following bis second treatise .appeared, 
underithe title of "Medical Reports on the Effects of 
Arsenic." Both works tended in a <jiotisiderable degree 16 
instruct the prdfession in the nieansof rendering these me- 
dicines safe and m&nageccble, and accordingly they ard 
now, especially the latter, in daily and familiar use^ and 
rank among the valuable articles of the materia medioai 
In 1795 he dedicated to the medical professors of Sdih- 
burgh a i^olume of '^ Medical Reports on the acute and 
chronic'Rheumatism," and was the author of ^ severed 
papers!jprinted in differeklt vdnmes of < the Medical Q^tti*' 
^entaries, and Aniials 6fiMediciiie, edfMd 'by D»s. DiUt^ 

ican ofEditibai^gk* * • . f. ^ s i -« ;, 

}■  . i ■. 

FOX 21 

' FOX (Edward), an emioeot statesman, almoDer to 
fienty VIII. and bi^op of Hereford^ was born at Dursley^ 
in Gloucestershire ; but it is not mentioned in what year*. 
After passing through Eton school he. was admitted of 
ling's college in Cambridge, 1512, where he was elected 
provost in 152S, and continued in thatoiEce till his death. 
Being reoommeiided to cardinal Wolsey as a man of an 
acute spirit and political turn, he was taken into his'ser- 
Tic'e;. and, according to Lloyd, was the person who encou- 
n^ed the carding to aspire to the papacy. In 1528 he 
was sent ambassador to Rome, jointly with Stephen Gar«- 
diner, afterwards bidiop of Winchester, in order to obtaiu 
bulls from Clement VII. for (ienry's divorce from Cathe-* 
line of Arragon. He was then almoner to the king; 
and reputed, as Burnet says, one pf the best divines ia 
England. He was afterwards employed in embassies bpth 
in France and Qermany ; during wbich^ as he was one day 
discoursing upon terms of peace, he said, ^^ honourable 
ones last long, but the dishonourable, no longer than till 
kings have power to break them : the surest way, there fore» 
to peace, is a constant preparedness for war.^' — ^Two things, 
be.would say, must support a government, V gold and iron : 
gold, to reward its friends ; ai)d iron, to keep under its 
enemies." It was to him that Cranmer owed his 
troduction to court, with all its important results. 

In 1530 he wa^ employed with Stephen Carding at 
Cambridge, to obtain the university's determination in the 
matter of Henry VIII.'s divorce. In 1531 he was promoted 
to the archdeaconry of (^eicester, and, in 15.33 to. that of 
Dorset, It was he that apprized tU^ clergy of their having 
fallen into a pranmnw€f and advised them to make their 
submission to the king, by acknowledging him supreme 
head of the cburph, and making him a present of 100,000/. 
In 1535 he was promoted to the bishopric of Hereford. 
He was the principal pillar of the reformation, as to the 
politic and prndential.par^ of it; being of more activity^ 
and no less abi^ty, than,Cranm^r himself: but he acted 
more secretly than Cranmer, and therefore did not bring 
himself into danger of suffering on that account. A few 
months after his consecration he. was sent ambassador to 
the- protestant princes in Germany, then assembled at 
Smalcald; whom he exhorted to unite, in point of doc- 
trine, with the church of England. He spent the winter 
at Wirtembergi and held several conferences with some of 

«*i FOX. ^^ 

t)»9^ fblkMriik|K mgbt be wad^ partiM^ted' ihaif «Jdivitl6 cmr-^* 
iaifti](ic»tioni\vas mad^to him, urging bim to fofMike'aHi a^^ 
devote «bis^ Hfe^lio. the duties of wligion.-- H«''>fib#> oiiilted^ 
hii. Detatioils, xlpessed* bifloseKan ^ iaftthem doubldty aivd^ 
wandered aibrdui fmui pla^e to^ plaoe^ |Bf in? discovered i\9 
tbei metr^polb^i hisifriendd. perMlaMlhiav to*^i*etut4i,'>arid' 
^pttleiin some 'Tegular einpptpy(»ent;i' But 'he di4 not )^-»^ 
ijgciiniwitb them* many iKionths ; determining to embrace W 
itinerant mode of life. He fasted 'mwcli and'oiften,rwalked' 
aba^oad in ri^ved places,, with no other^compaMOfibut ihe^ 
hible,. «ad somietimes sat in tbe hollow :of -a tre^^for aday; 
together,.. and^^alked in the fields by Bigtft, as if in>a stale* 
QficLeep melancholj.^ He occasioiiaUya^t;endied^uppn pttb* 
bb teachers, bat did^iiQt derive diat benefitifrom them iddat 
belooked for: and hearing, as besapposed^ tf vbieee^. 
elaiming,^^ There is one, eveti Christ Jleaus, that- can 
speak .to thy condition," he foisook tbe< usual oucwal'd* 
means -x>f religion ^'Contenduig, that as, God did not^ dwell 
ip. trmpies made with handSs, so tbe people 'shcmld'4i«eeirve 
the ihivard diviqe teaching ^. the; Lord, 'and takeitbatfor 
(heirruleof life. . >About 1648 hefi^t bimself cfldled^/iltpoti' 
to'.pjropagate. the .opinions, which he. had embrac^d^ and 
coimiiienced public teacher jin Manchester, and some- of 
(beneighbouriofg towns and villages, insisting ;on the «^r-> 
tainty and efficaey-of experiencing the coming o£ Christ in 
this heart, as a light to- discover error, and the icnowledge 
el oo^'s duty. < He no^ made more extensive journeys^ a»dl 
tiraveited through the counties of Derby, Leicesusr, furni 
Noribampton, addressing Jlie people in the nparket^plaoes, 
and inveighing strongly against injustice, drunkenness^ amd^ 
the other prevalent vices of the age. About this: time h^ 
apprehendefl that, the Lord bad forbidden him to take4>ff 
.lus bat to any* one;. and required him to speak «to. the 
people ^n the language of Shou^f^ thee ;,th9X he. xxmBte 
apt bend his ^koef to earthly, authorities ;. and that, be must 
0n' BO 'aao6«uit ^take. an: oatli» His peculiaijittes* exposed 
]iim :to piuqb'uhjustirfiable treatment, although, it m^st be 
allowed that Jae sometimes provoked .harsh usage by bis 
injUunpeijaAeizeal. At Derby the followers of Fox were 
fiirst denomiilated/^ quakers,*' as a>term x>f reproaeh, eithdr 
pa account 6i tbe itrembiing^ accent used in ^the idelivjery ef 
their spjeeches, or,, because, when broc^bt before /the 
higher powers, they exhorted the magistrates and other 
persons present <^ to tremble at the ns^me of the Liord.-^ 

FOX.- n 

In; 1655 Fox was sent prisoner to Cromwell, wlio cdi^^ 
tented httnself with obtaining a written promise that i^ 
would not take up arms against him or the existing govern* 
Aient ; and having discussed various topics with mildness 
and candour, he ordered him to be set at liberty. Fox 
probably now felt himself bold in the cause, re-commenced 
his ministerial labours at London, and spent some time in 
ttndicating his principles by means of the press, and in 
Anawering the books circulated against the society which 
be had founded, and which began to attract public notice 
in many parts of the kingdom. Notwithstanding the ino« 
deration of Cromwell towards Fox, he was perpetually 
subject to abuse and insult, and was frequently imprisoned 
9LtiA hardly used by magistrates in the country whither he 
Mt himself bound to travel ; and nfore than once he was 
obhged to solicit the interference of the Protector, to free 
bim from the persecutions of subordinate officers. Once 
he wrote to Cromwell, soliciting his attention to the suf-*' 
ferings of his friends ; and on hearing a rumour that be 
was about to assume the title of king. Fox solicited* an 
audience, and remonstrated with him very freely upon the 
measure, as what must bring shame and' ruin on himself and 
bis posterity. He also addressed a paper tothe heads and 
governors of the nation, on occasion of a fast appointed oiX 
account of the persecutions of the protestants abroad, in 
whicb he embraced the opportunity that such appointment 
ofiered, of holding vp, in proper colours, the impropriety 
and iniquity of persecution' at home. The history <^ 
Fox, for several years previously to 1666, consists of 
'details of his missions, and accounts of bis repeated im-^ 
prisonments« In this last-mentioned year he was liberated 
by order of the king, and he immediately set about form* 
ing the people who had embraced his doctrines into a coni& 
pact and tinited body : monthly meetings were established, 
and odier m^ns adopted to provide for the various e&i^ 
geo<S68 tor which they might be liable. 
'. About 1669 he married Margaret, the widow of jtidge 
Fell,, at whose house he bad been en1;ertained in^hisprou 
grcKs through Lancashire. 'The ceremony , on this occa- 
sion, was according to that simple farm wb'ioh is practised 
to this day among the people of : his persuasion. He only 
acquainted their common friends of* their intention; and 
having received their approbation, they took each other in 
marriage, by rnqtiial public declarations to that intent^ at 



S« F O X. 

a meetiilg appointed for the porpose at S^sloL After d|i4 
}if. ¥qx sailed for Amema^ where be ^petit two yctara w 
Biafc^ng proselyies^ and in con Arming the faiii^ and prac«r 
lice of those who bad already joined in bi9 onuse. :S«>ei^ 
itusr bi» return to England be was tat^eo intd custody, slnd 
t|browR into Worcester gaol under tb^ qbarge.of baying 
'i^hekl a< meeting from ail parts of the dati<H)t fov lerrt<^ 
fying the king^s subject^/' After being aeqaiiit^edi lie 
iHetU'to HoUandy and on his return a suit v^ks ioalitiited 
againat bind for refusing to pay tiibes ; bis opp^neott were! 
taceessful^ and be was obliged to submit to'ihe cense<rf 
^aieneesw In 1684 Fqx again yisited the <ioniineiit, aaA 
upon bis return be found bis health and spirits toot much 
impaired by incessant fatigues> and almost perpetoal per<K 
aecutions^ to oontend^any more with his enemies: be ae^ 
aordiogly Jived more retired ; and in 1690 be died, in the 
lixty^sevemb year of bis age ) having, however, performed 
Ibe duties ef a preacher titU within a few day»o£ biade^ 
eea«e« His writings, exclusive of a few sepatale pieces; 
wbitk were boI printed a second tiaae, were ceUedted in 
% vols, folio i the first contains his *^' Journal ;^' the seoDod 
t ooUection of bis ^^ Epistles;*' the third, his ^^ Doctrinal 
Pieces."' Fox was a man of good tiatural . talents, and 
thototighly conversant in the scriptures* The incessant 
pHl^ which he exhibited through life, alibrds abundaol 
^idence of bis piety^ sincerity, and purity 61 intension } 
and bis -sufferings bear testimony to his fortitude, patience^ 
and resigaalion to .the Divine will. William Penn,.spebk^ 
Ing.ef biro, says that ^* he bad an extraordinary gift in 
opening the scriptures, but that, above ail, he eistoelled in 
]>rayer«. Tbe reverence and solemnity of bis address atid 
behaviour, and the ferventness and fullness of his words^ 
ofibe» struck strangers with admiration.'V He also mei»<i^ 
Uons, iti terms of high commendation, his meeknest, h«i* 
mUkyf aad moderation ; and he adds, that he was, civil 
beyond all forms of breeding; in his bebaviour very teoH 
petate, eating little^ and sleeping less, ihougfa a bulky 

fOX (iomt), an eminent English dtvine and ehttffcfa^ 
kistorian, was born at Boston in Lieoolnsbite, •£ honest 
and reputable parents id 1517, the very year that Luther 
began to oppose the etrocs of the cbiurch of Bmne. Hia 
• . ' • ... 

^ Sewsl'i Hist of Qnskers*— deal's PtuatSBf 4— Bcei's Cyelopvaia. 

Mier dying Wben lii was ycraog) and bi« modMir UMhryiVi^ 
agaio, be Ml viider the totelage of a father-m-law^ wi^ 
whmii he renuuned till the age of rixteen. He wae theft 
teteied of Brazen Nose eoHege in Oxford, where he had 
for his chanber-fdlow, the celebrated dean N<mell, and 
jKihapB Uie same tutor, Mr. John Hawarden or Harding^ 
who was aftorwaids principal of the college, and tk> whodft 
Fbx dedicated his work on the Eueharist. In May I53S,' 
he took the degree of bachelor of arts. He was soon dir«^ 
tieguished for his uncommon abilities and learning ; wai 
ebosen fellow of Magdalen college, and became master of 
arts in 1 MS* He discovered in his younger years a gentoi 
finr poetry^ and wrote in an elegant style several Latini 
eonedies, the subjeeu of which were taken from the 
scriptures,. We have a comedy of hi^ entitled, <'De 
Ghristo Triutophante,'* printed in 15SI, and at Basil in 
1556, Svo; which was translated into English by Richard 
I>ay, son of John Day, the famous printer in the reign of 
^een Elisabeth, and pabitshed' with this title, '* Christ 
Jesils Tksamphaiit, wherein is described the glorious tris< 
aii^|di and conquest of Chrr&t over sin, death, and the law,** 
tic, 1579; and in 1607, in Svo. It was again pablished 
in the original in 1672^ and dedicated to all schoolmasters^ 
in order that it might be admitted into their respective; 
schools, for the peculiar elegance of its style, by T. Ci 
M. A; of Sidney^eoUegei in Cambridge* The date of the 
'first edition (1551), i^ows that Anthony Wood was vtA%^ 
taken in asserting that Fox wrote it at Basil, to which p\^t6 
he. did not go until after the accession of queen Mary id 
\S5%. '-  • . '-^ 

Mn Fm, for seme time after his going to the unitersity; 
wa* attached to the popish leligitin, ia which he had beerii 
braught ^p, but afterwards applied himself to divinit^^ 
with setn^vfaat more feWi^ncy than circumspection ; aild 
discovered himself in favour of the reformation tb^n going 
Ota) before he was known to those who maintained tbd 
calisi^ or those who were of ability to protect the main* 
tainei^ of it • In order to judge of the controversies whlctt 
then divided the church, his first care was to search dfll^ 
gently into the ancient and modern history of it ; to leartf 
its beginning, by what arts it flourished, and by wha$ 
errors it began to decline ; to consider the causes of those 
Controversies and dissensions which had arisen in the 
church, and to weigh attentively of wfaa^ moment and eon« 

M F o X; 

sequence tbey were to religion. To tfafis etid he appli^ 
^im$elfwith such zeal and industry, that before. lie was 
thirty years of age, he bad read over all the Greek and 
l^atin fatberSy the schoolmen, the councils, &c. ; and bad 
<lso acquired a competent skill in the Hebrew language 
But from this strict application by day and by night while 
^l Oxford, from forsaking his friends for the most-solitary 
retirement, which >be enjoyed in .Magdalen grore, from 
tbo great and Tisible^distractions of bis mind, and above 
^11, from absenting himself from the public worship, arose 
suspicions of his ajiienation from the church ; in which his 
fnemies being soon confirmed, he. was accused and con^ 
demned of l>eresy, expelled his college, and thought to 
ha;ve <been favourably dealt with, that he escaped with .his 
life. . * This was i n 1 5 45, • Wood represents this affair some* 
what differently ; he says in one pl^ce, that Fox resigned 
his fellowsbip to avoid expulsion, and in another that he 
wa$ " in a OHLuner obliged to resign his fellowship." . The 
ftigma,^ however, appears to have been the same, for his 
relations were greatly displeased at bin), and afraid td 
eouutenance or protect one condemned for a capi^ 
offence; and his father-iin-law basely took advantage, of it 
to withhold bis paternal estate from him, thinking proba- 
t>ly that he^ who stood in danger of the law himself, woukl 
with difficulty 6nd relief from it. Being thus forsaken by 
bis friends, be was reduced to great distress ; when he waft 
l^ken into the house of sir Thomas Lucy of Warwickshire, 
to be tutor to bis children. Here be married a citizen's 
daughter of Coventry, and continued, in sir Thomas's 
family, till his children were grown up; after which, he 
spent some time with his wife's father at Coventry. He 
temoved to London a few years before king Henry's death; 
where having neither employnxent nor preferment, he was 
^gain driven to great necessities and distress, but was,re«> 
lieved, according to his son's account, in a very remark- 
f\>\e manner. He was sitting one day, he says, in St. 
Paul's church, almost spent with long fasting, his counte- 
pance wan and pale, and his eyes hollow, when , there 
came to him a person, whom he never remembered to have 

Jeen before, who, sitting down by him, accosted him very 
iamiliarly, and put into bis hands an untold sum of money ; 
Jjidding to be of good cheer, to be <jareful of himself, 
^nd to use all means to prolong his life, for that in. a few 
jlays u^w hopes were nt hand, and new means of subsist-- 



eii€e.- Fox tried all 'methods to find out the person- bj^ 
whom he was so seasonably relieved^ but in vain^ th^ preu 
diction, hb\i«erer^ was 'fulfilled, for within three days' ImI 
was taken into the service of the ducbe$s of Richmoiid, t^ 
be tutor to the children of her nephew, the .celebrated 
earl of Surrey.' Upon the cominitinent of this amiabM 
nobleman and his father the duke of Norfolk to the Tower} 
these children were sent to be educated under the >carev 
and inspection of their unnatural aunt the' duohess/of 
Richmond. , .. - t t : - 

In^ this -family be lived, at Ryegate in Surrey^ during the 
latter part of Henry^s reign, the five years reign» of Edward^ 
and part of Mary^s ; being at this time protected . by. the 
duke/of Norfolk, and Wood says he was restored to •his 
ieilowsfaipof Magdalen college, under Edward VL* ' Gar* 
diner, bi^op of Winchester, was, however, now deter^ 
•mined to h&ve htm seized, and laid many snares and stra- 
tagems for that purpose. The bishop was. very intimate 
with tbe^duke of NoKfoUc,. often visited him, and fiequenltly 
fiesiiTed to see this tutor. The duke evaded^the request^ 
one while alleging his 'absence, another that he was. in* 
disposed,! still pretending, reasons to pnt.him off. .At 
length it happened, that Fox, not knowing the bishop te 
be within the house, entered the room, where the duki^ 
and he were in^ discourse;- and seeing the bishop, .with ^ a 
shew of bttshfulness, withdrew himself. The bishop^atkiag 
who he was, the duke answered, his physician, who:.iral 
somewhat 'unoourtiy, being newly .come from the univer* 
iiity« ^ I like his countenance and aspect very well,!' wei 
f^lied the bishop, ^^aod upon occasion wiU make use^of 
Jbtmf.!* The duke, percdving from hence that dauge^^ was 
at hand, thought it time for Fox to repre, andaccc^ngly 
furnished him with the means to go. abroad. .He ieund^ 
before he could put to sea, that Gardiner had issued out.a 
waraant for apprehending him, and was causing the most 
diligent search to be made for him^ nevertheless, he<at 

^ F«x's btographeri have all con- 
curred ia ftaying that he was protected 
hf ''"ona of.bifr pMpitt tfaeo dako of 
Nprfolk»?' mfffijng T^ooiat t|iird duka 
of Norfolk ; but as this nobleman did 
bM dt6 un61 1554, vbda Fax ipaa 
abroad, it appears more probable that 
h was he who demoastrated bis friend* 
ibtp t6 Fok itt the manner deicribed ia 
the text. Thft vender it to find this 


« , 

liberality <n so bigotted a catholic as 
thedakeofKorfoHc.' ' ' 

f it does not aeem ifersr ckatk* tnti 
this story whether the . bishofy ^eff 
Fox's person, or whether/ knowing it, 
be alSfeeted to be deceived by the duke*i 
exouse, that he laii^ht lay . bis : plana 
against Fox's life with les* hazard of 
haring theffl eottnterplattei!. 

9Q f OX. 


Itfigtk^^^' escaped; with liis vrife Ibmi ibig wilh: o&ild; gnt 
orer to Newport Haveoy tniteUed to Antwerp »nd:Fffano- 
lort* Helens he wai involved in the traublfis exciti^d, by Dr; 
43o3s and bis part^r ; aind tb« first setiters beaag itiindn from 
itmt place, be comoyed fnaoi tibenco to Baaii, where nnmU 
fete of English subjects resorted in those times of perseou^ 
lioii* In this city be maintained himself and family^ .hj 
^eoirectiDg the press for OporimiSy a celebrated printer $ 
mud it was here, that he laid the plan of hie famoeBiworkv 
^* The History of the Acts and Monuments of the Gfamrcb.'^ 
jlie bad pttl^iished at Straaborgh^ m 1^54, rn Syt, ^ Gom- 
loefitarii Rerom in Eccksia gestarairi) maximanimque pei- 
ioEtam ' Eurtbpam persecutionum a Wielavi tempor'ibus ad 
iiainc usque astatem descnptarum," in one book: to>wibidh 
lie added fire more books, all printed together ai Baii^ 
iS^y in folio. 

\. After qeeen Mary's deatb^ wbieh bishop Aylmer siys 
fox foretold at Basil the day before it happened^ and Elii^ 
^abeth was settled on the throne, and the psotestaat reli#> 
gioo established, Fox returned to bis native country^ where 
lie found a very faithful friend in bis former ptipil« bow 
fourth duke of N^rfiilk; who maintained bioiat bis bouse, 
fod settled 'a pension od biiu, which was afterwards con>* 
£hned by-bisson. fu 1^72, when this unhappy diike <tf 
Korfblk':was behead^ for his treasonablo oonuection withi 
liary queen of Scotland, Mr. Fox and dean 'Nowett ati» 
tended him uppu the scaffold. Oecil also obtained for Fb¥> 
ia ifi68, of the queen a prebend in the cfaureb of Salts* 
bury, though Fox himself would have iieclined accepting 
k; -and though he had many ppwerfal friends, is Walstng*' 
bam, sir Francis Drake, sir Thomas Gresham, the bishops 
Crraidal, Pilkington^ Aylmer, &c. wfao would ha^ raised 
}nm to considerabia preferments, he declined them : betn^ 
always unwilling to subscribe the canons, and distikiug 
•6me eeremonies<»f the churofa. When archbishop Parker 
summoned the London clergy to Lambeeh, and i«quip^ of 
them whether they would yield conformity to the ecclesi- 
asticarhabits, ana testify the same by thi^ir subsprlptlpnai, 
the old man produced the New Testament in Greek, ^^To 
this (say;? he) will I subscribe." And when a subscriptipn 
to the canons was required .of birp, he refused ity sayings 
^ I have nothing in the church save a prebend at Salisbury^ 
ariicf much ,g9P4 ro^y it do you, if you will taJkp it ?Mway 

vox* tl 

4mtfai ine*.'^ Sudi Tespect, faowiBV«r, did the bitho|Mt 
jmutvof tbem formerly his fellow exiles, bear to. his age^ 
|MurtBf i aiid laboors, that Jie eoqtinued in it. id hia^dwdi. 
But though Fox was a aoa-^conforintst, lie wa» a uerymo^ 
dhratefioe, and ^ highly disappi^oved of the intemperanoe 
of .the rigid. puritsltis. He expnetses hiin9elf to the fallen^ 
tng effect in a Laitin letter, written on the exfralsion Mil his 
^soa by i!he puritans from MagdaleniNCoUege, on thetgcoeo^ 
less iaiputation of his having turned papist ;• i^ wbieh eee 
the folLpwiog passages. '* I oonfessit has always been mjr 
great care, if I could not be serTiceaUe to inaiiy^ persons^ 
^et not knowingly to injure, any one, and least cvif all those 
of Magdalea college. I cannot therefore but the more 
wonder at the turbulent genius, which .toapirea those fae** 
l^aus puritans, so that violatiug the lawa of "gratitude^ de^ 
epising my letters and. prayers, disregarding the interoest 
eiiMi of the president fainvself (Dr. >Humphreys}^ without any 
prerious admonition, or assigning any causey they; baM 
exercised so great tyranny against me and my soo^; weref 
tme, 'who like them would be violently potrageous againit 
bishops aiid acohbisbops, or join myself witb them, that ts^ 
would become mad, as they are, I had nee met with dhia 
severe tr^^men^ Now becaiise^ qiHie AffiM^ent f rom/tbem^ 
i have chosen the side of modes^ and paUic ti^anquiUiiyi; 
hesce the hatred, they have a^Mg tisde conceived against 
»e, is «t \$sAt grown to this degree bf bittei^ness* A« thii 
IS the case, .1 do not so muck atfk yoe what you will 'do-oe 
nqr acoouTit, as what is to be thou^ of ^ y<^r sab^c 
yoa who are prelates of the ohuiscQ iagaiii and- again eon^ 
cider. As to myself, though the lurking ewiay ibe faHow^ 
ship from my son is a great affliedpn to me, yet becawse^ 
d»is is only aprivate eonoern,' i bear it)with:mei« ssedeea^ 
tton; I aqi »ach. raore^ conciimed upon 'aeeouhc ef 'tiie 
chwroh, which ispnbUo. I petceive a certaid race-of iiMIl 
rising 4i^ whoi if they «bould iinerease and •gadier strength 
in tfaisktiigdoiD, leth sorry te say what disturbance I forme^ 
must follow from it. Y'Our prudefisce is not ignorant heir 
much the Christian religion' formerly sqffered by the diitf* 
meulaition and hypoerl^ op the <imniks. At fitesent ik 
tbeiemen I know net ^ what sort >of'ne<i^ menfcs seems te 
reviire ; so fnach more pernicious thao the foi^mery as with 

'*^^OQe bf Fox*» bio^raphem seem Surbam, but qvJUed U Uie same yeiti^ 
fs^aav«Hbew aware that m 1572 be wai prababl/ on account of bis' aowooiiliMr* 


, sore subtle aildiices of.deceivingi under pretence of:'p«(«r 
^fectioQ) like stage-^players who only act a pact, theyJcoQ^ 
. ceal a more dangerous poison ; who while . they reqniinp 
•e^ry thing, to be .formed according to their .own ^strict 
Ldtscipline' and consciencey^will not desist: until they haTe^ 
-hnougbt alk things into.Jewaesh bondage.!' Conformably .tip. 
these jsentimentSy he. expresses himself on . many ojther o(> 
castons^ in which he had no private interest, and the X^vfQ 
.succeeding reigns provedithat he bad not judged rashly of 
the. violent tempers and designs of. some of the puritans.^ 
,Those» however, who detest their proceedings against tbe^ 
son of a man wha had done so much for the reformatioOi . 
twill be pleaded to. hear that, he was restored to his fellow?-. , 
-^ip a second time, by the queen's. mandate. ^ .. 
• li^ 1564 he sent. a. Latin panegyric to the queen,' upoja^ 
h^ indulgence to some divines, who bad scruples: respectr , 
ing.a strLci confornuty, and. yet. were sufFered^to hold digr 
niiies in the church. In July iSlp he wrote a Latin lettcf, 
tO: the -queen, t^. dissuade, her majesty from putting tor, 
jdeath two . anabaptists^ who bad .been condemaed to be," 
biirnt. Fuller, who transcribed this letter from the brigi«; 
«al, has, published it in his .V Church jtlistory," .and Cpl- 
iier,. who has too frequently joined, the popish cry agains^^ 
JFor,yet allows that it is written Jo Jkyery haudsome.CUristia.i 
Utrain. . In this let^r,. Fo«::de»W-<4s, .*' that with- regard tg 
those fanatical sects,, he does not think they ojugbt. to b^^.' a state,' but. chastised in avprop^n manner i^ 
Ixtijb that to punjsbwith flames the bodies of ^os.e» .whoenr, 
xatherfrom blindness than obstitiacy of will, is cruel, $n4- 
iBor:e suitable to the examplje pf the Romish church,, than 
4h^ roildnes5i ,of the. gospel ;; and in short, such a.drifeadful' 
4»istoiiiy as could never ha<v^ i^eeo: intnoduis^d into the meek 
««)d ^otle church of .Chfktv exoept by ai^ popes, mi 
partioularly by f nnocent IJI.^rwbo 6.rst took that, method .pf; 
jrestraining heresy. Hec^iserves that he dQes not, write, 
4b|JS ouj: of .an indulgence t(^ error, huit, as he is.^ man^. 
AUtof regard tO: the liye&*o£ men, that they, may have- an 
opportunity of repenting, of. their errors, He.declares a. 
lenderness for the liye% not only of men, but even of brute 
animals themselves; -and affirms, tbati he could never pass 
by 1^ sla\ighter-housey .without, the strongest sense Qf pain 
and regret. He entreats her majesty, therefore, to spare 
<he lives of these wretches,'" &'c. But Fuller tells us, that 
though the queen consts^itly catUed I^r. J^ox^^hei. Father/* 

f^ rfiri gSWhim^ flatdenial e^ to the sating 6( ^eiif\V^£ 
.ufllesi th^ r^fttited tfaeflr errors, #bich they refused, an'd 

Wc»^ eiteevit^r 

Fox wftd a ifttYr 6f ^eki btfmstlhy itnd uncoiitiiidh' Iibi^; 
iMiey. fle^ was a^ dios't laborious student, and* refma^kdbtjf 
alb«te«rfi6u0 ; a- most learned, (>it!)us, and jtrdi'dtous diViiie^ 
Md e^eV oppbfttd to all trfetbods 6f Severity rfi matters of 
reflgfon. Th« he' vrab A^t promoted wai Entirety oWih[ 
i«> bfe r^ftiAning S6iile opitiion^ adverse to^'die' babitd arl( 
ceremonies of the churchy which he had imbibed abroad 
*^ Alehougltl'' rfajri Fuller, «* fte richest nritfe' in* Knghnd 
Drovilitl have eoumed itself pfe'ferred by "freSri^ plac6d'up6i 
bis b^ad,' lie^ tdfitMt^d hiitaself witlr'a'pi'ebend of i^alis- 
bury. Hkw feametil^beirrD^, Ho# t:6rfetati tly he preached, 
ho^ pibbfily b« lived, ttttd l6^ cheifrrdHy' he dft^cf, may be 
$een a« laJirg^iiyth^ life prefixed to hh book/* ' Wo6d and 
Strype are ilMfed iti thetr praisesf of Mis ta'fentd and persbncil 
ebaracter; ttve foritier orily, Kketti^'ntuccessor Collier^ 'cat^- 
Atoft forgii^e MiA f^ being " a *sevenfe' Calvitiii^t, atid abUie* 
eivenfiy to popery.** Of his liberalkjf many an^cdot^s Itjajf 
W foMd in nMt au^oritjies. . : • 

Thi« eifcettei^' AWan' died in t587, in the 70tb yeaV 6t 
hk dge,' MA wfesp btfri«d in tbe^ cfaancdl of Sti Giles, t/\\S'^ 
pNgate; of wbich;' ie is said,* be' tras sotii^time ric^ar ; buii!^ 
asfWdod thfcklf, if he hrt' it if all, hekept itbVit a iWtl^ 
while, iti tAte'b^ftWii-n^ of ■EKi5abet'h''s reign. * He \kh t^ti 
aof», iSfebiu^' and Thon^^. S^^uefP b'ekaiMe demy, atcd 
aiA^Matttb M\M of Afegdaleu^coll^ge; irT O^fbrd: lii 
Kid, M wtme hh ftlherV life, pfefiied to^ bfs « Afcti 
atld Mdnaarifetits of the^ Churdh!" ThciWa^ was" ffifioifr of 
King's college, in'Canibrtdge, and^'beAme' aftervVafdk itt 
eminent physician at London. 

- Besides what htts been meritiohed, Fox wrote, 1." DA 
CcM^ura^ seu^Excomn^amcatione Eccl^stastica, Interpella:- 
do ad Afcbtepfsedpuiii Csntuarlensem, 1*551,*'* 8to: 2\ 
•♦Table#o«6ramrtiar, ISS^^' Wood teBs us, that tliese 
<*Ti*teS were subscribed* in print by eight lords of ihd 
pfi^ councH ;« but were quickly laid aside^ a^* being fat 
moi^e' top' short, tWin king Henry the VIII tb*s Grammar 
was too long.*!* y. **^ ArticuK sivef Aphoirismi aliquot JosiD« 
ma Wiclevi sparsim aut ex vafiis illias opusculis excerpt! 
per- afd^iersartos Papit!olasj ac Concrlie Constantiensi ex* 
bibiti*** 4. **'C<>llectBnea qurtdam ex Regxnsddi^PecocId 
£p9s(;dpi^C4i:e#€riei>sis opusculis exustir ctotisetvata, er et 

Vol. XV. ' D 

tmtiqtkv. psegmate ' transcripts.** 5. *^ OpiitograpbUi wA 
Ozonieiises*" The three last are printed with his ** Com« 
mentarii reruns in Ecclesia gestarum/' at Strasburg, 1554y 
in 8vo» mentioned above. 6. *' Concerning Man's Elec'-^ 
tk>n to .Salvation, I58i;' 8vo. 7. ^ Certain Notes of 
£leiction, added to Beza's Tr^tise of Predestination^ 
) 58 1/* 8vo.; 8. '< The Four Ev^ngeliits in the old Saxott 
Tongue, witb.tbe English thereunto adjoined, 1571/* 4tO| 
tad many other, .pieces, which were levelled againtl the 
iPapists. ...... < 

None of these, however, are likely to add nnicb to bis 
itame, whicb is now exclusively founded on bis ^* Acts ami 
iMonumedts,*' /qiore familiarly known as ** Fox*s Book of 
Marty ra,!' Of this vast undertaking, some brief account 
cannot beiminteresting. We hi^ve Inefons noticed tbat he 
conceived the plan, and executed some part of it wheif 
he was at, Basil, hut f^eserved the greiitest part, of it until 
his return, home,: when he slight avail himself of livingl 
audiorities. It appears by his notes that the oompletiaii^ 
pf it occupied him for eleven years, during which his U^ 
hour must have been incessant. His assistants) however,- 
were numerous. Among those who pointed, oot sources of 
information, or contributed materials, was Grindal> aftet'-r 
wards archbishop of Canterbury, who, when an exile for 
his religion, cstablisbed a correspondenoe in England for' 
tbis purpose, and received accotmts of most of the acts ami 
sufferings of.the martyrs in queen Mary's reign. It is saidf 
also to have been owing to Orindal*s strict regard totirnth^* 
that the publication of the work was so long delayed, as 
he: rejected all common -reports' that were brought ovari 
unlets con firjned by the most satisfactory evidence. It 
was- ^is scrupulous fidelity which induced him to advise 
Fox at iirst only to print separately, such memoirs of cer^ 
tain individuals, as could be authenticated, which accord^ 
i|)giy was done, although these separate publications am 
how seldom to be met with. At length after a. residence 
of some years in i^ngland, employed in collecting written 
.a«d. oral information,.. the 6rst edition was pufajished at 
London in i363j( in one thick vol. fslio, With the. title 
V Acts and Monuments of these latter and |^rillous <biys 
touching matters of the Churche, -wherein are compre» 
•headed and described the great persecutions and boirible 
trQublefi, that have be^en wnaught and practised by the 
Romish prelates,, speciallye in this reaboe of Engiafid dxid 

ro X Si 

Sttotlandy fiiom tbe year of cmr Lordb a thocnnd imlo the 
tune now ^leieiit, &c. . Gatheaed and eoUected according 
10 the trae oepies. and wsytiogca certificatorie, as well of 
tho parties tbemeKes that suffered, as out of the bisbopa 
iegbsers> wfaicb were the doers thereof.'* * Mr. JPox fne' 
Rented a copy of this edition to M«||^alen«*coUege, Oxford*, 
and at tbe same* time wrote a Latin letter to Dr« Lawrence 
liamphreys* printed by Heame in his Appendix, No. V* 
Iftbispr^Esce tb'^ Adaan de Domersham Hist, de cebus 
gtestis Glastonensibns," Oxon. 1727. This volunie, which 
sahitas principaUy to the Maierycof martyrdoai in England, 
antt a&nhirards enlarged^ first to two, and at length to three- 
toluines, iblio^ embnetng a history of the Christian church 
fcoiD tbe.^earliest times, and in eirery part of the world. 
Tbe, ninth edition appeared in 1684| with copper-plates, 
those in tbe former cKlitkms being in wood, which* last, 
however, are prefened by ooUecton^ some of them con* 
iMting.real portsaitSb .The publishers of the last edition 
bad alflHMt obtained a promise from Charles IL to revive tbe 
ocdermade in queen Elizabetb'a time for placing the work 
i^'the common hails of arcbfaishops, bishops, deans, col* 
legesf obnrcbea. But, if we look at the date, 1684, and 
MsoUect . the hqiies .then entertained, of re-establishing 
popery,: weshaU .not be much surprized that this order 
wos aofi^reoewed, nor zperb^ps, from the improved atate of 
ttiepijess^: and of. education^ . was it necessary. Since that 
iMBe, .however, :tbere has •been no xepnblication of the 
Oiim^ete.wedB>*aithoogbtfae English part continues to this 
day aHstaodard book among tbe publishers of works in the 
pesiodscal way,, who bave also furnished their readers with 
innumerable abridgments in every form. Yet as tbc^ri^ 
gihal has long been rising in price, we may hope that the 
liberal spirit of enterprise which has lately produced new 
^iKtionspf the. English Chronicles, will soon add^to that 
mefol .eollectioa a reprint of. Fox, with notes, corrections^ 
and.a coUation> of the state'pap.ers and records. 
. The effect of J*'Oi(*s work, in/^promotiiig, or rather con^* 
firming the principles of the reformation, to which we owe 
all.that distinguishes us as a. nation, is acknowledged with 
universal .conviction.- It is proved even by the antipathy 
of tbir.enemies, .who would not have taken such pains tcl 
exposethis'errors,>and inveigh against the work at large; 
iftb^had not :ielt that it created ini the public mind aa 
abboxretice of ^^e persecuting spirit of popery^ which hat 

/ D 2 

it E O X. 

suflRsred lit^ dittifntiitiQii, wen to di« |irea6DC day. Alt 
tbe endearoun of the popish writersi however^ from Harps*^: 
field. to Mihier^ ^ bare not ptavedy aad it iieviev will b® 
proved, that John « Fox n. not one of. tbe ncHMt failhful anii* 
auiiDeatiG of alt historians." Ami in the' wotfd» o£ thei 
.writer fi-om whom we borrow thk assertion,, we add^ al«^ 
though with sonie reluctance from respect to tbegentle-^ 
man^S'hanie^ *^ We htiow too nmcb of the strength of Fox s 
book, and of tbe weakness of thoie of his adrersairiesi to beb 
&rther moired by Vir. John Milner^s ceosotes, timn to eharge 
them with falsehood* All the many reseafchesi land dis^ 
cov^eries of later times, inregatd to historical doetimenta,)^ 
have only contributed to place the genend fidelity and tnurhr 
of Foxes' melancholy narrative on a rook whtoh emmob ber 


FOX (Richard), an eminent prelate, and the muiiifi** 

cent founder of Corpus Christi oollege, Oatfonl, was thet 
son of Thomas Fox^ and born'* at Rop^l^, near' Grants-: 
ham, in Lincolnshire, about the latter end of th»Teign of 
Henry VI. His pai^nts are said to have beea in mean' 
circttinstances, but tbey must at least have; been able to t 
afford him school education, since the only dispute' on' 
this subject between his bio^pfaers, is,; whether he was- 
educated in grammar learning at Boston, or at Winches- 
ter. They all agree that at a propor age. be was - sent tx^ 
Magdalen-college, Oxford, where he was* atoqairing- dis^- 
tinetion for his extraordinary proficiency, when tber plague,* 
wbitb happened tn break out about that time, obliged him> 
to go to Cambridge, and eontinne bis studies at Pembnpk'e-^^ 
ball.. After remaining some time/ at Cambridge, he re*' 
paired to the university at Paris, and studied, divinity and 

^ \AooerdiDg to Wood, who availed of lox, Mr* Williafl^ BaUnao. a scho-. 

hiiDjieif of 8om» MS ac'coqnts. of Ffix ]ar of Corpus, and an, able antiquary^ 

preserved in this college, written by made many addition*; iK-ith a iriew ttf 

IVe^identGreeiiway, "the Founder Ws pnbllentieii, wbicll' ft* did 09t:4ifet«r 

briro in afi anciciit bouf^e knoi^ to oomp}«te. HisMS3. Sre pmrdy in tke 

some by the name of Piillock's Manor." library of lhi>j coll<^» and partly in 

"This ho(ise»" he 'adds, " was veil' the Asbmolean M iW(»uto, Mr. Gottgh 

kiyt»wo for m^any years to th« feilow« uf drew iip ik very aoeiirate< slLetfeb- ol 

'tiorpjus, ^ho rcvereytly visited it when Fox's Life, for ibe Vetusta Mouu« 

tbcy went lo keep courtj* at their ma- lOelitA. 
nors." To tf hat was before reci[>rd^ 

Jt Life preBxed to .\m Act»and Monnneiiti, written by ht« 9imw-*»Strype^« An^^ 
naU» Aud Live:; ot! the Archbishops, passim.--*Fuilej*8 Worthies. -->i^tK. Ox./ 
vol. I. — ri>x'« MS OolttiCtions, amon*: tbe Harle/ian MSS. in Brit. Mt>s. — Biog;^ 
Brit.— Ft)l!er'(; A ^>e\ fiefltvivos.— Cbttrton'ff Life ^ Mbwellrf— >^ordsiv«Mtli's fioOS 
Swgiayhy, pfefaee, Sic. 

T O X. IT 

fte euoA H^i and hfere, ptobably, lie received iris^doo* 
^i''« degree. . Tbw visit g«ve a new and important :(arn«to 
l)if Itfo, and imrodiiced him to that eminence which be 
preserved ibr many years as a sutesman. In Paris he >be# 
pame acquainted with Dr. Morton, bishop of Ely, ivAioini 
Jiichaxd Hi* had compelled to quit bis naliv,e coantry^* 
and by this prelate he was recommended to the earl of 
ilidiinond, afterwards Henry VII. wiio was then providing 
for a descent upon England. Ricbmond^ to whom he de« 
yoted biubseir, conceived suck an opinien of his talents 
and fidelity, that he entrusted to liis care -a negotiatiear 
with. Fntnoe for sopplies of men and money, the i^siae of 
which he was not able himself to await; and Fox sue*' 
eeeded to the utmost of his wishes. After the defeat of 
. the usurper at the battle (^ Bos worth, in 1485, and the 
establishment of Henry on the throne, the latter imoie-' 
diately appointed Fox to be one of his privy-council, and 
ftboiit- the same time bestowed on him the {jrebends of 
Bishopston and South Grantham, in the church of Salis-^ 
bury. In 1487, he was promoted to the see of Exeter^ 
and appoiiUed keeper of the privy seal, 'With a pension of 
twenty sbilUngs a day. He was also made principal set > 
eiretary of^tate, and.master of St. Cross,, near Winchesten^ 
. His employments in afiairs of state both at home and« 
abroad» were very frequent, as he shared the king*s cob« 
fidenoe with hia early friend Dr. Morton, who was now: 
advanced to the archbishopric of Canterbury. In 1487, 
Ff>x was seat ambassador, with sir Richard Edgecombe^ - 
comptroller of the honseliold, to James III. of Scotland^ 
wbere he negociated a prolongation of the truce between : 
England, and Scotland, whieh was to ei^ire July 3, 1488, 
to Sept. 1, 1489. About the beginning of 1491, he was 
employed in an eiAbassy to the Jking of France, and re* 
turned to England in Noven^ber following. In 1494 he 
wient a'gaitt.aa ambassador ta James IV. of Scotland, to 
conclude some diiferences respecting the Bribery of the 
river Esk, in which he was not successful. Having been 
translated in 1492 from the see of Exeter to that of Bath - 
and Welk, he was in 1494 removed to that of Durham. 
In 1497, Uie ca^le of Norbam being threatened by the 
king of: Scotland, the bishop caused it to be fortified and 
supplied wiiih troops, and bravely defended it in person, 
until i| lyas rejieiied % Thomas IlovvarJj eail of Surrey, , 

38 F Q X 

who compelled (be Scots to reliire. Fox was theo, a^tUfli 
time, appointed to oegociate with Scotiaiidy aad aigoedti 
seven j^ears truce between the two kiagdoms. Sept 90» 
1497. He soon after negoctated a marriage betwem 
Jli^mes IV. and Margaret, king Henry's eldest daugbler, 
which was, after many delays, fully concluded Jan. i4, 

- In 1500, the university of Cambridge elected him their 
chancellor, which he retained, till 1502; and in the sande 
year (1500) he was promoted to the. see of Winchest^. 
In 1507 be was chosen master of Pembrokerball, Cmi« 
bridge, which he retained until 4519. In 1507 and 1598 
he was employed at Calais, with other commissioners, in 
negociating a. treaty of marriage between Mary, the kiog's 
third daughter, and Charles, archduke of Austria,- after- 
wards the celebrated Charles V. In 1509-10, he was sent 
to France with the earl of Surrey, and Ruthal, bisbop^of 
Durham, and concluded a new treaty of alUance with 
Lewis XII. In 15 12 be was one of the witnesses to the 
foundation charter of the hospital in the Savoy. In lvSi3 
he attended the king (Henry VIII.) in his expedition to 
France, and was present at the taking of Teroiiane, andin 
October following, jointly with Thomas Grey, marquirof 
Dorset, be concluded a treaty with the emperor Masi* 
milian against; France. In 1514, he was one of the wit* 
nesses to the renunciation of the marriage wkh prtece 
Charles of Spain by the princess Mary ;i one of the oom^ 
missioners for the treaty of peaoe.between Denry VilL 
and Lewis XII. of France ; and for the marriage betwieo 
the said king of France and ihe princess Mary, the sisne 
year. He was also one of the witnesses' to the marriage 
treaty, and to the confirmation of both treaties ; to the . 
treaty of friendship with Francis h and to its confirmation 
in the following year. i • 

This appears to be the last of his public acts* During 
the reign of Henry. VIL he enjoyed the unlimited favour 
and confidence of bis sovereign,- and bore a conspicuous 
.< share, not only in the political measures, but even in the 
court amusements and ceremonies of that reign* Henry 
likewise appointed. him one of his executors, and recom- 

•  f « 

* l^« succession of the House of . tbit aUUnce, and to the pradeoce of 
Stuart, as well as that of Brunswick to bishop Pox in the negociation of it^ 
the British throne; is to be referred to' SeeLord Bacon's Hist, of HeiktyVII. 

fox. it 

Winded bim strongly to his son and sutc^ssor*.' 'But kU 
though he retained his seat in the priry •council, and eon* 
ttnued to botd tk^ privy- seal, bis inBuence in the new* 
reign gradnally abated. Howard, earl of Surrey and lonff 
treasurer, had been bis rival iii Htary the Seventh's tim^^ 
and learned now to acoommodate himself to the extrava^ 
gant passions of his new master, with whom he Was for a 
*coiaiderable time a confidential favourite ; and the cele- 
brated Wolsey, who had been introduced to the king by 
. FosT, in order to coonteract the influence of Surrey, sopii 
* became more powerftil than i^ither. After remaining soole ^ 
time- in office, under snany mortifications, our prelate, 
together with archbishop Warham, retired from court in 
1515* Such was the political life bf bishop Fox, tiistin- 
gnished by high influence and talent, but embittered.. at 
length, by the common intrigues and vicissitudes to which 

statesmen are subject 

• His- retirement at Winchester was devoted to acts iaf 

charity and munificence, although he did not now for the 
' first time appear as a public benefactor. He had be* 
stowed large sums on the repairs of the episcopal palate 
at Durham, while bishop 6f that see, and on every occ^a* 
.sioQ of this kind discovered a considerable taste fer archi- 
tecture. In 1522 he founded a free-school atTauntdn, 
and another at Gratitham, and extended his beneficence . 
to many other foundations within the diocese of Winches- 
ter. . But the triumphs- of his munificMce .and ;'tasle lire 
principally to be contemplated in the additions ^vhicbrhe 
butk both within and without the cathedral of Wiitcbes* 
Met: Of these we shall borrow a character from o»e whose 
fineenthosiasm cannot be easi iy surpassed.-^— ^^ Itis i mpossible 
to survey the works of thia prelate, either* on thfi outside . 
of the church, or in the inside, without beingVtruck' with 
their beauty and magnificence. In both of them we see 
the most exquisite art employed to execute;the. most noble 
and elegant designs. We cannot fail in particubr. 0f ad- 
miring the vast but welUproportionerf and ornamented 
arckied windows which surround this (the. eastern) part, 
and give light to the sanctuary ; the bold and. airy flying 
 •• . . -•• ' • . • . . • . , . • 

* The Hiitorian of Wincheiter re* priDoe, who wai afterwarclt Heory VT 1 1; 

•nuurkfy thet oo .higher {iroof of the Dr. Mtlaer alio CffD^^etU Ms, Gouglff 

eoosideratlQii m which the king held opinion Uiat he was not •ponier^ hot 

• -him fwabeaddueedy than that he was hapliHii the young princt. 

chosen to be »poDsor to the yoiio( • . • ^ -' ■** ^ 



l^ottsenfes that, stf^cfaing pvfr the ^d ail«H titpp^Kt thr 
upper walls ; the rich, opiea batjJ^oient whicli Mimi^ttnts 
tjft^^fi M«sil^ I ai?d the elegant sjve^p tlyat eontyaf u them to 
i|)^^ 8fjz^ of tl^e girett ^a^^jTQ w tndQw : die two gorgeous 
canopies which crown the e^^treme tuiretay and the ^uoofiir 
sion of .el^g^qt carved wprk Uuat corers tlie .whole easi 
ffoiity tapering up ^o a pojnt^ where we Tiow ibe bre#thiiq; 
^t^tue of the pious fouo/d^r resting upofi bis cho^»en em* 
bleo)) the pelican. In a word». Directed i^id muubtftedi 
^ t^iis work has been dtiriilg tjbe eoquse of nearljr three 
c^nturiesy it still warranto i}^ to assert, that if the 9M^ 
ca^tbedral had been fin]$hed in i^be style of ^his portion of 
^, the whole island, and perjiaps all Europe eoAild aol 
have ^:chibited a gotb jc structure equal lo itl^.- ' 

His lost appearance in parliament was in 1423 ; be had 
^en l)een nearly 6ye ye^r^ deprived of his sight, which be 
never recovered. Wolsey endeavoured to persuade biift 
to resign l^is bishopric to faio), ^nd accept of a pension, 
^ut this be rejepted, ^sserUog, ^cpprding to Parkier, that 
V Tho' by i^a^on of his bliodneps he was no|: able to dia* 
tinguish white* from blaick, yet be could discern betvneo 
true 4nd fabe^ i*ight and wrong ; and plainly enough saw, 
without eyes, the malice of .tb%t ungrateful man, wkkh 
he did npt se^ before. Tk^^ it behoved tbe eardinalto 
ial^e care npt to be so hlipded with ambition as not to 
fqr^ee his own end^ |}e needed not trouble himself with 
t)ie bisbopfic of VVincbpst^r, but rattier should .mind tbe 
king's affairs." 

. Bi^ last days were spep( ip prayer and meditation, which 
^t length becfiaie <^lo)ost uninterrupted both day and nightt 
lledi^d Sept: 14, U28, and vras buried in the fine chaatrjr 
lybich ))e.l)u}|t for that purpose in Winchester cathedral^ 
If^nped^fttely. bebjnd the l]igh altar* oh the south sidft. 
Purii^g l^is residence- hpfc, b^ ws^s indefatigable in preacht 
ingi and exciting the clergy tQ their duty. He was alio 
i^n]>qunded in bjs cbarjties to the poor, whom he assisted 
H^it^i food, clp^hes, and money > at tbe same time eyert 

• ]l|i1oeir>4 History of VTinchMter, 
lEpf/I}. p. J 9, 96. '<}a the top of tbe 
wall which be built round the presby- 
tery^ be placed, in leaden cbe«U, tbref 
on j^ f kle^ the bon^s of several of the 
i|r|!stSaxou kings and bishops, api^ some 
later princes, who had been originally 
buried behind tbe high altar, or in dif- 

fer^nt parts of tbp church, with their 
flames Inscribed 06 the face of th^ 
chest, and a crown on each. But the 
havocli of fi^naticisiii in U19 laie ciTil 
var deranged the bones, which were 
pollected again as well as oireonMtancet 
pecmKted, 1661. Goqgb, VekufU Mor 
j^qMCOti^ xqI XL pli|te U 

F O X. 41 

dtHig Iros^laliitf , mud piromoting the trade oP the city, by 
a ^?g« estabiishtnfent which he kept* up at Wolvesey, of 
V0O bcftidred and twenty servants* 

7i^Hli ehftntcter/' says Mr. Gough, *^ ^nay be briefly 
untuned up 'in these twcf particulars : great talents and 
aMiCies forbiMiness, which recommended him to one of 
th^-wise^ princet of the age; and not less charity and 
mtffiftfieence, of whi^h he has left lasting monuments.** Of 
his wrttingSy we have only an English translation of the 
^*^Rtde of 8t, Benediet/^ for the use of his diocese, 
prfMed by Pinson, 15115, and a Letter to cardinalWoU 
se^, the subject of which is the cardinals intended visi* 
tafton and rcformatiQii of the clergy. Fox expresses hi$ 
great satisfaction a^/any measures which might produce 
.aodesirable an efifefct. The general and respectful style 
of this letter either affords a proof of Fox's meek and con-r^ 
ciltotory temper,>br suggests a doubt whether our histo- 
fianis have not tob itiiplicitly followed each other in assert^ 
ing-4bat Wolsey's ifrgratitude was the principal cause of his 
retiring from courtv'^ That Wolsey was ungrateful maybe 
infetped from the preceding quotation from archbishop 
Painter, but Pox's'discovery of it, there im|)lied, was long 
8ub«equent to bis leaving the court ; and k is certain that 
in ^the letter now mentioned, and in another written iil 
15M, he addresses the cardinal in terms of the utmost re-* 
spcfM and aflfection. Of these circumstances Fiddes and 
Gr©re, the biographers of W6lsey, have not neglected to 
avail themselves, but they have suppressed all notice of 
bis^#erto Foxrespeeting the resignation of the bishopric. ' 
. The foundation of Corpus Christi college was preceded 
by the purchase of ceitain pieces of land in Oxford, be* 
longing to Merton college; the nunnery of Godstow, and 
the priory of 8t. Frideswyde, ' which he completed in 1513; 
But his design at this time went no farther than to found a 
college for a warden and a certain number of monks and 
secmir sohoiars belonging to the priory of St. Swithin, in 
Winchester, in the manner of Canterbury and Durham 
colleges, which were similar nurseries in Oxford for the 
pridifies of Canterbury and Durham. The buildings for 
this-vpurpose were advancing under the eare of Williann 
Vertue, mason, and Humphrey Codk, carpenter and mastet 
of the works, when the* judicious advice of Hugh Oldham^ 
bishop of £?seter, induced him to enlarge his plan to one 
of moFe usefuhiess and durability. This prelate, an epii* 

4ft tax. 

nent ptiron of literature^ and a man of acnte discemmefil, 
if sakl to have addresse4 him tbus: **Wbat! my bld^ 
shall we build bouses, and provide iivelihoodafor a com-: 
pany of monks, whose end and fait we ourselves may kre 
to see? No, no, it is more meet a great deal, -that ^^e^ 
should have care to' provide for the increase of learhiiig, 
and for sucli as who by tbeir learning shall do good to tbe 
church and commonwealth."* These arguments, strength-^ 
ened probably by others of a similar tendency, induced- ^i>x 
to imitate those founders ivho had sjready contributed xso 
largely to the fame of the- university of Oxford* AgmmI-' 
ingly, by licence of Henry VIII. dated Nov. 26, 1516, he 
obtained leave to found a ccrflege for the sciences .of dm- 
>^i^y> philosophy, and aru, for a president and thirty 
scholars, graduate and not graduate, more or less sac- 
cording to the revenues of the society, on a certain grotnld 
between Merton college on the east, a lane near Cant«r« 
bury college (afterwards part of Christ-churcb), andi- a 
garden of the priory of St. Frideswyde on the west, a street 
or lane of Oriel college on* the north, and the town i^ll 
on the south, and this new college to be endowed with 
350/. yearly. The charter, dated Cal, Mar. 15)6, reeiies 
that the founder, to the praise and honour of God Almighty, 
the nM)st holy body of Christy and the blessed Virgin Mary, 
as also of the apo^les Peter, Paul, and Andrew, and^ of 
St. Cuthbert and St. S within, and St. Birin, patcona^oC 
the churches of Exeter, Bath and Wells, Durham, aind 
Winchester, (the four sees which he successively fiUed) 
doth found and appoint this college always to be caUed. 
Corpus Ghristi College. The statutes are dated i«b. 
13, 1527, in the 27th year of his translation to Winebes- 
ter,i and accdrding to them, the society was to. consist of 
a president, twenty fellows, twenty scholars, two chirp-* 
lains, two clerks, and two choristers. ? . 

But what conferred an almost immediate superiority of 
reputation on this society, was the appointment of twoiec* 
tures for Greek and Latin, which obtained the pratse^and 
adn^iration of Erasmus and the H>tber learned m^n irho 
were now endeavouring to introduce a knowledge of > the 
classics as an essential branch of acaddmic study. With 
this enlightened design, the founder invited to . his inew 
college Ludovicus Vives, Nicholas Crucher the mathe* 
inatician, Clement Edwards and Nicholas Utten, profest 
sorsof Greek; Thomas Lupset^ Richard. Pi^e, andvothei 

FOX. 4» 

jmen of estaUttbed repvUGtion* TbiS) Mr. •^ Warleo «b*^ 
aenrety was a new and noble departure from the oarnsfw 
plan of academical edocitioo. The course of the LMm 
lectnrer was not confined to the college, but open to ll^e 
students of Oxford in general. He was expressly directed 
to drive barbarism from the new college, barbgrieme nostra 
uheario pro xnirili si quando puUuU^extirpet tt ^iciMt. Tlie 
' Greek lecturer was ordered to explain the best Grade 
classics, and those which fox apoeified on this occasioiit 
are the paraat m the opiasoii of modem times. But suah 
ana:dwtensper of the age, that Fox was obliged to iatro* 
duce his Greek lectureship, by pleading that the sacied 
canoflis had comasanded, that a knowledge of the Greek 
tongue should not be wanting in ' pubUc seminaries of 
education. By the aacred canons he meant a decree of 
the council of Vienne, in Daiiphiny, promulged ao early 
as 1311, which enjoined that professorships of Greek, 
. Hebrew, and Arabic, should be instituted in the univer- 
aitiesof Oxford, Paris, -Bononia, Salamanca, and the coiprt 
of Rome. This, howev<»r, was not entirety satisfacWy* 
The prejudices against the Greek were still 6o inveterate, 
that the university was for seme time seriously disturbied 
by the advocates of the school-learning. The persuasion 
and example of ErasmJ!is, who resided about this timt,iii 
Sl Mary's college, had a considerable effect in restoiing 
peace, and more attention was gradually bestowed on ^he 
learned languages, and this study^ so curiously introduced 
under the sanction of pope Clement's decree of Vientie, 
proved at no great distance of time, a powerful instrument 
in effecting the reformation. Those vrho would depiive 
Clement of the 'liberality of his- edict, state his diief mo<» 
tive to have been a superstitious regard for the Latin, 
Greek, and Hebrew, because the superscription on the 
cross was written in these languages, ' . 

FOX (Henry), Lorx^ H6ix^nd, the first nobleman of 
that title} was the second and youngest son of the. second 
marriage, of sir Stephen Fox, and brother of Stephen 
first earl of Ilchcster. He was born in 170ir, and ^ was 
chosen one of the members for Hendoo, in Wiitshirey on 
a vacancy, in March 17S5, to that parliament which inet 
Jan. 23, 1794; and being constituted anrvey or- general of 

< Cbalmen's }X\%i. of Oxford.— life in Biog, Brit, and especially tbat by 
Mr. Gough, in the Vetusta MdaumeDta.— Wood's Colleges and Halls,— AUu 
Ox.voi«l«*^loriia'ifirsaBii»|fco. ' 

tt FOX. 

hi* «^€«ta|^ft 1id|r4 of works, a writ-vris orilfiMd «fonel7; 
i797«;aDd k^ wt» re*>elected. la the sexi ^mlivmem^ 
litiKioiooed Ao meet Juns 25, 174.1, h&jeriFed for;WiiiKl^ 
•or^ and in 1743^ being eoostknted.ooe of the. csooMniti 
mmers of the treasury, in the iidiniEoistration fonned bjr 
^e Pelhaaifi, a writ was issued I^a 2 1st of that year, cfoy 
a oew election, and be was r^-cboaen. In 1746, ontfatf 
reatopatioD of tlie old cabinrt, after the short administration, 
pf ead Granrille^ he was appointed secfetary at war, an4 
sworn oiie his jxu^esty's moat honourable priyy^coirniafc 
Oa this occaisioni and until be was advanced to tim peie^ 
age, be loootitiued to represent Wsndsoc io pariaaoititc^i 
lo 1754,. the death of Mn Pelham pradosced^a lacane^M 
the treasury^ which was.filied up by his baotber the :daktt 
of Newcastle, who, ihovgh a noblemaQ of high hiiiieiilti% 
tinblemisbed integrity, and considerable abilities, yet wai 
pf too jealous and unstable a temper to manage the house^ 
of commons with equal address and activity, and to g€Hid4< 
the reins, of government without a. coadjutor at so ardoaus 
^ a conjuncture. The seals of cbanceUodr of the exohddjuet' 
and secretary of state, vacant by the death of Mn' Pel*- 
ham, and by the promotion of the duke of Nemrcastle, :be<^ 
eame therefore the objecsa of contention. The persons 
who now aspired to .the management of the.hmise of cooi^ 
mons, wei^ Mr. Fox and Mr. Pitt (afterwards earl of Chaa>* ' 
bam) whose parliamentary - abilities had for sosne time^ 
divided the suffrages o£ the oatioii ; wbo had so l<Hig f0S<» ^ 
%^>rfid .reciprocal jeaJqusy^ and' who now became pubise ^ 
rivais for power. Both these rival ttatesmen were younger - 
brothers, nearly of the same age.; both weis educated at 
l^totv, both disUuguished £or classiial knowledge, bdtb 
CoaifOeiiced their parltanifentary career at the same periodj 
4nd both raised themselves to eminence by their superior'* 
talents, yet no two characters were ever more contrastedi * 
Mr. Fox iohemted a strong and vigoorous constitution, was' 
profuse and dissipated in bis youtl^ and after squandering 
his private patrimony, went abroad to extrioate himself 
from his jembanrasaments^ On his r^nrn. he obtained a - 
seat in parliament, anil wannly attached hicnseif to sir • 
]ii«dE>ert Walpole, whom he idoUxed.; and to wboie pa* ' 
troi^e he was tadebbad for she place 4if .surveyor Tgenecal : 
ofuhe board of works. His marriage in 1744 with lady ' 
Cari^IiniQ Lennox^ dangbter of the. duke of. Rich mond^ * 
though at first displeasing to tbQ family, ye^. fijps(]ly> 

FOX. 4S 

streaglfeeMMl ISr pfrftticil MWieelion^ He waseqiMiHy a 
iQW-offpkmfwrettidfauiihets^foroied for social and coovivial 
uneroQiune ; of an wuruffled temper^ and frank duppsHioo; 
Na ^laleHVtti. ai^qoiied . more adherents^ not raeraljr frbm 
p0)it^(al itiouw% . but a way cd by bis agreeable manners^ 
and atiadied to hxm by pemeaa^ frieadsiup^ wbieh he feUy 
mmted by bis ^ aeal in. pmuotiiig tbeir interesls^ He is 
pmiy abaracterized^ even by Lord Cbealerfiddv << aa baving 
no fixed priuoiplca of religion or morality, and as too un« 
warjr]iii:rtdioiiling and exposing tbem/'. Aa a parliament 
taq&omtoiv be was occaaieoally besitatiog and perpleaedi 
hnt^ wbev warmed with bis enhject, be spoke with an am« 
BMitioo and rapidity wliicb appeared more striking front 
bis. former beaitation. His speeches were not crpwded 
witb .flowers of riietoric, or diatingotshod by brtUiaacy of 
diction ; bni wero replete with : sterLtng .seoee and sound 
argument He was quick in reply, keen iwirapaaiec^ and 
skallid in dieoeroing^tfaettempctf of the. bouse.. He wmta 
wifeboatr effQtt;or afieotation; liis puUic dispalcbea were 
manly aodf iteBspiouoiar, md bis private letters eaey and . 
animate;^ . Though of ast aanbiiaous apirilv he re^ssdedl 
money as acpriilcipaL ofa^ecl^< and' power only aa a aeoon^ 
dary. oeaeeau He .was. air exedttent bosbaad, a asest in^^ 
diilge»t father, •alditd maslsr^. a(ceiirteooa>neighbo«ir, and) 
OBft ^ftee charities .deaoonstrated that he .possessed 'im 
ahnndaoce the mi Ik of hnmnn kifidaess.-f**iSnch' is aatdte 
banw'.heen theebaraoter ofierdHollandy .wbtioh is here ia^* 
tr<|(i««ed as a prelude to someajceomit of hts more illusr^ 
triofia son. li may thereforensulfice to- add, -fthaA ia 1766> 
he^t resigned of aeoratairy at war to Mr. Pise, and? 
in idle fidlowing. year was appointed paymaster^ thefonaes,.« 
wloob he lelatned uatii! tbe commenoemeiitiof ibe:piresen0 
reign ^ his ooaduct . ib tfaia office was attended; with aomd 
dk^ea of oUoqay ;. inr owe instance, at Itfast^ groasiyt 
6v«pcbarged* Ear baviDg:acdumuJa(ed a>oonsidembie for«^ 
tu^ tbe perquinitea oTofficei and the interest of moneys 
ill? hand, be««ias styled in one of tbe addreaaes of the cityl 
o£. London, *^ the defaoker of onaccotinted mtliions." Oas 
May 6, 1762, his lady was created baronesa Holland 9 aadr 
on 'April 16, 176S, he bimseif was created a peer by thei 
title of lord Holland, baron Holland^ of Foxlcy,>in tbm ^ 
comty of Wilts. In the latter- pare of his life he amused} 
himself by. building, at a vast expence, a fantastic villa at 
Kings^te, near Margate^ His* lordship was^alsa a toM 

4« J'.OX^! 

of tbepnvj^ council, said dcrk it the PeBs, ttr ttelhtid^ 
gjrsiiKed him fpr his own iife and that of' bis two sons*' 
Lord Holland died at Holland-house, near Keaiington^ 
Jnly 1, 1774, in the sixty^ninth ye«r of Usage, leaving 
three sons, Stephen^ his successor ; Chaiiss James, the' 
safaject of the next article ; and Heniy Edward, a general 
in die army. Stephen, second lord Holland, surviTed hi*- 
father but a few months, dying Deo. M, 1774, and waa. 
sttoceeded by Henry Richard, the present peer.* • 

FOX (Charles James)^ one of the most iUnstrions 
statesmen of modem times, the. second son of the pre^ 
ceding lord Holland, was born Jan. 19, 0»S. 1748. We 
have already noticed that lord Holland was an indulgent 
fiuher^ and it has been said that his partiality to this son 
was carried tp an unwarrantable length. That his ftitber 
might have been incited by parental affection, a ;feeling^ 
o£ 'which few men can judge but for theiiiseived,- by the 
eerigr discovery he made of his son's talents, to indulge him 
in .the caprices of .youth, is not improbable ; * but that this*, 
iadttlgence was not excessive, may with equal* prababilUy 
be inferred from the future conduct of Miv Foa, which- 
letained no traces of the ** spoiled child," i|nd none of 
the haughty insolence of one to whom inferiors and servants 
bare been ordered to pay obsequious obedienee; Nor was' 
Ua education neglected. At £too, where he had I>r.' 
Barnard for his master, he diatinguis^d himself by como' 
elegant eaercisei^ which are to be found in the <^ Musie* 
Stonenses,^* and at Hertford college, Oxford, where he* 
studied uiuler the tutorage of Dr^ Newcome^ afterward^' 
Parnate of Ireland, his proficiency in classical and poliee' 
literature must have been equal to that of any of his con-^ 
tempoKaries. The fund indeed of classical 4€arniiig which: 
lie 'accumulated both at Eton and Oxford was such aato* 
lyimain inexhausted during the whole of hie bosy and* 
c^veotful. political career; and while itpnivhd'to the last's, 
soarce of elegant amusement in his leisnre hoors,^ it enabled-* 
kim to. sank with some of the most eminent scholars of his r 
time. This we may affirm on the authori^of Dr. Warton,* 
with wbom'he:irequently and keenly contested at the .lite- 
rary club^ and on.thatof a recent publication of his leiters* 
ta Gilbert Wakefield, wiih whom be corresponded on sub-*' 
jects of .classical ta6te. and crilicism* 

••« • .• -•.■. « 

• *•• §,'" • ••* .« ..' •*.•,* «• 

rPfCMi : Oxford^ where/ as was tbe cintom wiiti yenng 
intended for public life, he did not remain long ' 
c^Mittgh to. accomulatft degrees, he repaired to the* conti"* ' 
i^ot.. In bis travels it is sud that he acquired more of tk^ 
pfluish of foreign intercourse than those who kttew him 
QUgDin bis latter days could have believed, and returned a 
fashionable young man, noted for a foppish gaiety of dress - 
and. manner, from which he soon passed into the opposite ' 
extreme^ As his father ihtetided him to rise in the poli- 
tical world, be procured htm a seat for tbe borough of 
Mtdhurst, in 1768, before be had attained the legal age; 
af^rcumstance which, if known, appears to have been then 
overlooked. Two years afterwards, his father's interest pro-- 
cnced him the office of one of tbe lords commissioners of 
the admtffalty; but in May 1772, be resigned that situation, 
apd in January 1773, was nominated a commissioner of- 
thetrtasury. . At this time it cannot be denied that his* 
priiticat opinions were in * unison with those of his lather, ' 
wha vha: accounted a tory, and were adverse to the tuii>u- 
iMt pniceedif^s of the city of London, which at this' time 
wsis deluded bjr the specious pretences to patriotism dis« 
piayed by the celebrated Wilkes. It was in particular: 
Mir^ Foxl^s opinion, in allusion to the public meetings hekl 
by tbe supporters of ^* Wilkes and liberty," that << the 
voide of tbe people was only to be beard in the house of* 
eommons.'* I'hat he held, however, some of the opirAimsi 
byBcwfaiclr his future life was guided, appears firom. his- 
speech^ in' favour of religious liberty, when sir WiUiam' 
Misredith introduced a bill to give relief from subscripdoar 
t^itiie thirty«nioe articles; and perhaps other instancesr 
marybe found in which his natural ingenuousness of niiad, 
aujd^. openness of character, burst tbrottgb tbe tramnteis o^ 
ptu-ty ;. and although it must be alioiv^d that the cause be^ 
nbor. supported was not that which be afterwards espoused^ 
it) may be doubted whether he was. not even at thik taoie/r 
viheu'a mere subaltern in the nunistecial raofcs^ more ua^' 
restrained in his sentiments than at some memorable pe«: 
riods of his subsequent Jife» •. i' 

-.After having displayed Ins talents to the greatest ad van^' 
tage in. favour of the minister for about six years, the latter: 
(iacd Norths procured his disflnissal' f rom office in a mau'^ 
<ier not the most gracious, and.whicfa,^ if it^did not leave'; 
in'Mr. Fox^smind some portion of xesentmenf, he must 
have'b^<^n greatly superior to tli^ infirmities of our nature^ 

4^ roxi 

opFtb.i9y t774y irhile he .V8^ 8eciia% eilgaged' In cOtt<^ 
veraatiDii wieb tbe minister on ocher nbJ0M» in the IniifMr' 
of comiBons^ he received th6 fotkntitig laeonfc'note-by-die' 
bands ^f dne' of the mfessengevs of the bouse : - * 

*^ His Majesty bas tbougbt proper to order a anW^ coilt«* 
mission of Treasury to be madi^ out» in which i do imm£; 
see your natne. North." 

TlMS'.event was not oecaaioned by any opposition* oar th^" 
pknrt of Mr. Fo3t to lord Norih^si measures, bat. to » dil^- 
feretice of opinion asr lo tbe best mode of carryifkg thaiiir 
into-efiRsctv and that in aiy instance of comparativefy^Miiall: 
importance. This vras a question respecting^ the eoMalictat 
ctf Mr. H. 8. WoodfadI, tbe printer of the Public A4^r«.> 
tiaer^ who bad been broufght to- the bar oi tbe boiu^ for^ 
iooertiog; a letter supposed to ba^e bedn widttievi by ths^ 
revt J. Uorne, afterwards J. HorneTooke, in wiyiok oliotfli 
luijustifiable liberties had been taken wtnh- the cbariMeter of 
the speaker, sir Fletcher Norton,, withr a ooarso viraleoce 
of langttage. peculiar to Tooke. Mr. Woodiali< having 
given* up the atitbor, and thrown himsetf on* tbe naercy ol 
tbe house^ iti \vas' moved by Mr. H^rblei^t that be siiould be 
Gcmiikiiited to the custody of the seijeant at arms. Mr. 
Fox, at ihat* period a zealous advocate for the prinlegesi 
d£ the bouse, declared that tbe punisbinent was not suffix 
oiently severe,- and* moved ^^ that he be committed to New«« 
gate, as tbe only proper place to wbiohf offenders sliouidi 
be sent; tliough hints,*' belaid, '< had been throw-out 
that the aheriflb woilld not admit hiib.*' To this lord North 
seplied, that he waa very sorry that hints* had been thfoww 
out of whafc tbe sheritfs would or Wouid not db ; he hoped 
there were no persons who would dispute tbe power of 
that house; he therefore moved that the printer be com<* 
mitted to the Gate-house, as be thought ic imprudent to 
fyfce themselves into a contest with- the oity ; but Mr; 
Herbert carried bis motion in opposition both to lord North 
and Mr. Fox, by a majority of 1 52 to 68, to the great 
displeasure of lord North, who asserted- that it was entirely 
owing to the imerference of Mr. Fox, diat he was left in a 

To this trifling dispute, we are left to refer tbe whole 
of Mr. Fox's subsequent conduct, and as he appears^ to 
have immediately commenced hostilities with the minister 
%nd bis friends, it has been recorded^ asL peculiarly .foitu^ 

-F OX; 49 

ivMte (at bim, that be bad no occasion to degrade bU con- 
sisteqcy by opposing any o{ the measures he bad formerly 
.supported^ ia detail at least; and that a new era of po-* 
litical hostility bad just commenced on which be could 
enter with, all the apparent earnestness of honest convic- 
tioq. This, we need scarcely add, originated in the dis« 
piite between Great Britain and her American colonies. 
..During the who^e of this period, and of the war which foN 
.lawed, Mr. Fox. spoke and voted ia direct opposition to 
the ministerial systegi, which ended at laist in the separa- 
tion of the colonies Jfrom the mother state. It was now 
that Mr. Fox's talents appeared in their fullest lustre, and 
that be took the foremost rank among the speakers of the 
bouse, although it could at that time, and in bi^ 9wn 
party, boast of a Burke, a Barr£, and a Dunning. 

At the genend election in 1780, JVIr. Fox became .can>* 
.d^te for the. city, of Westminster^ in which, after a vio- 
lent contest, he succeeded, tliough opposed, as we are 
,tokly by the formidable interest of the\Newcastle faipily^: 
and. by the. whole influence of the crown. Being now the 
representative of i great city, it is added, <^ he appeared 
in parliament in a more dignified capacity, and acquired 4i 
consiiderable increase of. consequence to liis politic^ cha* 
•racter. .In himself be was still the same : he now. nepe^- ^ 
sarily lived and acted in the bosom of his constituents ; big: 
easiness of acces^ his pleasant social spirit, his friendly < 
(dispositioix.and conciliating maimers, which appeared in ^ 
all be said, and the good temper which predominated in ' 
aU be did, were. qualities that. rendered bim the friend ^ 
a^d acquaintanqe, as >yell as the representative, of tboae " 
who sent .him into parliament; his superior talents, and 
• their powerful, and fi'equent application to popular pur^ 
ppses, made him best knoven among political men, and 
gave bim a just claim to the title so long applied to him, 
qf ^ Tb^ man of the people.'" Nptwithstanding all this, 
it might not be difficult to prove that Mr. Fox was upon-^ 
the whole no great gaiqer by repifesenting a city in which 
tbi^.art^.of popularity, even when most honestly practiaed^^ 
jife BO security for its coiuimiance ; and indeed the 
was QQt far distant when he had to experience the fatal 
effi^cLs of preferring a seat, . which tfa^ purest virtues only 
can neither obtain nor preserve, and in contesting which, 
corruption pn one side must b^ ppposed by corruption ob 
$b%P.tben. , / - 

Vol. XV. E 


to f X. 

The, subjects of debate in the new parliamefit tiffariitig 
the oppo^iion opportunities for the display of their eld-' 
quence, they now became formidable by an increase at 
numbers. Ministers were assailed in the bouse by argtf- 
inents which they could neither repel nor contradict, and 
from without they were overwhelmed by the clatnodrs df 
that same people to whom the war was at first so accept- 
*Able ; till at length lord North and his adherents were 
obliged to resign, and it was thought, as such vengeance 
had been repeatedly threatefned both by Mr. Fox and Mf. 
Burke, that they would have been made responsible for 
all the mischiefs and bloodshed that had occurred during 
their calamitous administration. The Rockingham party, 
'however, who came into power in the spring 1782, and 
whose resentments the attainment of that object seems !• 
Iiave softened, contented themselves with, the defeat 6f 
their opponents. Mr. Fox obtained the office of secretary 
of ^tate for foreign aflPaifs, and the marqots of Rocking^- 
iiam was nominated the first lord of the treasury. Still the 
expectation of the nation was raised to the highest pitch ; 
with this party, they hoped to see an end to national ca- 
lamity, and the interests of the country supported and 
maintained in all quarters of the globe. Much indeed 
Was performed by them considering the shortness of their 
administration. Though they had succeeded to an empty 
exchequer, and a general and most calamitous war,^ yet 
they resolved to free- the people from some of their nume^ 
jrous grievances. Contractors were excluded by act <yf 
parliament from the house of commons ; custom and ex- 
cise officers were disqualified from voting at elections ; ail 
the proceedings with respect to the Middlesex eWction 
were rescinded ; while a reform bill abolished a mimber iaf 
useless offices. A more generous policy was adopted ii 
regard to Ireland ; a general peace was meditated, and 
America, which could not be restored, was at least to 
be conciliated. In the midst of these promising appear^ 
ances, the marquis of Rockingham, who was the support 
cf the new administration, suddenly died, an event wbieti 
distracted ^nd divided bis party. ' The council board waa 
instantly torn in pieces by political schisms, originating in 
a dispute respecting the person who should succeed as nrst 
lord' of the treasury. The candidates were, lord 8bel-> 
burne, afterwards marquis of Lansdowne> and die lat« 
duke of Portland -, the former^ supposed to have ^ etr 4)f 

r o X SI 

^e kitig^ tad a majority in the cabinet, was immediately 
entrMslfbd with the reins of government, and Mr. Fox re* 
tii'ed in disgusti declaring that *^ be bad determined never 
to connive at plans in private, which he could not publicly 
mvow." What these plans were, we know not, but he now 
resiftoied bis station in opposition, and joined the very tnan 
whose conduct he had for a series of years deprecated at 
the most destructive to the interests of Iris country, and 
most baneful to the happiness of mankind ; while bis for- 
mer colleague, the earl of Shelburne, was busied in con- 
^eluding a peace with France, Spain, Holland, /and th€i 
United States of America. But as this nobleman, though 
by no meaijtaeficient in political wisdom, had omitted to 
take those steps which preceding ministers had ever adopted 
jto secure safety, a confederacy was formed against htm by 
the union of the friends of Mr. Fox and lord North, known 
by the name of *^ The Coalition," which proved in the 
«vent as impolitic, as it was odious to the great mass of 
the people. Never indeed in this reign has any measure; 
caused a more general expression of popular disgust; and 
although it answered the temporary purpose of those who 
adopted it, by enabling them to supplant their rivals, and 
$0. seize opoti their places, their success was ephemeral; 
' .cbey had, it is true, a majority in the house of commons, 
hvtt the people at large were decidedly hostile to an union 
.which appeared to them to be bottomed on ambition only,, 
and destitute of any common public principle. It was as- 
verted, with too much appearance of truth, that they 
agreed in no one great measure calculated for the benefit 
0i the country, and the nation seemed to unite against 
.them. as one man. Their conduct in the cabinet led the 
fovereign to use a watchful and even jealous eye upon 
their acts ; and the famous India bill proved the rock on. 
which they finally split, and on account of which they for- 
feited their places. Mr. Fox had now to contend for the 
government of the empire with William Pitt, a stripling 
aoarcely arrived at the age of manhood, but who neverthe- 
less succeeded to the post of premier, and maintained that 
aitttation with a career as briltiant as that of his opponent, 
lor, more than twenty years. v 

>. The tide of popularity had set in so strongly against Mr. 
jTox^ that. at the general election about seventy of his most 
aotive A'iends and partisans lost their seats in the house of 
^commons,. aii4he himself was forced injto a long and tur* 



52 FOX. 

buleiit coolest for the city of Westminster. He faad^ iM 
we have seen, been originally returned for that place by 
the voice of the inhabitants, in opposition to the influence 
of the crown; but his junction with lord North had now 
lost him the affections of a considerable number of bis 
TOters, and although he ultimately succeeded, it was d,t 
an expence to his friends which some of them felt for 
inany years afterwards. He lost also, what, we are per-** 
auaded, must have affected him more than all, the support 
of that class without doors of independent men, and able 
writers on constitutional questions, who had revered him 
during the American war as the patron of liberty. Still, 
although in the new parliament which met m 1784, Mn 
Pitt had a decided majority, Mr. Fox made his appearance 
at the head of a very formidable opposition, and questions 
of general political interest were for some years contested 
with such a display of brilliant talents, as had never been 
known in the house of commons. 

In 1788, Mr. Fox repaired to the continent, in com- 
|)any. with the lady who was afterwards acknowledged as 
his wife, and after spending a few ^ays with Gibbon, the 
historian, at Lausanne, departed for Italy, but was sud* 
denly recalled home, in consequence of the king's illness, 
and the necessity of providing for a regency. On this 
memorable occasioUj Mr. Fox, and his great rival, Mr. 
Pitt, appeared to have exchanged systems ; Mr. Pitt con- 
tending for the constitutional measure of a bill of limita« 
tions, while Mr. Fox was equally strenuous for plncihg the 
regency in the hands of the heir apparent, without any 
restrictions ; and powerful as he and his party were at this 
time, and perhaps they never shone more in debate, Mr. 
Pitt was triumphant in every stage of the bill, and was 
supported by the almost unanimous voice of the nation. 
Yet the ministers must have retired, as it was well kbown 
that Mr. Fox and his party stood high in favour with th^ 
future Regent, and Mr. j^itt had actually meditated on the 
ceconomy of a private station, when the intemperance of 
Mr. Burke, who was never less loyal than at this crisis, 
delayed the passing of the bill, on one pretence or ano-^ 
ther, until by his majesty's recovery, it became happily 
useless. On this great question Mr« Fox had again the 
misfortune to forfeit the regard of those who have b^en 
considered as the depositories of constitutional principles^ 
atHi consequenily appeared to have traversed the sysi^tt of 

FOX. ^3 

which he bad been cotifidered as the most eonsistent and 
intrepid advocate. In 1790 and 1791 be recovered som^ 
of the ground he had lost, by opposing with effect a war 
with Spain, and another with Russia, for objects which he 
thought too dearly purchased by such an experiment ; and 
^n 1790 he appeared again the friend of constitutional U- 
jberty, by his libel bill respecting the rights of juries in 
criminal cases. This, although strongly opposed, tenni* 
pated at last in a decision that juries are judges of both 
^iie law and the fact. But the time was now arrived when 
he was, by a peculiarity in .bis way of thinking, to be for 
^ver separated from the political friends who had longest 
adhered to bim, and many of whom he loved with all th^ 
^doiir of affection. 

When the revolution took place in France, Mr. Fox 
perhaps was not singular in conceiving that it would be 
attended with great benefit to that nation ; in some of his 
speeches he went farther ; and continued an admirer of 
what was passing in France long after others had begun to 
foresee the most disastrous consequences. While Mr. Fox 

Serceived nothing but what was good, Mr. Burke pre* 
icted almost all, indeed, that has since happened, and 
^n accidental alteircation in the house of commons, (See 
BuKKE,) separated these two friends for ever. "This," 
says one of his biograpliers, " was a circumstance that af«» 
fected Mr. Fox more than any other through life ; he had 
^gn his plans for the public good disappointed ^ he had 
been deserted by a crowd of poUtical adherents ; a thousand 
times hijf heart and his motives had been slandered, still 
be Imd abundant resources in himself to bear up against 
thq tide setting in against bim. No opposition, no inju-* 
ries could excite in him the spirit of revenge, or the prin- 
ciples of acrimoiiy ; even when his friend,* on whom he 
bun^ with almost idolatrous regard, broke from bim in the 
paroxysm of political madness, and with furious ciruelty 
explored, in his attack on him, every avenue to pain, far 
from repelling enmity with enmity, he discovered his sen^ 
sibilities of wrong only with tears, and he subsequently 
wept, with a pertinacity of affection almost without ex* 
ample, over the sepulchre of that very man, who had un* 
relentingly spurned all his offers of reconciliation, and who,, 
with reference to him, had expired in the bitterness of re-' 
s^ntment/' We have little scruple in adopting these sen* 
timenta ; for whatever may be thought of Mr. Jf ox's opi« 

B4 FOX. 

iiions, tkere are few, we hope, whose hearts would faaw^ 
pejriDitted them to act the part of Mr. Burke in* this ih« 
teresting scene. 

The policy of the war which Ibllowed, belongs to his- 
tory. On ltd concluision in 1801, after the resignation of 
Mr. Pitt, when Mr. Addington, (since lord Sidmouth,) 
concluded the treaty of Amiens, Mr. Fox and his friends 
gave him his support. When hostilities were again me- 
ditated, Mr. Fox at first expressed his doubts of their ne- 
cessity; but when, on the death of Mr. Pitt, in 1806, he 
came again into power, as secretary of state for the fo-^ 
reign department, in conjunction with the Grenvi lie party, 
be found it necessary to support the war by the same 
means and in the same spirit as his predecessor. Some 
measures of a more private nature, which he was obliged 
to adopt in order to satisfy the wishes of the new coalition 
he had formed, served rather to diminish than increase 
his popplarity ; but his health was now decaying; symp* 
toms of dropsy appeared, and within a few months he wa$ 
laid in the grave close by his illustrious rival. He died 
Sept. 13, 1806, without pain and almost without astrugg1e> 
in the 58 th year of his age. 

The present lord Holland has said, in the preface U> 
Mr. Fox^s historical work, that although ** those who adw 
mired Mr. Fox in public, and those who loved him in pii*^ 
vate, must naturally feel desirous that -some memorial 
should be preserved of the great and good qualities of his^ 
bead and heart;" yet, <* the objections to such an un- 
dertaking at present are obviods, and after miich reflec-' 
tioD, they h^ve appeared to those connected with him in-* 
' »uperable.'* Such a declaration, it is hoped, may apolo- 
gize for what we have admitted, and for what we have 
rejected, in this sketch of Mr. Fox's lifi^. We have touched 
only on a few memorable periods, convinced that the pre- 
sent temper of the times is unfavourable to a more minute; 
discussion of the merits of his long parliamentary life. Yet 
this consideration has not had much weight with those who 
]>rofess to be his admirers, and soon after his death a 
number of ** Characters" of him appeared sufficient to RW 
two volumes 8vo, edited by Dr. Parr. Of one .circum- 
stance there can be no dispute. Friends and foes are equally- 
agreed in the amiable, even, and benign features of his 
private character. ** He was a man," said Burke, ** mad:^ 
to be loved/.' and he was loved by ail who knew him. 


FOX. 4$ 

.. Mr. Fox must now be considered at an author. While 
mt Eton, bis compositions were highly distikiguished, some 
of which are in print; as one compo$ed in or about 1761, 
beginning, <* Vocat ultimas, labor ;*' another, *^ I, fugias, 
ceieri voiitans per nubiia cursu,*' written in 1764; and hit 
'^ Quid miri faciat Natura," which was followed by a Greek 
4ialogue in 1765. See ^' Mussq Etonenses/' &c. He was 
also author of the 14th, 16th, and perhaps, says the present 
lord Holland, his nephew, a few ofher numbers of a pe«> 
riodical publication in 1779, called the ^* Euglisbmao*** 
In 1793 he published ^ A Letter to the Electors of West* 
minster,'* which passed through thirteen editions within a 
few months. This pamphlet contains a full and ampid 
justification of hia political conduct, with respect to the 
discussions in which he had engaged on the French re* 

It does not appear that the parliamentary speeches^ 
printed separately as his, of .which there are many, were 
ever revised by him, but were taken from the public pa* 
pers. But ^^ A Sketch of the Character of the late most, 
npble Francis duke of Bedford, as delivered in his intro* 
ductory speech to a motion for a new writ for Tavistock^- 
oil the 16th of March, 1802," was printed by his authority, 
and from his own manuscript copy ; and it is said, that hei 
observed on that pcoasiop, ** that he had never before atr 
tempted to make a copy of any speech which he had de* 
liyered in public.'* After that be wrote an epitaph on. the 
late bishop of Downe, which is engraved on his tomb in 
the chapel of St. James, in the Hampstead road. << There 
are,"' says lord Holland, ** several specimens of his, com- 
position in verse, in different languages; but the lioes oo. 
. Mrs. Crewe, and those ou Mrs. Fox, on his birth-day, are,. 
as far as I recollect, »l\ that h^ve been printed." An ode 
to Poverty, and an episram upon Gibbon, though very 
generally attributed to him, are certainly not bis com^. 

To lord Holland, however, the world is indebted for an 
important posthumous publication of this great statesman,, 
entitled ** A History of the early part of the Reign of Jamea 
the Second, with an introductory chapter,** &c< It is not 
koown when Mr. Fox first formed the design, of writing a., 
history ; but in 1797 be pubHcly announced in parliament 
faijis intention of devoting a greater portion of his time to hh 
jprivate pursuits, and when be bad deiU^rmiijied to conse^- 

«« E a X. 

erate a part irnvritiog history, be was naturally led, ftom 
liis intimaite knowledge of the English constitution, to pre» 
fer the hiiMiory of his own country, and to select a period 
favoctsable to the general illustration of 'the great principles 
of freedom on which it is founded. With this view be 
fixed on the revolution of I68g, but bad made a small 
progress in this work when be was called to take a princi^r 
pal part in the government of the country. The volume 
comprehends only th.e history of the transactions of the 
first year of the reign of James II. with an introductory 
chapter on the character and leading events of the times 
immediately preceding. Whatever ofmiion may be enters 
tained of the views Mr. Fox takes of those times, or of 
some novel opinions advanced, there' is enough in this 
work to prove that he might have proved an elegant and 
sound historian, and to make it a subject of regret that he 
did not employ bis talents on literary composition when 
they were in their full vigour. * 

FOX MORZILLO (Sebastian), or Sbbastiamus Foxivb 
MoRZiLLUS, a learned Spaniard, originally of the family of 
Foix, in Aquitaine, was born at Seville in 1528, and passed 
the whole of his short life in the study of philosophy and 
the belies lettres, acquiring such reputation from his works 
as made his untimely death a subject of unfeigned regret 
with his countrymen; After being educated in granunae 
learning at Seville, be studied at Louvaine and other unl-^ 
Tersities, and acquired the esteem of some of the moat 
eminent professors of his time. Before he was twenty 
years of age be had published his '^ Paraphrasis in Ciee-« 
ronis topica,'' and in his twenty-fourth y^ar his Commfin-i 
tary on the Timaeus of Plato. About this time the repu"* 
tation he had acquired induced Philip II. king of Spain, to 
invite him home, and place his son the infant Carlos under 
bis care ; hut returning by sea, be unhappily perished by 
shipwreck in the flower of iiis age, leaving the following 
works as a proof that his short space of life bad been em«- 
ployed in arduous and useful study : I. ^^ De Studii philo- 
sophiei rationed" of which there is an edition joined to 
Nunnesius's " De rccte conficiejido curriculo Pbiloso*^ 
pbico,^^ Leyden, 1621, 8vo. 2. ^' De usu et exercitatioae 
^iSkleotica,*' and *^ De Demonst^atione,*' Basil, 1555, 8vo. 

} From various periodical journals. — Sir B. Brydges's edition of CoIHds'v 
Pfeeragp.— rRees's Cyclopaedia. — Character of C. J. Fox, selected and in par^ 
yHtten b^ P||l]of^|ris Wawmn^, u ^ Dr. Pattr, 1909, Sv». ^ . 

FOX «f 

S. '^^ In Topica Ciceronis paraphrasis et scholia,*' Antwerp^ 
1550^ Svo. 4. '* De Daturse philosophise seu de Platonit 
ct Aristotelis consensione, libri quinque/' Louvaine, 1554^ 
SvO) often reprinted. 5. ^* De Juventute atque de Ho- 
Aore," Basil. 6. /^ Compendium Etbices, &c.'* Basily 
1554, Svo, 7. '^ In Platonis Tim»utn seu de universo 
coiiimentarius,'* ibid. 1554, foi. 8. ^* In Pb»donem, et 
in ejusdem decern tibros de republica commentarii,'' BasiL 
9. " De Imitatione,'* Antwerp, 1554, Svo. 10. ** Do con* 
scribenda bistoria," Antwerp and Paris, 1557, 8vo, and 
Antwerp again, 1564. Mir»us, Gerard Vossius, Gabriel 
Naudens, iftnd others, speak of this author as one of the 
most learned men of his time. ^ 

FRACASTORIO, or FRAC ASTORO, (Jerom,) an emi- 
lietit Italian poet and physician, was born at Verona iiir 
1483. Two singularities are related of him in his infancy; 
<>Qe, that his lips adhered so closely to each other when 
lie came into the world, that a surgeon was obliged to 
divide them with his knife ; the other, that his mother, 
Camilla Mascarellia, was killed by lightning, while he, 
though in her arms at the very moment, escaped unhurt 
Fracastorio was of parts so exquisite, and made so wonder- 
ful a progress in every thing he undertook, that he became 
eminently skilled, not only in the belles lettres, but in all 
arts and sciences. He was a poet, a philosopher, a phy« 
sician, an astronomer, and a mathematician. He was s 
mail also of great political consequence, as appears from 
pope Paul Ill.'s making use of his authority to remove the 
€obncil of Trent to Bologna, under the pretext of a con- 
tagious distemper, which, as Fracastorio deposed, made it 
Ab longer safe for him to continue at Trent. He was in« 
ftimately acquainted with cardinal Bembo, Julius Scaliger, 
and all the great men of his time. He died of an apoplexy, 
MCasi near Verona, in 1553; and in 1559 the town of 
Verona erected a statue in honour of him. 

He was the author of many productions, both as a poet 
iknd as a physician ; yet n^ver man was more disinterested 
in both these capacities, evidently so as a physician, for 
be practised without fees; and as a poet, whose usual 
^w^rd is glory, no man could be more indifferent. It is 
owing to this indifference that we have so little of his poetry, 
in comparison of what be wrote ; and that among other 


\jla&oi^.Biblf Hvi|^.-<^B»iUet |Fi^il9e9ij aa4£af«is ce]#brei»-*>Sftiii Oooiti^t 


pom positions his odes and epigrams, which were read in 
manuscript with infinite admiration, and would have been 
most thankfully received by the public, yet not being 
printed, were lost. He wrote in Latin, and with great 
^leganc^. His poems now extant are the three books of 
^' Siphilis, or De Morbo GallicQ," a book of miscellaoeoos 
poems, and two books of his poems, entitled *^ Joseph,** 
which he began at the latter end of bis life, but did not 
live to finish. And these works, it is said, would have 
perished with the rest, if his friends had not taken care to 
preserve and communicate them : for Fracastorios, writing 
merely for amusement, never took any care respecting hit 
work«, when they were out of his hands. 
. His astronomical, critical, and philosophical treatises 
are enlivened with occasional poems. Several of them are 
composed in the form of conversations : a species of writ* 
ing sanctioned by some of the finest models of antiquity, 
and much used in those early periods of the revival of 
letters. Their titles are borrowed from the names of the 
speakers, The ^^ De Anima Dialogus"' is denominated 
Fracastorius ; the treatise ^' De Poetica'* is entitled Nau- 
gerius; and the books . <^ De Intellectione'* have the title 
of Turrius. A young man, in the character of a minstrel, 
who is supposed to be more especially subject to the au«- 
thority. of Naugerius, sings to his lyre the verses that are 
occasionally introduced. ^ The pretence is merely relaxa^ 
tion from severer thought ; and the poema are often un» 
connected with the main subject. 

Perhaps the productions of no modern poet have been 
more commended by- the learned, than those of Fracas* 
torio. His poems are, in general, written with a spirit 
which never degenerates into insipidity. But on his '^ Si« ' 
philis" the high poetical reputation of Fracastorio is prin* 
cipaliy founded. Sannazarius, on reading this poem, de* 
ciared he thought it superior to any thing produced by : 
himself, or his learned contemporaries, and Julius Scali* 
ger was not content to pronounce him the best poet in the 
world next to Virgil, but affirmed him to be the best in 
every thing else; apd, in short, though he was not gen^* ^. 
rally lavish pf his praise, with respect to Fracastorio bo 
scarcely retained himself within the bounds of adoration. 
Fracastorio's medical pieces are, *^ De sympathia et anti* 
pathia, — De contagione et contagiosis morbis, — De causis 
f ritic^Qrum dierum^-^De vini temperatura,| fcc.'' His worka 

P R A q A S T O R I O. i9 

imxe been pirinted separately and collectively. The best 
edition of Ibem is that of Padua, 1735, in 2 vols. 4to. ^ 

FRACHETTA (JerOm), an e^iinent political writer^ 
was It native of Rovigno in Italy, and spent several years 
at Rome, where he was greatly esteemed by Sessa, am'<- 
bassador of Philip II. king of Spain. He was employed in 
civil as well as military aBairs, and acquitted himself always 
with great applause; yet he had like to have been ruined, 
and to have even lost his life, by his enemies. This 
obliged him to withdraw to Naples; and still having friends 
to protect his innocence, he proved it at length to the 
court of Spain, who ordered count de Benevento, viceroy 
of Naples, to employ him, and Frachetta lived in a very 
honourable manner at Naples, where a handsome pension 
was allowed him. He gained great reputation by his po^ 
litical wori^s, the most considerable of which is that entitled 
^^ II Seniinario de Governi di Stato, et di Guerra.'* In 
this work he has collected, under an hutidred and ten 
chapters^, about eight thousand military and state maxims, 
extracted from the best authors ; and has added to each 
chapter a discourse, which serves as a conimentary to it. 
This work was printed twice, at least, by the author, re* 
printed at Venice in 1647, and at Genoa in 1648, 4to; 
and there was added to it, ^^ II Principe,*' by the same 
writer, which was published in 1597. The dedication 
informs us, that Frachetta was prompted to write this book 
from a donversation he had with the duke of Sessa; in 
which the latter observed, among other particulars, that 
be thought it as important as it was a difficult task, to iti- 
fonii princes truly of such transactions as happen in their 
dominions. His other compositions are, ^ Discorso della 
Ragione di Stato: Discorso della. Ragione di Guerra; 
£sposizione di tutta TOpera di Lucrezio/' He died at 
Naples in the beginning of the seventeenth century, but 
at what age is unknown. * 

FRAGUIER (Claude Francis), a French writer, was 
Uorn of a noble family at Paris in 1666. His first studies 
were under the Jesuits; and father La Baune liad the 
forming of his taste to polite literature. He was also a 
disciple of the fathers Rapin, Jouvenci, La Rue, and 
Camsnite^ and the affection he had for them induced him 

^ Tiraboschi: — Moreri.— Niceroo, vol. XVII. — GrtswelPt PoIUiui. Ti^ b«A 

pecoont, we think, is io Roscoe's Leo X.--^Saxii Oottioast. 
f GsiSI, PJcU^Moreiik 

«0 F R A G U I E R. 

to itcU^it bioisdf of their order in 1683. After Uis noi* 
▼ictate, aod when be had finished bis course of philosophy 
at Paxis, be was sent to Caen to teach the belles lettres, 
where be contracted a friendship with Huet and Segraiv, 
and much improved himself under their instructions. The 
former advised him to spend one part of the day upon the 
Greek authors, and another upon the Latin : by pursuing 
*which method^ he became an adept in both languages. 
Foqr years being passed here, he was recalled to Paris, 
inhere he spent other four years in the study of divinity. 
At the end of this course, he was shortly to take upon 
bim the occupation of either preaching, or teaching ; but 
finding in himself no inclination for either, he quitted his 
prder in 1694, though he still reteined his usual attach- 
ment to it« Being now at liberty to indulge his own 
fishes, be devoted himself solely to improve and polish 
)ii^ understanding. He soon* after assisted the abbi Big- 
9011, under whose direction the ^' Journal des S^avans** 
was conducted.; and he had all the qualifications necessary 
j(br such ^ work, a profound knowledge of antiquity, a 
skill not only in the Greek and Latin, but also [talian, 
Spanish, and English tongues, a sound judgment, anex- 
^ct taste, and a very impartial and candid temper. Ha 
afterwards formed a plan of translating the works of Plato ^ 
thinking, very justly, that the versions of Ficinus and Ser- 
i^nus had left room enough for correction and amendments. 
He had begun this work, but was obliged to discontinue it 
^y a misfortune which befel him in 1709. He had bor- 
cowed, as we are told, of his friend father Hardouin, a 
manuscript commentary of his upon the New Testament^ 
ip order to make some extracts from it ; and was busy at 
work upon it one summer evetiing, with the window half 
open, and himself inconsiderately almost undressed. The 
Qold air had so unhappy an effect in relaxing the muscles 
of his neck, that he could never afterwards hold his head 
in its natural situation. The winter increased his malady ; 
and he was troubled with involuntary convulsive motiona 
(^ the head, and with pains which often hindered him from 
sleeping ; yet he lived nineteen years after ; and though 
be could not undertake any literary work, constantly rc- 
c;eived visits from the learned, and conversed with them 
not without pleasure. He died suddenly of an apoplexy, 
M!88, in bis sixty-second year. He nad been made a 
member of the academy of inscriptions in 1705^ and of the 
French academy in 1708. 

F R A G U I E R. %l 

HiB wotks'comist of Latin poems, and a great natn\>6c 
of very excellent dissertations in the Memoirs of tto 
French academy *. His poems were published ^t Paris in 
J 729, in i2mo, with the poems of Huet^ under the care 
of the abb6 d^OUvet, who prefixed an eulogy of Fraguier ; 
)a«id at the end of them are three Latin dissertations con- 
cerning Socrates, whioh is all that remains of the Prote- 
foraena be had prepared for his intended translation df 
iato. These dissertations, with many others upon cif- 
irioQs and interesting subjects, are printed in the Memoim 
Hbove-mentioned. * 

FRANCESCA (Pietro Della), commonly called FraM^ 
CESco Dal Boroo a San Sepolcro, a painter of consi*- 
derable renown, was bom at Borgo in Umbria, ifO }373. 
In his youth he studied the mathematics ; but at fifteen 
yeir^ of age determined on being a painter, when he was 
patronised by Gindobaldo Fettro, duke of Urbino. H« 
did not, however, so completely devote his time to paint- 
ing as to neglect his former studies, but wrote several 
essays on geometry anct perspective, which were long pr^^ 
served in the duke's library at Urbino. He afterwards 
painted in Pesara, Ancona, and Ferrara; but few of his 
works remain at either of these places^ Having obtained 
much reputation^ he was sent for to Rome by pope Nicho^ 
las V. to paint two historical subjects in the chambers of 
the Vatican, in concurrence mth Bramante di Miiano, 
called Bramantino ; but Julius H. destroyed these to make 
room for Raphael's Miracle of Bolsena, and St. Peter ift 
Prison. Notwithstanding this degradation of his labours^ 
before the superior powers of Raphael, he was very de^ 
serving of esteem, if the account which Vasari gives of hitak 
be true, and we consider the imperfeot state of the art tl 
the time in which he lived. He exhibited much knov^'^ 

* "This learned academician was ioto the form of a memoir, and pre- 

unable to persuade himself that anti- sented it to the academy of inscrip- 

i|iiicy, so enligfatened, and so ingefiious tions and belles lettres, in 1716. M. 

in the cultivatioo of the tine arts, could Burette acquamts us that this abbi 

hare been ignorant of the union of learned to play on the harpsichord mt 

different parts, in their concerts of an advanced age, and concluding thrit 

Toices and instruments, which he calls the ancients, to whom he generoasl^ 

' the most perfect and sublime part of gare all good things, could not d4> 

music ;' and thinking that he had hap- without counterpoint, made them a 

pily discovered, in a passage 'df Plato, present of that harmony, with which 

an indubitable and dt^cisive pro(^ of bis aged ears were so plea8cd.''-*-Bj 

the ancients having possessed the art Dr. Burney, in Reei's Cyclopixrdia* 
of eonnterpoint^ he drew up bis opinion 

1 Nicer&n, tol. XVIlI.-— Chiuf(fpie.--Moreri, 


ledge of amtomy, fediog of esptession, aod of Autnhm<^ 
tion of light and sfaade« The principal work of Fiaocesca 
was a night scene, in which he represented an angel car* 
tying a cross, and appearing in vision to the emperor Con* 
stantine sleeping in his tent with his chamberlain near 
liim, and some of his soldiers. The light which issued 
from the cross and the angel illominated the scene, and 
was spread over it with the utmost discretion. Every 
thing appeared to have been studied from nature, and was 
executed with great propriety and truth. He also painted 
a battle, which was highly commended for the spirit an^ 
.fire with which it was eondocted ; the strength of the ex- 
pression, and the imitation of nature ; particularly a groupe 
of horsemen, which, ^ Vasari says, '* considering the pe* 
nod, cannot be too highly commended/* 

Having exercised the various talents nature had be^ 
stowed upon him till be was eighty-six years old, be died 
in 145S* ^ 

FRANCESCHINI (Mahc Antonio), an historical 
painter, bom at Bologna in 1648, was at first a discijde of 
^ G. Battista Galli, and from him entered the school of Car- 
lo Cignani, who soon discovered the talents of his pupil^ 
and not only formed his style, but made him his relation 
by marrying him to bis niece, and he soon became fab 
principal assistant. He was employed in embellishing 
many churches and convents in bis native city, and in 
*other parts of Italy; and particularly at Modeoa, he 
painted the grand hall of the duke's palace so much to the 
satisfaction of that prince, that he wished to reuin him at 
liis court by an offer of a large pension, and such honours 
as were due to his merit. But Franceschini preferred his 
freedom and ease to the greatest acquisitions of weakh, 
#nd with polite respect refused the offer. At Genoa he 
painted, in the great council chamber, a design that at 
once manifested the fertility of bis invention, and the 
grandeur of his ideas ; for most of the memorable actions 
of the republic were there represented with a multitude of 
figures nobly designed, judiciously grouped and disposed^ 
and correctly drawn. And in the Palazzo Monti at Bd<«>^ 
togna is a small gallery painted by bim, of which the co- 
louring is exceedingly lovely, though the figures appear 
to want roundness, Franceschini, though of the school 9^ 

I Vaiari.— Piikington.— ReeB*t Cyclopedia. 

r 11 A N C £ S C H IN T. ei 

Clenani, is original in the suavity of his colour, and thci 
facility of his execution. He is fresh without being cold, 
and full without being crowded. As he was a maehinisC^ 
and in Upper Italy what Cortona was in the Lower, symp* 
toms of the mannerist appear in his works. He had the 
iiabit of painting his cartoons in chiaro-scuro, and, by fix* 
ing them to the spot where the fresco was to be executed, 
became a judge of their effect. He preserved the powen 
Df his mind and pencil unaltered at a very advanced age ; 
and when he was even seventy-eight years old, he designed 
and coloured his pictures with ail that fire and spirit for 
which he had been distinguished in bis best time. He died 
in 1729, at the age of eighty-one. ' 


FRANCIA (Francesco), an historical painter, whose real 
flame was Raibolini, was born at Bologna in )4S0, and was 
bred to the profession of a goldsmith, which he exercised 
for some time with very considerable celebrity, having the 
coinage of the city of Bologna under his care. His desire 
of reputation, and his acquaintance with Andrea Mantegna 
and other painters, led him to the study of painting, but 
from whom he received the first elements of instruction is 
not known. In 1490 he produced a picture of th* Virgia 
seated, and surrounded by several figures ; among whom 
is the portrait of M. Bart. Felisini, for whom the picture 
ivas painted. In this be still calls himself ** Franciscus 
Ffancia, aurifex,'* and it, with another picture of a similar 
subject, painted for the chapel Bentivoglio a St. Jacopo, 
gained him great reputation. He painted many pictures 
for churches, &c. in Bologna, Modena, Parma, and other 
cities ; but they were in the early, Gothic, dry manner, 
tailed " stila antico moderno,'* which he greatly improved 
upon in his latter productions. On Pietro Perugrno h^ 
formed his characters of heads, vtnd his choice of tone and 
colour; on Gian. Bellino, fullness of outline and breadth 
of drapery; and if the best evidence of his merit, the 
authority of Raphael, be of weight, in process of time he 
excelled them both. In a letter dated 1508, edited by 
Malvaisia, Raphael declares that the Madonnas of Francia 
were inferior, in his opinion, to none for beauty, devout- 
iiesSf and form. His idea of Francia^s talents exhibited 
(tself^ strli: sti^onger in his entrusting his picture of Sc 

l-D*Ar(!enviUe, toI. n.--PilkiD(ton.—Ref9*f Cyclopedia. 

«« F< R A N C t A. 


. Ge«ila>>' destined for tke cburcia of 8t 6io da Morle «ft 
Bolpgua, .to his care, by letter soliciting bim as a friend to 
^seerit put in its place^ and tf be fonnd any defect in ity that 
be would kindly correct it. Vasari says that Francia died 
with grief in 1 51 8,. upon seeing by this picture that be 
was <as nothing in the art, compared viritb the superior genkn - 
of Raphael ; ,but Malvasia proves that he lived some yearf^ 
afterwards, and in an improved style produced bis cele-^^ 
brated St. Sebastian, which Caracci describes as the gene^ 
ral model of proportion and form for the students at Bo^- 
Ipgna. A copy of this figure still exists in the church ^ 
deUa Misericordia.^   "* 

FRANCIABIGIO (Marco Antonio), or FttANCU Bt^^ 
GIG, was an historical painter, born in 1483. He studied* ^ 
for .a short time under Albertioelli, but is chiefly known ais 
,tbe competitor, and in some works the partner of Andtes^ 
d^X Sarto. Similar in principle, but inferior to bim in' ' 
pQwer, .be strove to supply by diligence the defects of 
nature; < with vrh^X success, will appear on comparison of 
his work ia the cloister of the NunziaAaat Florence,* witb 
those of Andrea at the same place. On its being unco-^ 
Tered by. the monks, the painter in. a fit of shame or rage 
gave it some blows with a, hammer, nor ever after could be 
induced to finish it. He appears to have succeeded better 
in two histories which he inserted among the frescos of a 
Andrea at the Scalzo, nor is he there much inferior. ,Be 
likewise emulated him at Poggio a Cajaoio, where be te^- 
psesented the return of M. Tullius from exile, a work^ 
which though it remained unfinished, shews him to great 
advantage. This artist died in 1524, in the prime of life*'? -^ 

FRANCIS of Assisi, « celebrated saint (^ the Romish ^ 
church, and founder of one of the four orders of meadi** ^ 
cant friars, called Franciscans, was born at Assisi in Umtp-'^ 
bria, in 1182. He was the son of a merchant, and. was -^ 
cteriHtened John, but had the name of Francis added,"" fif^oca 
his facility of talkitig Frenpb, which he learned, to qualify - 
bim for bis father's profession. He was at first a young •- 
man of dissolute manners, but in consequence of an illneiis 
about 1206, he became* so strongly afiected with religic9i0 
zeal, that he took a resolution of retiring from*tbe yvorld^, 
He now devoted himself so much to solitude, mortified / 
himself to such a degree, and contracted so ghastly, a ooun* 

.1 PilkiDgtOD^—Rcet's .Cyclopaedia. ? Ibid. 

leiiances that the inhabitatUs x>f Assisj tfaougbt bim - di9« 
tracted. Hi^ father, thinking to make bim resume bis pro- 
fession, employed a very .severe method for that purpote^ 
hy throwing hioi into prison ; but finding this made .ua 
impression on him, be took bim before the bishop of Assisi^ 
in order to make bim resign all claim to his, pater nalestate^ 
which he not only agreed to, but stripped off all his clothes, 
ieven to his shirL He then prevailed with great numbers^ 
to <}evote themselves, a^ he had donei to tlie poverty which 
i>^ considered as enjoiqed \3ff the gospel j and drew . up> ^a 
institute or rule, for their use, which was approved by popq 
Innocent IIL in 1210. The yipar after, l\e obtained of the 

Eieaediptin^s,tl)e -church of Portiuncula, near Assist, and 
is order increased so fast, that when he held a chapter in 
1219, hear 5000 friars of the order of Miners (so thej^ 
yiere called) were present. Soon after he obtained also a 
bull in favour of his order from pope Honorius III. Abo«K 
this time he went into the Holy Land, and endeavouri^d 
in v^A to convert the sultaf) IVjeledin. It is s^d, that be 
offered to throw himself into the flames to prove liis faith 
in what \i^ taught. lie returned soon after to his native 
coantry, and xlied at Assisi in 1226, being then only forty* 
five» He was canonized by pope Gregory IX. the 6th of 
^lay, 1220^; and. Oct. the 4th, on which his death hap« 
pened, was appointed as bis festival. 
. His order soon rose to great splendor, and has done 
great ^ervic^ to the Homan pontiffs. Some popes, several 
cardinals, and^a great number of prelates, and celebrated 
authors* bav« been of it* It is divided into several bodies^ 
^ome of which are more rigid than other$ ; and all strongly 
inherit the ancient einuiation, which soon broke out 
between the children of St. Francis and those of St. Do^ 
niinic. Before the reformation, the. Franciscans bad in 
England about eighty convents, besides some nunneries. 
Those i«;bo are desirous to know more of St. Francis and 
his order, besides our authorities at the bottom of the page^ 
ms^ be referred to his life written by Bonaventure. But 
periiaps the most ample and circumstantial accounts are 
given by Luke Wac^jjiing, in the first volume of his ^* An- 
Bales Ordinis Minorum,''. which contains a complete his- 
tory of the Franciscan order, confirihed by a great number 
of authentic records. The best edition of this work is that 
published at Rome in 173t, and following years, in IS 
vols. fol. by Joseph Maria Fonseca ab Ebora. It is to the 
V©L. XV. F 


•ame Waddtog Aat we are krddsted for ilie ^ Opoictik 
8k FrMicbci,** foid the *^ BiUtatiieea ordiiiit Mioonimy^ 
Ibe fertner of which appeared in %tOf nt Antwerf^ 1625^ 
Imd the latter at Rome io 1650. The hidtory of theie 
•fden will, it is hoped, be of less conaequence herealtery 
when a more enlightened state of society has aihbwn their 
iBsafficiefiey in the advanceinent of real reltgtoiry hut fit 
can iiet^r be uninterestieg to know the early i^e 6f tiiosi 
formidable bodies of ecelesiastics wMch once faetd thA 
world in awe. The life of St. 'f rancltt, like that of mo«t of 
the Romi^ sainls, is rendered iMredibie and ridioolooa 
by the aiddition of miracles and prodigies, the fietiotis ol 
after-^tttnea, but eoold they be separated frotn what i| 
genuine^ he might probably appear ati enthiisiiisty yet sisf^ 
oere in what he believed and practised.' 

FRANCIB (of Pauix>), mother RomMi saint, who to 
exceed his predecessor in hitmilir^, founded the (^rder of 
Miuuns (leMt), as he had tbat of Miners (inCerihn). «Ht 
was born in 141 6, at Paulo in Catsbria. He begati bia 
eaieer of mortificatiou by retiring to a ceU evi ik desert pnt 
of the coast, where his san^tty soon dbtained folloum^ 
and they ere long <:on^ructed a monastery mood his cdL 
Thus was his order oommenced. He femied a* rub for i% 
which was approved by pope Alexander VI; f^d confirmed 
by Jfulius IL His rule was extremity rigorous, enjotnii^ 
perpetual abstinence from wine, fidi^ a^ditieat. HM^dis^ 
^ftos 'were always to go bare-^footed, liever tt> sit^tp upiHI 
a bed, and to use mai^ other movtilications. He dibd iif 
France, to which couutry be went at die^^aniest s(rfite^« 
tion of Louis XL who hoped to be out^d of n. dahgeiHiul^ 
indady by his presence. This event took place at CtessiiK 
du->Parc^ in 1 508, wbea he was at the age <^ ninety^<wk|^ 
He was canonized in 1519, by Leo.X. By the confemon 
of his admirers he was perfectly illitepatew * 

FRANCIS DE Sal£s, (St.), was .born at the eii9t|i^ vi 
Sales, in the diocese erf" Geneva, August !2 1, 15674 H^ 
descended from one of the most ancient and tiohle faitiilie* 
of Savoy. Having taken a doctor of law's degrte «r Paduai 
he was first advocate at Cfaambciry,^,^hen provost of flht- 
church of Geneva at Annecy. Claudius deGranier^ibit 
bishop, sent him as missionary into the valleys of bast 

l^Qen. Dict.->Mo8heim and MHoer't Cto^^h iSsk^HPaWic. BibL lA ll«4^ 

.^Batier'9 Uvea of the Saiott. ' 

.' «_M«rerl— BiUlsf'tiiTteoftteSsmtW V ...J 

lie is said lo have performed in ^re)at Huintei^Si 'Wid kh 
.sermons were attetidiad With wonderful «t)6ce9S4 Tte'bkhop 
i«riF Geneva eb«^ kim aft^^vi^rds ^rhi$ e4a4jut6i', Mt Wag 
ioUig«it to vs^ butildfity before tse coald kie ^eti^tmded t# 
lu^cept' %he diffice^ Re44gk>ut kthit^ c AHed 4iim alterwardli 
Sntb I'raM^^, MtePb he was unfyd«%alty ^teeifi^ ; Md ear^ 
^«a( dii Pl3t¥dii siLfd^ ^IMre.M^ere no tiereties wbom Int^ 
^iM^ilrf ^ot^oil^v^e) %ift Mi IJte €^eii^a mutt be «iii)^id9idii 

li^ieonvM tfa^fDv'^i il)3i^y tYrbeinf informed ^f bte iii^t^l^ 

ttmtie^hiYki' eoticideMbie offifiit^ id biiypM of^^lAiififig hiMi 
ih -iPitifk^ ; bul 4«e divide taltlfei* td i1K«m^ Id SiiVoy, wfad«^ 
|ie>«llrfvf&d ift l^GM/ Md fOYllid %i^bi^ 6fiitif<6l;ilMd dtod H 

^^ diiy s biefem. 81. f^ft^ii Umi uiid«k«rMk ibe nftfof^ 
«iatio% of hte diiM%«e) wiM« t»tety ii#d ^ittd^^ofi flM^ 
irislMed tbrt^lgh bli z^dl^} h^ r^9tor^d t^gulaHiy In %b^ 
%ft6nafift«3t^, und fMtitJuU^d tbe ofttef #f tbe ^«Ai1taliMrlH 

4^0, n^hidi Wa* «miliiiMd by Pftul V. leis^Mdt^hf^Mil^ 

ifte barM«!«ide OblLM^, ^4kiui Hedelif^Md bf Mifir^^rt^ 
tef At D^> Vvlto the fo«indftMi. tl« cll^ csslitbKiiH^ » 
j|£$»Dgi^g^'tioti of beiMfts iil Gti8ibhi») tiMdt^A «<st}MtoM» 
^«asil didcjpllffe H^ it» aiKi^ttt Vigoiifr^ 4U[ld cM^eiMtl Wmfl^ 
f^rxi'hthtHM te tbefiiifh. A\ \it^ MtlW^iitf KMP !^l§ 81. 
ktaft^ wa^ dbti^ed t^ ^ «)g«tiii to Pi^r^^ fi^ih 'th^ 6aMMilil 
i!% Sa^^ to <^A«H»de a mint^ttg^ bilHiW^eii lbe^tM««4ir 
^fediiit^t ttird OhHsiftlft er WtAme^ AMdnd daug&i%¥^^ 
•l«iffy;iV. Tbtftfirin^Ms b^^w)f,:tbbs6>de«^'4;^4il^ 
^i^f ^ldiUfti<er$ btft M ^M>d«t>ce{it tbe phK^^ dtlly bR t#b 
tKMllJKtl0A« >, Wfe, thi% It "shi^td lidt^^^f^iide fab iMlfdifii^ 
1tt< iif s di0t«sie \ ttr^ c}«h«V| tbit wbejh^e^r fafe did i<]f6t%M«ute 
k6^ ^^^y ^ Ibofitd m\ ^tt\^ the ¥^tb<t^ ^l it ini«^ 

llfiilt«dial«ly^ IBS if by wtiy of invliMing blfi^ ^th^Ms^'dffie^^ 
bv^etited hiiii v»Tl:fr%tery ValtAble iMttnetfd^^tftig', ^^Ofi 
^bifdleim 'tr^t yd« Witt "ki^e^ ft {^ My f^Hetr ^ iff^ch 
•M6^ fib(^hsdi ^ I pttMl^ite fi> tfo sd, ttiaStitti, tiiil^lto *tbe>oor 
msihd fntie^d brit/* R^Htiiing to sAtnhe^yr be tHnidhuett 
m^Mi theidickv'i«iiMK0^e^th0»e it) Wfeiftt^ inBtrii^ttfaet>i^i^, 
mft^ (ttsirhitf^ alt'^tlle dMies of a pfous faiilhop, tiH i6^i», 
^l«i^ jte ^fed of Jift apbplexy iat Lyorts, December ^8^ 
ngfed'flfty^sik, liUViii^ sevefAl refigioti^ woi^fcs, ci^letted ih 
^.vx>ls. f6l. The most kttowtt Are, "The Inttodlittion to It 
devout Life;^' and '^ Pbilo/' or a tres^ise on the love of 
God. MarsoUier has written his life> 2 vols. 12|tio, wbick 

F 2 . 

68 y R A N C I & 

waft traimlated into English by Mr. Cratborne^ He wflf 
canonized in 1665.' 

;* FRANCIS I. king of France^ surpamed <* the Great, and 
ibe restorer of learning," succeeded his father-in-law 
,-L«|iiis XII. who died without a son in 1515. Francis I. waa 
tjs^ only: ^OH of Charles duke of Orleans, constable of 
-Angoidliiie, and born at Cognac, September 12, 1494. 
.liaoiediately after his coronation he took the .title of 
.duke pf Milaoi aiid. put hiipselfat the head of a ppwerA^l 
vmy to assert his right to t);iat duchy. Th^ Swiss, who 
'defend^, it, opposed. his,enterprize9 ftnd. attacked. )fkim 
jnear :]tfairignftn>i^; but. they were cut. to pieces in asap- 
: goinary. cptitest» and about 15,000 left dead on the fiel4* 
.The famous Trivulce, who. had been engaged in eighteeu 
•bfMttleft, called this << The. battle pf ,the, Giallts,*^ and dbie 
^others ^^.Children> play." It was on tlus occasion that {be 
Jung desired |o h^, knighted by the famous Bayard. That 
s^nk was originally the highest that could be aspired tp: 
pijioees of the blood were not called .monseigneur^jq^or 
their wjveii inadam^^ till they had been . kpighted ; por 
smt;^ ,«ny one cl^im that honour, unless he could tnuce 
his mobility at least three , generations back, both on bis 
^tl^fB^ and : ipotber's side, an4 alsp , bore an unblemished 
cjiMac^^r, e^pect^Uy for fpilit^ry courage and valour. Tiie 

' lareatipB , of a knight, was Attended, w^th . few ceren^onies^ 
>«tl^Gept af^ 8oaie fe^va^ in wbiph case a great number 

: tw^^ observed., , Thisinsti^utipo^ wi^ich may be traced np 

. 40 the firpt racei contributed.not a Jiittle ,tp polish the minds 
<d the Frepch, by restrail^og.fheip withjn the bounds of $i 
benevolent morality.. They swbrf tp, spare neither lifq or 

' ^h9^^fl^ ip defence qf religion, ixi ;^gi^ting against the .in^ 

. 4del|i, pngtecting the, widow, tbe^prphan,. ana all 
^ho' wene d^fcfi^f |slei|3» By )his , victory at Marignanat 
Frawis L became 9ia^ter of the Milanese, which was ceded 

,, to him by Maxiir;ilian Sfor^ wbp the^ retired into Frajtce. 
JPope Leo }L. aJL^rgied by tbfse ponquests,, held a OPn- 
^enpe with the. ki^.atBolffgna, .obtained from him the 
abelitipn of the Prftgp^aticSs^cUpp, and. settled the Coo^ 
cordate, which was confirmed tb^^ j^ar. following^ 
MieraQ counciL From that time the JMns;s of .France ap^ 

' .ppit^ted to ^11 consistoriaL beufBifices, apd ttje^pope repeived 

» Moferi.—Dlct. Hi«t.-^Botlfer. * ' - ' 

f R A N C I S. 69 

vne yesr'f inconie upon every change. The treaty of 
Noyofi wai concluded the same year betweecl' Charlea V* 
and Francis I. one principal article of which ivas the re*' 
ttoration of Navarre. Charles V. on the death of Maxi- 
miliitn 1. being elected emperor, 1519, in' opposition to 
.Francis, the jealousy which subsisted between those two' 
princes broke out immediately, and kindled a long war, 
which proved fatal to all Europe. The French, com* 
manded by Andrew de Foix, conquered Navari^ in ISStO^ 
and lost it again almost directly ; they drove the English 
and inf)periaTists fromPicardy; took Hesdin, Fontarabia, 
and several other places; but lost Milan and Tonrnay tiv 
1521. The following year, Odet de Foix, viscount of 
Lautrec, was defeated at the bloody battle of Bicoqne, 
which was followed by theloss of Cremona, Genoa, and a 

freat part of Italy. Nor did their misfortunes end here. 
*he constable of Bourbon, persecuted by the duchess of 
Angouleme, joined the emperor 1523, and, being ap* 
pointed commander of his forces in 1524, defeated admivai 
...Bonevet^s rear at the retreat of Rebec, and retook all the 
Milanese. He afterwards entered Provence with a power* 
ful army, but was obliged to raise the siege of Marseilles, 
\, and retired with loss. Francis I. however, went into Italy; 
retook Milan, and was going to besiege'Pavia ; belt, having 
Imprudently detached piart of his troops to send tbedi- to 
. iNapIesy he was defeated by the constable de Bourbto^ia 
;/^a bipody battle before Pavia; February 24, 102^5^ tifter 
'^JiBving two horses kilted under him, and disjtfaying plt>« 
/ digious valouK His greatness* of' niind never ttppeared 
more conspicuously than after this unfortunate engage-* 
l^.^^ment. In a letter to his mother he says, ** Every thing is 
!,iost but honour.*' He. was conducted ias a prisoner* to 
^i^^l^a^rfd, and returned the following year, after the treaty 
'^wj^ich was concluded in that citry, January 14^ tt^^ This 
' treaty, extprted by force, was not ftrlfitled; the emperor 
hadJnsisted on the duchy of Burgundy being ceded to 
\l^)m; but, when Lannoi went to demand it in bis master's 
. name, be was introduced to an audience given to the de« 
. puties of Burgundy, who declared to the king, that- he 
had iio power to give tfp any province of his kingdom. 
Upon this the War re-commenced immMiately. Francis 
]• senc^ forces into Italy, undfer the command of Lautrec, 
who rdk^ned ' Clefnent VII. and at first gained great ad* 
vant^es, but perished afterwajrds, with his army, by sick* 

W)* JTH A M € rSi 

]ies9. The kTngy wbc^ bad boien twi# ]r0«n ftMvMbufii^ 
coudoded the treaty of Cambray in 1529^ by wbieh h€ 
#ogaged to marry Eieanor of Aiwlri% tho cmfiefor^ii ftiHiir; 
and bis ivro sons^ vrho had been given -a9 b<>stage9^'^ w«ff9 
Bantomed at tbe kiivg^s return for two millions in gc^d^ 
Hie ambition of possessing Milaii, caused peace again td 
be brokea. Fraifieis took Savoy in )53 j, drove &e em* 
{>eror frook Provei|^6 in i&d^y entered into an alUance witll 
dolyman II. emperor of th^ Turks i took Hesdin^ and se-i 
▼erai other places^ in 1 5'i7| and made a truce of teti yters 
vith Cliairfes V. at Niee,- k53S, wbtob did not^ however* 
last long. The emperor, going fo punish the people of 
Ghenti wfa^ bad rebelled, obtained a pasisage tbnMg'i 
firanre, Vy promsing Francis the inveetitnre of tl^«biony 
ef Miil^ ^ whieb of his. children be pleased;^ bat} afte* 
being received fn^rsiiee with the highest bonou rain l^^ 
he was no sooner arrived in Fland€frs steiil be refuaed %<^ 
keep bis prcHnis^. This brol^e th^ tifiioe; tbe ^r 4vaa 
#^ttew^ed/and ei^rried on #itb val^i^rui^ streoCMtt ottboth lAdes*. 
The king's troops enlet^d |ta1y, lUMissilton^. ai|d> Lnsfefai*; 
bnrg. Ftahcis of ffourbob; cooi^ d'EngaianiMivon tim 
battle of Ceri2olfS itl iB4*y and took M^iitfernst. Frandit 
1. gained over lo bis side Barbar^ssa^ and GustayosYasa^ 
king of Sweden ; wbft^5 en the eibar band, Heniy VII l« 
of Englfind esp6ased the i^itenitats of Cbaples V. and io0k( 
Botogtia, 1544. ' A peace "vfasHEit last coqcluded vrithtfaeK 
•fripert^r at Cvessyy S^etobei^ 18,4 J44, and witb Henry 
Vlil. Jmie 7^ i 54^ ; bilt Flrsiieig did' not long enjoy th« 
tranqniliity wbkh tbis peiM prdcuir^ htf<i ^ be died at ibm 
Castle ' of RaenboiriHet the 4ast day of Mant^ IMI^ aged; 
fifty <(three. lliis prince pos$essed the nsoiit fining qaa^ 
littes 3 be was witty, mild, niagnammotis, *generoiiS| and 
t^enevoient Th^ revival of polite (literature in Euvoptf 
was cbieAy owing to bis care ; he patroaized the learner 
fonnded the roya^ college aft Farii^ fuviiisbed a library kl^ 
Ffrtintait)blean at a great expence, and bnilt several palaces^' 
^bicb he othanlented with piesnres, slatnes, and costly 
f«|rniture. When dyin^, be pa^ticulai^Iy requested his son 
to difniit^ tbe taxes which be had b^n <»bliged to levyi 
for d^raying the expences of the war ^' and pat it in bit 
power to do soj for be \eft 400^000 crowtiiB ^> gold in Ini 
coflbrs, with a quarter of. his rev^an^a whidi > was then 
due. It was this sovereign who ordf i^ alb puiUio acts /ts^ 
be written in Freoygb. Upon tbe wkoh )vb apjiears t9 


litMi tMtn ow of ^ greUfftt omioieRU of the Frewh 
ibicooe. * 

FRANCIS (Phij^ip), m EiiglUb clergyman, and the 
able tiiu)«lator of Horace aq4 I>eiD09tbene89 was of Iriah 
extr^ctioB, if iv9.t boro in that kingdom, where his father 
utas a digoilGLed clerapyaian, and, among other pre{ennent5| 
heU tba rectory of St. Mary, Dublin, frogi which be was 
<^ted by the court on account of his Tory principles* 
His son, our author, was else educated for the church, and 
.obtained a doctor's degree. His edition of '^ Horace'* 
snade bis name known in England about n^3; and raise4 
bim.a reputation as a classiciJ editor and translator, which 
aeo subsequent attempts have g^atly diminished. Dr. 
.Johnson* many years after other rivsla had ^rted, gave 
bim tbif praise : *^ The lyrical part of Horace never can 
be properly translated; so much, of the excellence is in 
.ibe sNimbers and the expression. Francis has done it the 
best : ril take his, 6ve out of six, i^inst them all'* 

Some tim^ after the publicatian of Horace, be appear^ 
t^bavecome o^er to Eoghmd, where, in 11 S3, he pub« 
lisjied a translation of part of the *^ Orations of Demor 
stbeaes^*' . intending to comprise the whple in two quarto 
.i(olumes. . It was a nutter of some importance at that time 
to risk a large work of.this.kind» and the author had the 
pirecftution therefore to secure a copious list of subscribers* 
Unfortunately, boivever, it bad to contend with the ac« 
knowledge merit of Leiand's translation, and, allpwing 
tiieir respective merits to bav^ been j^early equal, Leiand'a 
bad at least the priority in point of time, and upon com* 
parison, was preferred by the critics, as beintg more free 
and eloquent^ and less literaJiy' exact This, however, did 
not ^rise firom aiiy defect in oi^r author's skill, h^t was 
oierely an error, if an. error at aU| in judgment^ foe b^ 
<^oiiceived^ that. as. £ew . liberties as possible ought to bo 
takea> with the style of bis author, and that there was an 
essential ^lii&rence between a literal translation, which considered as faithful^ and an imitation^ in whiqb 
we can diever be cer^io that we h^ve the author's worcis or 
.precise meaning. , In J 7^5 he completed hi& purpose in a 
second volume,, wtiich was applauded as a difiScult work 
well,e;icecuted# anid accept;able to every friend of geniua 
and litexature; but its success was by i>o mecuiscoirrespoad-* 
«ttt to the wi^he&^oftbe author or of his friends. 

> Hist, of 'Fi-aQ(;g.->Itobertson> Hist. ofCkarfoa V. 


73 F R A N C I a 

The year before tbe first volume of his '^ Benioetbetiet?^ 
^ppe^red, he deteroiined to attempt the drama^ aud his first 
essay was a tragedy entitled " Eugenia." This is profe^ 
sedly an adaptation of the French ** Cenie** to Engiish 
feelings and habits^ but it had not much success on th^ 
stage. Lord Chesterfield^ in one of \n^ letters to hisSon, 
observes that hi did pot think it would have succeeded so 
yrell, considering how long our British audiences bad been 
accustomed to murder, racks, and poisqn in every tragedy; 
yet it affected the heart so much, that it triumpl^ed over 
habit aiid prejudice. In a subsequent letter, h^ says thai 
the boxes were crowded till the sixth night, wh^n the pit 
and gallery were totally deserted, and it was droppf^. 
pistres^ without death^ he repeats, ^as no( sufficient toi 
affect a truQ British audiencej so long accustomed to dag- 
gerS) racks, and bowls of poispn ^ contrary to Horace^ 
rule,* they desire to sea Medea murder her chjldren do the 
stage. The sentiments were tpo delicate to move tbem i 
and their hearts were to be taken by storm, not by parley. 
In 1754, Mr. Franci^ brought out another tragedy at Gqt 
vent-s:arden theatre, entitled f* Constantine, which wasf 
equ:illy unsuccessful, but appears to have suffet^ed princi* 
pally by the improper distribution of the part$ among the 
actors. This he alludes to, in the dedication to lord Ches- 
terfield, with whom he apjpears to have been acquainted^ 
and intimates at the same time Xhffi these di^ppointments 
bad induced him to take le^ve of tbe stage. ' 

During tbe political contests at the beginning of the 
present reign, he employed his pen in defence ot govern- 
inent^ and acquired the patronage of lord Holland,: wbo 
Ifewarded his services by the rectory of BarroWj^ in Suffolk,» 
and the chaplainship of Chelsea hospital. What were his 
publicationson political topics, as they were anonymous^ dnd 
iprobal)|y dispersed among the periodical jouv^ials, eanaot 
pow be ascertained. They drew upon him, however, tbe 
wrath qf Churchill, who in bis '^ Author-' has exhibited a 
portrait of Mr. Francis, probably overcbareed by spleen 
and*envy. Churchill, indeed, was so profuse of -his ca* 
lumny, tba^ be seldom gained credit,' and long before be 
died^ his assertions bad begun to lose their value, Hefis 
said to have intended to write a satirical poem, in wbidh 
Francis was to makip bis appearance as the Ordinary of 
Ne\vgate. The severity of this satire was better under- 
stood at^^t time^ w]i$q the ordtnaries qI^ Newgate wkr« 


ioAa in very Httle esteenii and schne of them w^re grossly 
ignorant a^d dissolute. Mr. Francis died at Bath, Mi^rch 
B, 1773', leaving a son> who in the same year was appointed 
one of the snureme council of Bengal, and is now sir 
^ilip Francis, K. B. 

. Of all the classical writers, " Hdrace** is by geneti(l 
'CM)nsent allowed to be the most difficult to translate, yc^ 
'SO tiiriversal has been the ambition to perform this task, 
that seaveeiy an English poet can be named in whose works 
'We do not find some part 6f Horace. These efforts, how- 
iiBv^Ti have not so frequently been directed to give thi 
^^ensd and local meaning of the author, as to transfuse hi$ 
iparire, and adapt it to modern persons and times. But of 
^^the^flew who have exhibited the whole of this interesting 
-^poet'in an English dress, Mr. Francis has been supposed 
to have succeeded best in that which is most difficult, th^ 
}yric part, and likewise to have conveyed the spirit and 
sense of the original in the episttes and satires, With least 
injofy to the genicis of the author. In his preface he ac- 
kirowledges his obligations to Dr. Dunkin, a poet of some 
cdebrity, and an excellent classical scholar.' 
' FRANCiUS (Peter), a Greek and Latin poet, of much 
teputation on the continent, was born at Amsterdam, Ai!kg« 
19, 1645. He receii^ed his early education under Adrian 
Junius, rector of the school* of Amsterdam^ who had the 
happy art of di^overing the predominant talents of his 
scholars, and of' directing them to the most advantageous 
^ theibod of cultfvjtting them.^ To young 'Firancius he re- 
commended Ovid as i model, and those who have read his 
oworks are of Opinibn 'that be mtist have •* given his days 
.^nd nights*' to the study of that (3elebrated poet. From 
'Amsterdam he went to Leyden, where he became a pupil 
-of GronoviUs the elder, who soon distinguished him from 
/ the rest of his scholars, and treated him as a frieild, which 
-ibark of esteem was alto extended to him by Grohovius the 
yian: 'After this course of scholastic studies, * he set out 
i'Off bis tmvets,^ visiting England and France, in which Ian, 
->at Angers, he took his degree of doctor of civil andcan^n 
:^law. While' atPtfris he acquii-ed the esteem' of many 
^ielBtrned mien, and when he proceeded afterwards 'to Italy, 
''improved his acquaintance with the literary men of that 
cotmtry, andwai'Vety respcfctfolly received by Cosmo III. 

74 F R A N C I US. 

ipmid dt^ of Tuscany. After hb r^nni to Ansterdttf* 
the magistrates, ia 1674, elected biixiprofiessor of rhetoric 
»iul history, and ia 1686 professor of Oreefc. In 16id3. the 
directora of the academy of Leyden oiade bim ao oifisr of 
one of their professorships, but the magistrates of Amsteo^ 
dam, fearing to lose so^ great aa ornament to their city, 
increased bis salary, that be might be mider no temfitatioa 
on that account to leave them* Be accordingly remained 
here until bis death, Aug. 19, 1704, when he was exactly 
fifty-nine years old. Fraucius particularly excelled in der 
ekimatton, in which bis first roaster, Junius, the ablest 
declaimer of his time, had insinicted him, and in which 
he took some lessons af terwarda from a famous tragic actor, 
Adam Caroli, who,, he used to say, was to bim what 
Roscins was to Cicera Hi& publications consist of, 1. 
^'Poemata,'' Amsterdam, 1682» l2mo; ibid* 1697, 8vo, 
These consist of verses in various, measures, which were 
highly esteemed, although some were of apinion that be 
succeeded better in the elegies and epigrams, and lighter 
pieces, than in the bercnc aitempu. The first of the edi« 
tioos above*memioned bos some traoslatmns from the 
^ Anthology*' omitted in the second, because the author 
had au intention of giving a complete tvau&tatioo of that 
celebrated collection, which, however, he never executed« 
Ia other respects, the aecond edition is more ample and 
correct. 2i ^^ Oratiooes,'' Amst. .1692, Evo, of which an 
enlarged edition appeared i» 1705, Eva. His emulaticm 
Qf the style of Cicero, is said to be very obvious, in thesA 
orations. Some of them bad been published separateiyi 
particularly a piece of bumoor entitled ^ £ncomijum GalU 
Galhnatici/* S. ** Specimen elo()ttenti8B extertorin ad orar 
tronciN M. T» Ciceronis pro A. Licin. Arcbia accommo- 
daium," Amst, 1697, l2mo. 4. ^* Specimen eloquentim 
exteripris ad orationeni Ciceronis pro. M. Idarcelio ajccom* 
modatum»" ibid. 1699, 12mo. These two last were reh 
printed in 1700, 8vo, with his ** Qratio de ratione dei;la^ 
mendi." 5. *< £|>istola prima ad C« V aleriimi Acciuctum, ; 
vero nomine Jacobnm Perisonium, professorem Leydeo.-. 
sem,"' &c. Ain«t. 1696, 4to. This relatea to a personal 
dispute between Francins and Perizooitts, pf very Lktie 
consequence to the public, and was answered by Perixo** 
nius. 6. ^^ The Homily of S. Gregcire of Nazian^en, 0i9 
charity to our neighbour/' translated from Greek into 

Gerawn, Anst. 1700, ftm. 7. *^ Ailiscouiie oa tim Ju- 

F R A I^ C I U S Vk 

\^bief Jm. ITOO;^ io GenDAD^ ibid. 1700^ 4to; i. <^ Poil# 
Imioa, qiubiis accedtnit iUustrium eruditorum i|d eiMH 
Epistolffi," ibicL 1706, Sva' 

FRANCK deFaancke^^u, (George), an eminent Ger« 
apui pbyfticiao, wan born ti Naumburg, io Upper Saxonj^ 
Ifay 3, 1643. His father, altboiigh living aa a simpW 
peasant^ was of a noble family. After going tbropgh his 
acbeol edncation, George went to Jena at tbeage of 
Oigbteeo, and waa crowned a poet by count paiatio# 
Riohter, in consequence of bis extraordinary talent for 
writing. verses in the German, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew 
languages. Bat be exhibited still greater talents dortng hia 
Qonrsse ot medical studies, and tbis. canons of Naomburg^ 
who recognized his merits, afforded bim liberal means of 
subsistence while be applied himself to this acienee* Be- 
fore be took his doctor's degree]) (in 16M)^ be was deemed 
'sdigible to give lectures in botany, chemistry, and ana-P 
tomy, and acquired great repntatipn. In 1672, the electov 
pafauine appointed him to the yacant professorship of m^ 
dicine at Heidelberg, and a few years afterwwrds nonsit 
lAted bim bis own physician. But the troubles occasioned 
. by the war obliged bim in 1688, to retire to Fsancfeft on tbo 
Main. John George III. elector of Saxony, then received 
bimintohisaervsce) and appointed bim profMsor of medicine 
^ Wittemberg j an office which he filled with so 'Unicli 
edaty tbat tb^ principal prolessonhip, and the title oC 
dean of the faculty at Leipsic^ weffesoon ofieved to bim, 
'Ebisi bowererybe vofosed, by the instigation of bisfriendsi 
who sosij^t to ^retain him at Witaemberg. The two mtc^ 
geeding electors likewise loaded this, physician with so 
many favours, that it waa supposed he could never dreaia 
of quitting Heidelberg. Nevertheless, be was induced by 
^be offers of Christian V. king of Denmark, to remove' id 
Copenbageo, where be was received most graciously by* 
tbe royal famiiy> and was honoured with »the title of Aulic 
cotinselkur, which was oontituied lo him by Frederick IV. 
the successor of Christian. Deaths hxMnrever, terminased 
bis brilliant career oi^ the I6tb of Jonev 1704^ in tbe six;* 
lie tb year of bis age. 

^ Araock was a quemfaer of several learned societies, and 
TVSJS ennobled bydu» emperor Leopold, in 1692, and in 
t^$ was created count palatine,, by the title of *^ Dq 

"fS F R AN C K. 

Fratickenau/' His principal works are, 1. ** Institutionimi 
Medicarum Synopsis," Heidelberg, 1672. 2. ** Lexicon 
Vegetabiiium iisualium," Argentorati, 1672. This wa» 
re-published several times. In the edition of Leipsic, 
16J?8, the title of M Flora Francica" was given to, it. ?• 
'^ Bona nova Anatomtca," Heidelberg, 1680. 4. "Parva 
Bibliotheca Zootomica," ibid. 1680. 5. *^ De calamniia 
in Medicos et Medicinam," ibid. 1 686. 6. " De Medicis 
Philologis," Witteberg«, 1691. 7. " De palingenesia, 
siveresuscitatione artificiali plantarum, bomioum, et ani-» 
n)aliun>, ^ suis * cineribus, liber singularis," Halie, 1717, 
edited 'by Nehring. 8. " Satyras Medicw XX.'* Leipsic, 
172^. These pieces, which had begun to appear in 1673, 
were published by his son, George Frederic Franck, who 
was-also a teacher of medicine at Wittemberg, and wrote 
several works on botany and physic' 

generally called Old Fkancks, was an artist of the six-r 
teentfa century. Very few circumstances relative to hiui' 
are handed down, although his works are as generally 
known in these kingdom^ as they are in the Netherlands; 
nor are the dates of his birth, death, or age, thoroughly 
ascertained ; fur Descampt supposes him to be born in 
1544, CO be admitted into the society of painters at Ant*' 
werp in 1561^ which was at seventeen years of age;, and 
fixe& his death in 1666, by which computation Francks 
must have been a hundred and twenty-two years old 
when he died, which appears utterly improbable ; though 
others fix his birth in 1544, and bis death in 1616, ag^d 
seventy-two, which seems to be nearest the truth. He 
painted historical subjects taken from the Old or New Tes- 
tament, and was remarkable for introducing a great ngm- 
ber of figures into his compositiotis, which he had Ihe skill 
to e:(prei»s very distinctly. He had a fruitful inventit^jn, 
and composed readily ; but he wanted grace and elegance 
in his figures, and was apt to crowd too many histories into 
one scene. His touch was free, and the colouring of his 
pi<itures generally transparent; yet a predominant brown 
or yellowish tinge appeared pver them, neither natural 
nor agreeable. But, in several of his best performances, 
the colouring is clear and lively, the design good, die 
figures tolerably correct, and the whole together very 

> Moreri.— Reet's Cyclopedia^ from ^oy.-vSftxii OaomuliciMu 

r R A N O K.' T7 

fileasing. At Wilton is his << Belsbaiczac's Feast/* a very 
corious compbsition. f« • 

Vandyck pftea comBsended the works of" this master^ 
and esteemed them worthy of a place in uny coUecttoiu 
Many of them are frequently seen at public sales, which 
render him well known, though several are also to be me^ 
with in those places, which are unjustly ascribed to Fiuncks, 
and are really unworthy of him. ^ • 

FIIANCK, commonly called Youhg Frances, the sou 
of the preceding, and of both hisnames^ was born in 159Q, 
and instructed in the art pf-painting by his fatber, vhos^ 
style and manner be imitated in a large and small sise; 
but when he found himself sufficiently skilLed to be capable 
of ' improvement by travel, he went to Venice, and there 
perfected his knowledge of ookmring, by studying and 
copying the works of those artists whp were most imminent. 
But it seems extraordinary that a painter so 'capable of 
great things in his profession, should devote his pencil to 
the representation of carnivals and other subjects of tfatM: 
kind, preferably to historical subjects of a much higher 
rank, which might have procured for him abundiuitly moiie 
honour. At. his return, however, to Flanders, bis* works 
were greatly admired and coveted, being superior to tfao$e 
<^ his fatber in many respects ; his colouring was more 
ptear,. his pencil more delicate, his designs had somewhat 
iriore of elegance, and his expression was much . better^ 
The taste of composition was the same in both, and they 
/seemed to have the same ideas, and the same defects, 
pnrltipiying too many historical incidents into one subject, 
^nd representing a series of actions, rather than one prin- 
cfipal action or event. The subjects of both painters were 
usually taken from the Old and New Testament, and. also 
fhom the Roman history (except the subjects, of young 
Francks while he continued in Italy) 3 and it might have 
been wished that each of them had observed more order 
and propriety in the disposition of their subjects. 

He had a great particularity in touching the white of 

the eyes of his figures, which appears as if a smalt lump 

' of unbrciken white was touched on, with the point of a fine 

gencilj and it gives the figures a great de^l of spirit, 
ven that particularity, well attended to, may be a means 

1 Pilk]BStOB.«»Dtft«ilipf.«— D'Argeavilte, rul III.— lUyoolds'i ^'orki, toL 
II. p. .S86. 

* .all 

n » A A N It; 

df determining the buid ^ this oMister. tt etigbt t6 44 
observed, th^from the similarity of tMtme^ laste^ *^^f 
and cotomring. df the Old and YoMg; FtaMcks^ 4kiAt warks 
are often misiaketi imd mfseall^dy and 'the woift t)f th« ^aftft 
fiarchased for th« work of the other. Th^ tnbst cttj^tai 
l^erfonnante of this {>riMer, is a sciSptMal MbJ<d<^t in ilit 
church of Notre DattKs at Antlretp ; und an ^MdUent pk^ 
tore, in the small size, is *< 8olortion*s IMhJttj,*^ in whicA 
that king is represetited as kneeling beitore an akar, on 
iwbich is phMed the statue of Jupiter. Tbei^4i b nbble 
expression in the figare of Solomon, aad tbe^Mfi^i^^^ 
the figure is bmad and flowing; the altair is e^^eed'mgtj^ 
enriched with fine bas'^r^ief in the kaliavi style, Ittid ^ift 
^xtpiisitdy finisbed ; Cbe penciling is msa^ the cototfring 
-dear and tuansparant, and the whole pietore appean^tlv 
bave been painted on (eaf gold. Yonng FhAiefc* tfied \h 

^ tHANGKE (Av€m¥t7d Hbri^it^), a I%a4»ne4 Md piti^ 
German divine, and a great benefa^tdV t6 Ms ceifntfy^ 
was bom at Lnbetk, Mareh 12, O. S. I66k. fU^ father^ 
John Frarfeke, ^wa^then one of the magi^tmtes tit Lnbe^k, 
and after wevds entered into the iiervice ef Erne^^ the^ Pioii»i 
dttke of Sa)te G^tha, as connsdior of the otrati MA *tX 
^tkre. His mother, Aime <31oxln, waa the dlitnglyfer ^ 
4me of the oldest bnygomasters of Ltibeek. Yeul)|(1rrfMeke 
liad the misfortune to lose his ftklhef in I6T0) when be 4«W 
between six and ieven years old, and at tbi^earty i^ feta4 
ahown such a pious disposition, that he vWa Intended ^ 
^e church, and with thi& view his mother {rf^ced hkiti 
under the instructions of a private tutor. His proficleirty 
in classical studies was sucb^ that at tlie ag6 of fourteei^ 
be was considered as well qualified to go tothe univereity. 
It was not, however, until I6'7d, that he Wentto^httt 6f 
Erfurt, and from thence to Kiel^ where he studied sottie 
years under Korthott and Morboff. In 1 682, he fetdt'hed 
to Gotha, and visited Hamburgh in bis way, where he f^ 
mained two months to improve bis knowledge of the He- 
brew language, under Esdras Ed^atdL In trs^ h^ 
went to Leipsic, andtodc his degree of M. A. in' the 
following year. During his stay here, he fermed a so*- 
«ie^ for literary conversation among hi^ friends, Whix;li. 

At^broM MidJtroiBe, blltof1»fBriornoti^ 

irftANCKK f9 

kmg substfled utideT the name of << CoUegjIam PbHobibii). 
enn^^* their fayoutite topic being tbe study of the Holjr 
8erq>tiiipe8. Some time afield be went to Wittemberg, 
wbei^ he was necetyed wkb great respect by tbe literati 
«l ibat uniyaraityy and fcbei»ce to Lmieburg, where bet 
eifteoded the di¥imty lectures of the celebratd Sandfaagew. 
Froai Lonebodtg be returned to Leipsic, and gave a coorte of 
iN^tures on tbe holy scriptures, pmctical as well as critical^ 
which were frequented by above three trancked students. 
This success, with a molre-tbaaeommM earnestness and 
aeriottsuess in his method and address, occasioned some 
jealousy, and created him enemies likewise at Erfurt^ 
whither, in 1690, be was inyiled to become pastor of St. 
Anstin. Tbe objection to him was that of pietism^ and ft 
^ncMased with bo much violence, that in 1691 he was de- 
prived of liis charge, and Ordered to quit tbe city witliiti 
two days. How little he deserved this treatment, had al^ 
ready appeared in some ef his writings, and was more ma* 
IHfcst after#ards in bis conduct and serrtcei. 

Hie eotirt of Ootba, uninfluenced by these clamoun^ 
a&d eonvieced of bis innocence and worth, lost no timtt 
in eiffisring a suitable employment jfbr his talents. He waa 
abcmt tbe same time oflSsred a professorship in the college 
^ Guboui^, and another at Weimar, but he preferred tbe 
iiifers inade to -him by tbe elec^r of Brandenbburg, (aftei> 
Wax^ Frederifc I. of Prassla)^ tbe veVy day that he was ora» 
dier^d to t0it Erfurt. The uuiversity of Halle, in SaKony^ 
imd been just founded, and Mr. Fraocke was in I69i %p« 
peiated professor of the Greek and orienttil languages, and 
bastor of Claueha, a suburb of Halle* In 1698 be resigned 
kis professorship of the languages for that of divinity, but 
aUbough be bad a principal hand . iu establishing the new 
^iyei^ity, whieh soon became pre-eminent among the 
seminaries of Germany, ht acquired greater &me as the 
founder of the celebrated school, hospital, or rather ooU 
lege^ for the poor at Glaucba. l^e wh<ile history of 
education does tiol produce an induce more temarkable 
tii dt& origin and progress than this singular foundation, by 
tbe labour, industry, and persevei:ance, of professor 
Franeke. • 

There was a very ancient custom in the ci^ and neighbour-^ 
hood of Halle, ior such persons as give relief to the poor, 
t9^ appoint a particular day on which they wefe to com6 to 
their doors to receive it. When professQr Frsjoipke dame to 

.W F R A N C K E. 

be settled at Glaucha, he readily adopted tU^ practke^ 
and fixed on Thursday as bis day. But, as. bis profes* 
sion led him, be endeavoured to confer, with th^ poor 
on the subject of religion, in, which be found tb^iQ mi* 
.serably deficient, and incapable of giving their children 
any religious instruction whatever. His nrst- contrivance 
-to supply their temporal wants, was .by supplicating the 
charity of well-disposed students ; but finding . that mode 
inconvenient, be contented himself with fixing up ^ box 
in his parlour, with one or two suital^le texts oS^ scrip-* 
ture over it. In 1695, when this box bad been s^ uff 
about a quarter of a year, he found in it the donation oi M 
single person amounting to lSs.6d. English, which he imniii^ 
diately determined should be the foundation of ^a charity* 
school. Unpromising as such a scheme might 9tp{itear,, be 
began the same day by purchasing eight-shillings-^tyor^h of 
school-books, and then engaged a student to teach the poof 
c)iildren two hours each day. He met at first with the 
common fate of such beneyolent attempts 9 most of the 
children making away with the bopks entrusted to them, 
and deserting the school ^ for tbisj however, the. remedy 
was easy, in obligiiig the children to leave them hehind 
them ; but still his pious endeavours were in a great o^jea* 
sure frustrated by the impressions made on. their .minds in 
school being effaced by their connections abroad. Ta 
remedy this greater evil, he resolved to single out some of 
the children, and to undertake their mainteni^nce,. as welj 
as jf instruction. Such of the children, accordingly, a| 
seemed most promising, he put out to persons of known iu« 
'tegrity and piety to-^e-educated by them, as he had as yet 
no house to receive them. ,The report of so excellent 4 
design, induced a person of quality to contribute the sun»^ 
of 1000 crowns, and another; 400, which served to p^r^ 
chase a house into which twelv.e orphans^ the whole nxioi-* 
ber he had selected, were removed, s^nd a student of di* 
vinity appointed master and teacher. This took place iii 
1696. The number of children, however, which demanded 
bis equal sympathy, increasing, he conceived the .project 
of building an hospital, such ai^ naight contain about two 
hundred people, and this at a time, he informs us, whe^ 
be had not so much in hand as would answer the cost of a 
small cottage, and when his project was conse^ently 
looked upon as visionary and absurd. His reliais^eon 
Providence, however, \Vas so firm, that haying procured a 

F R A N C K E. ,81 

pi«ee 6f groa'nd, he ]aid the foundation stone on July 5, 
1698, and within the space of a year the workmen were 
ready to cover it with the roof. During this time as well 
as the time it subsequently required to complete it, the 
exjp^nces were defrayed from casual donations. He never 
app^Ts to have had any kind of annual subscription, or 
other help on which the least dependence could be placed ; 
he sometimes knew the names of his benefactors, but 
mdre generally they were totally unknown to him, and 
yetiOne succeeded another at short intervals, and often 
when he was reduced to the utmost distress. By such un* 
foreseen and unexpected supplies, an establishment was 
formed, in which, in 1727, 2196 children were provided 
for,' under 130 teachers. The whole progress oi' this great 
work, as related by professor Francke,.is beyond measure 
astonishing and unprecedented ; for he had applied none 
of- the methods which have since been found useful in the 
foilhdation of similar establishments, and appears to have 
had nothing to support his zeal, but the strongest confi- 
dence in the goodness of Providence; and although the 
assistance he received was great in the aggregate, it not 
unfrequently happened that his mornings were passed in 
anxious fears lest the subjects of his care might want bread 
in the day. These supplies consisted principally in money, 
but many to whom' that mode of contribution wa^ incon- 
venient, sent in provisions, clothing, and utensils of va- 
rious sorts, and a very considerable number sold trinkets 
of iBtU kinds, lace, jewels, plate, &c. for the benefit of an 
hospital, the good effects of which were now strikingly 
visible, as its progress advanced. Some very considerable 
contributions came even from England^ in consequence of 
a short account of the hospital having. been sent over and 
published there in 1705. Dr. White Kenne^tj in parti- 
cubir, noticed it with high commendation, from the pulpi^ 
and added that ^' nothing in the world seemed to him more 
providential, or rather more miraculous.** In the follow-^ 
ingyear, 1706, it had grown up, not only into an hos- 
pital for orphans, and a refuge for many other distressed 
objects, but into a kind of university, in which all the 
langiiages and sciences were taught, and a printing«house 
established on a liberal plan, an infirmary, i^c. 
' The establishment of this great undertaking fills up 
many years of professor Ffancke's history. The reipaining 
Vol. XV. G 

M F R A N C K K. 

events of his life are but few. He associated with himself 
John Anastasius Freylitighausen, in his charge as pastor, 
and had him and other men of character and talents as as- 
sistants in his school. The variety of his Employments^ 
however, injured his healthy although he derived occa-^ 
sional benefit from travelling. One instance of his pious 
zeal is thus recorded : The duke Maurice, of Saxe-Zeitz^ 
had embraced the Roman catholic religion, and professor 
Praucke, at the request of the duchess, went to his court, 
in 1718, and in several conferences so completely satisfied 
his mind, as to induce him to make a public profession of 
his return to the Protestant church. Francke^s death was 
occasioned by profuse sweats, which were checked by de* 
grees, but followed by a retention of urine, and a para^- 
lytic attack, which proved fatal June 8, 1727. Amidst 
much weakness and pain, he lectured as late as the 1 5tb 
of May preceding. It would be difficult to name a man 
more generally regretted. Halle, Elbing, Jena, Deux- 
Fonts, Augsbourgh, Tubingen, even Erfurt, where he 
Was so shamefully persecuted, Leipsic, Dresden, Wittem* 
berg, &c. all united in expressing their sense of his worthy 
by eulogiums written by the most eminent professors of 
these schools. By his wife, Anne Magdalene, the daughter 
of Otho Henry de Worm, a person of distinction, he left 
Gotthelf Augustus Francke, professor of divinity and 
pastor of the church of Notre-Dame, and adaughter who was 
married to M. Freylinghausen. In his learning, talents, 
eloquence, and piety, all his contemporaries seem agreed. 
As a public beneiactor he has had few equals^ 

The history of his celebrated Orphan house has been 
long known in this^^ountry, in a translation 'by Dr. Josiab 
Woodward, under the title of *^ Pietas Hallensis,*' Lond. 
1707, 12mo, often reprinted^ w4tb some of his devotional 
tracts. These last were generally published by professor 
Francke in German. His Latin works are» 1. ^^ Menu- 
ductio ad lectionem Scripturae Sacrss,'' Halle^ 169^3. Of 
this an improved translation by William Jaques, was pub* 
lished in 1813, 8vo. 2. *^ Observationes BibiicoB men-» 
stru» in Versionem Germanicam Bibliorum Lutheri,** 
Halle, 1695, 12mo. 3. " De Emphasibus Sac. Script:'* 
ibid. 1698, 4t6. 4. « Idea studii TheologiflB,'* ibid. 1712^ 
12mo. 5. " Prselectiones Hermeneuticse," ibid. 1712,^ 
8vo. 6. " Monita Pastoralia Theologica," ibid. 1717^ 
12mo. 7. << Methodus studii Tbeologici/' ibid. 1723y 

F R A N C K E. IS 

6vo. S. ** Introductio ad lectionem Prophetarutn,** ibid* 
1724, dvo. * 9. *^ Commentatio de scopo (ibiforum veterii 
et noTi Testamenti/' ibid. 8vo.* 

FRANCKLIN (Thomas), D. D. chaplain in ordinary to 
his majesty, born 1721, was the son of Richard Francklio^ 
well known as the printer of an anti-ministerial paper called 
** The Craftsman,'* in the conduct of which he received 
great assistance from lord Bolingbroke, Mr. Pulteney^ and 
other excellent writers, who then opposed sir Robert WaU 
pole's measures. By the advice of the second of these 
gentlemen, young Francklin was devoted to the church, 
with a promise of being provided for by Mr. Pulteney, 
who afterwards forgot his undertaking. Yet his father h^d 
a claim, from his sufferings at least, to all that these 
patriots could do for him. While engaged in their ser- 
vice, he was prosecuted by the crown several times, and 
bad been confined several years in the King's-bench prison 
for a letter written from the Hague, and printed by him at 
their desire. It is true, indeed, that several noblemen 
and gentlemen subscribed a sum of 50/. each to Francklin, 
as a compensation for his losses, but it is as true that n6 
more than three of them paid their money, of whom Mr. 
Pulteney was one. 

Young Franicklin, however, was educated at Westmin- 
ster school, where he was admitted a scholar in 1735, and 
whence in 1739 he was elected to Trinity-college, Cam- 
bridge, of which he became a fellow. He was afterwards 
for sonie time an usher at Westminster-school, aqd first 
appeared as an author, in a translation of ** Phalaris's 
Epistles," 1749, 8vo, and of " Cicero on the Nature of 
the Gods." 'About the same time he is said to have pub- 
lished ** An Inquiry into the Astronomy and Anatomy of 
the Ancients," which was reprinted in 1775, 8vo. la, 
June 1750, he was chosen Greek professor of Cambridge, 
in opposition of Mr. Barford, of King's-college, and i^ 
the same year became involved in a dispute with the 
university on the following occasion. On the 17th of No- 
vember, he with a niimber of gentlemen educated at 
Westminster school, having met at a tavern, according to 
custom, to celebrate queen Elizabeth's anniversary, they 

* Bibl. Qermanique, rol. XVIII.— Niceron, vol. XIV. •-« Mor«ri.--^etil8 

Q 2 


were Intemipted by the senior proctor, who came into the 
company after 1 1 o'clock at night, and ordered them to 
depart, it being an irregular hour. For disobeying this 
order, some of them were reprimanded by the Tice>chan- 
cellor, and others fined. Francklin, who was one of the 
party, had his share in the business, and is supposed to 
have written a pamphlet entitled ^^ An Authentic Narrativ^e 
of the late extraordinary proceedings at Cambridge, against 
the Westminster Club,^* Lond. 1751, 8vo, denying the charge 
of irregularity, and laying the blame on the proctor. 
This dispute engaged the attentioii of the university for 
some time^ as those who plead for the relazatiou of dis* 
cipline will never be without abettors. 

In 1753, he published a poem called ^< Translation,*' in 
which be announced his intention of giving a translatiou of 
'< Sophocles.'' In January 1757, on the periodical paper 
called *^ The World" being 6nished, he engaged to pub« 
lish a similar one, under the title of *^ The Centinel,'* but 
after extending it to twenty-seven numbers, he was obliged 
to drop it for want of encouragement. The next year he 
published *^ A Fast Sermon" preached at Queen^street 
phapel, of which he was minister, and at St. Paul's Co* 
vent-garden, of which he was lecturer ; .and he afterwards 
published a few sermons on occasional topics, or for cha- 
rities. In 1759 appeared his translation of ** Sophocles," 
2 vols. 4to, which was allowed to be a bold and happy trans* 
fusion into the English language of the terrible simplicity 
of the Greek tragedian. »This was followed by a " Dis- 
sertation on ancient Tragedy," in which he mentioned 
Arthur Murphy by name, and in terms not the roost courtly. 
Murphy, a man equally, or perhaps more irritable, replied 
in a poetical ** Epistle addressed to Dr. Johnson," who 
calmly permitted the combatants to settle their disputes in 
their own way, which, we are told, amounted to a cessa- 
tion of hostilities, if not to an honourable peace. At this 
time Francklin is said to have been a writer in the Critical 
Keview, which indeed is acknowledged in an article in that 
review, and might perhaps be deduced from internal evi- 
dence'', as, besides his intimacy with Smollet, his works 
are uniformly mentioned with very high praise. In 1757 
he had been preferred by Trinity-college to the livings of 
Ware and Thuodrich, in Hertfordshire, and although his 
mind was more intent on the stage than the pulpit, he 


published in 1765 a volume of ** Sermons on the relative 
duties/* which was well received by the publick. Next' 
year he produced at Drury-iane theatre, the tragedy of 
•< The Earl of Warwick," taken, without any acknowledge- 
ment, from the French of La Harpe. In Nov! 1767, he 
was enrolled in the list of his majesty^s chaplains. In 
1768 he published a piece of humour, without his name, 
entitled " A Letter to a Bishop concerning Lectureships,'* 
exposing the paltry shifts of the candidates for this office, 
at their elections ; and next year he wrote " An Ode on 
the Institution of the Royal Academy." In March of the 
same year, he translated Voltaire's " Orestes" for the 
stage. In July 1770 he took the degree of D. D. but still* 
debased his character by producing dramatic pieces of no 
great fame, and chiefly translations;* ^* Electra," ** Ma- 
tilda," and "The Contract,*' a farce. About l776' be 
was presented to the living of Brasted, in Surrey, which 
he held until his death. He had for some years employed 
himself on his excellent translation of the works of ^ " Lu* 
cian," which he published in 1780, in 2 vols. 4to. He 
was also concerned with Smollet, in a translation of VoU' 
taire's works, but, it is said, contributed little more than' 
his name to the title-pages. There is a tragedy of his still 
in MSi entitled " Mary Queen of Scots." Dr. Francklia 
died at his house in Great Queen-street, March 15, 1784. 
He was unquestionably a man of learning and abilities, 
but from peculiarities of temper, and literary jealousy, 
seems not to have been much esteemed by his contempo- 
raries. After his death 3 volumes of his " Sermons'* were 
published for the benefit of his widow and family. Mrs. 
Francklin died in May 1796. She was the daughter of 
Mr. Venables, a wine-merchant.* 

FRANCO, or FRANCHI (Nicolas), an Italian poet of 
the infamous class which disgraced the sixteenth qentury,' 
was born at Beneventb, in 1510, and under his father, 
who was a schoolmaster, acquired a knowledge of the 
learned languages. In his youth he became acquainted 
with Peter Aretino, and from being his assistant in his va» 
rious works, became his rival, and whilst he at least equalled 
him in virulence and licentiousness, greatly surpassed him 
m learning and abilities. His first attempt at rivalship 

* ' * ' » 

1 Biog. Dram, origiaally written by Mr. Isaac Becd^ for the European Ma* 



was his << Pistole Vulgari/' in 1539. A fierce war was 
commenced between them, and sustained on each side 
with the greatest rancour and malignity. Franco left 
Venice, and took up his abode at Montserrat, where he 
published a dialogue, entitled ^' Delle Belleze ;'^ and a 
collection of sonnets against Aretino with a ^^ Priapeia Ita* 
liana," which contained the grossest obscenity, the most 
unqualified abuse, and the boldest* satire against princes, 
popes, the fathers of the council of Trent, and other emi- 
nent persons. Yet all this did not injure bis literary repu- 
tation ; be was a principal member of the academy of Ar- 
gonauti at Montserrat, and in this capacity wrote his 
'* Rime Maritime," printed at Mantua in 1549. At Mantua 
he followed the profession of a schoolmaster; thence he 
removed to Rome, where he published commentaries on 
the " Priapeia,'' attributed to Virgil, the copies of which 
were suppressed and burned by order of pope Paul IV. 
Under Pius IV. he continued to indulge his virulence, and 
found a protector in cardinal Morone. ilis imprudence, 
however, in writing a Latin epigram against Pius V. with 
other defamatory libels, brought upon him the punishment 
which he amply deserved. He was taken from his study 
in. his furred robe, and hanged on the common gallows* 
without trial or ceremony. He was author of several other 
works besides those already enumerated, and be left be- 
hind him in MS. a translation of Homer's Iliad.^ 

FRANCOIS (Laurence), a French abbe and very use- 
fiil writer, was born at Arinthod, in Francbe-comt^, Nov, 
2f 1698, and for some time belonged to the chevaliers of 
St. Lazarus, but quitting that society, came to Paris and 
engaged in teaching. He afterwards wrote several works, 
in a style perhaps not very elegant, but which were ad* 
spired either for their intrinsic usefulness, or as antidotes 
to the pernicious doctrines of the French philosophers and 
deists, who, conscious of his superiority in argument, af« 
fected to regard him as a man of weak understanding, and 
a bigot ; reproaches that are generally thrown upon the 
advocates of revealed religion in other countries as well as 
in France. The abb£ Francois, however, appears from his 
works to have been a man of learning, and an able dis- 
putant. H6 died at Paris, far advanced in years, Feb. 
24*1 17S2, escaping the miseries which those against whom 

> Tirabotchi.->^Ro800f *» Iieo«-^Hoitvi. 


he wrote, were about to bring on their country. His prin* 
cipal works are, I. *^ Geograpbie/' 12mo» an excellent 
manual on that subject, often reprinted, and known by 
the name of ** Crozat,'' the lady to whom he dedicated it, 
and for whose use be first composed it 2. ** Preuves de 
la religion de Jesus Christ," 4 vols. 12mo. ^ 3. " Defense 
de la Religion," 4 vols. 12mo. 4. ** Examen du Cate- 
chisme de I'honn^te homme," 12nio. 5. " £xameu des 
faits qui servent de fondement a la religion Chretienne," 
1767, 3 vols. 12mo. 6. "Observation sur la philosophic 
de Thistoire," 8vo. He left also some manuscripts, in re- 
futation of the " Philosopliical Dictionary," the " System 
of Nature," and other works which emanated from the 
philosophists of France." 


. FRANCUCCI (Innocent), an historical painter, born 
at Imola, and known by the name of Innocenzio da Imola, 
became a disciple of Francesco Francia, in 1506 ; then 
passed some time with Albertinelli at Florence ; and from 
the evidence of his works, and the testimony of Vasari, 
studied much after Fra. Bartolomeo and Andrea del Sarto :. 
for though the main disposition of his a]tar-pieces be still 
gothic, he no longer used the.ancient gilding; he placed 
the Virgin on high in the centre, and surrounded her with 
saints and angels, architecture, and back grounds skilfully 
grouped and arranged with novelty and taste. Such is his 
style in the surprizing picture of the Duomo at Faqnza, 
and in another at P^aro. The aerial perspective and back 
ground Remind us of Leonardo da Vijici. He sometimes 
placed smaller pictures under his altar-pieces, like that j^t 
St. Giacomo of Bologna, which breathes the very spirit pf 
Raphael ; that spirit he seems indeed to have aimed at in 
the greater part of his works, and to have approached it 
nearer than most of Raphael's own scholars. He excelled 
Francia and his fellow-scholar Bagnacavallo in erudition, 
majesty, and correctness. Subjects of novel coqpibination 
and fiery fancy he has not produced ; nor seem they to 
have been congenial with that mildness and tranquillity of 
character which history ascribes to him. He was fifty-six 
years old at the time of his death, but that is not known.* 

FRANKLAND (Thomas), an English physician and 
historian of singular character, was born in Lancashire ia 
1653, and was entered a student in Brasenose-college, 

A Diet. HiW. 9 Fuseli, in Pilkington. 

88 F R A N K L A N D. 


Oxford, in 1649. He took a degree in arts, and obtained 
a fellowship in 1654. Afterwards studying divinity, he 
became a preacher according to the form of ordination 
during the usurpation. In 1662 he served the office of 
proctor, and the year after, having taken orders regularly, 
he was, but with much difficulty, admitted tq the reading 
of the sentences. He afterwards studied physic, and settled 
in London, where he imposed upon the public for some 
time, by pretending to have taken his doctor's degree in 
that faculty, and at length offering himself as a candidate 
for fellow of the college of physicians, he produced a 
forged diploma, was admitted fellow, and afterwards was 
censor. His ungracious manners, however, procuring him 
enemies, an inquiry was made at Oxford in 1677, which 
discovered the fraud, and although by the connivance of 
some of the college of physicians, he remained among 
them, yet his credit and practice fell off, and being re* 
duced in circumstances, he was imprisoned in the Fleet, 
where he died in 1690, and was interred in St. Vedast's 
churchy Foster-lane. He wrote, " The Annals of King 
James and King Charles L containing a faithful history 
and impartial account of the great affairs of state, and 
transactions of parliament mu England, from the tenth of 
king James, 1612, to the eighteenth of king Charles, 1642. 
Wherein several passages relating to the late civil wars 
(omitted in former histories) are made known,'' Lond. 
1681, fol. He was supposed also to be the author of a 
folio pamphlet, Lond. 1679, entitled <^ The honours of 
th^ Lords Spiritual asserted, and their privileges to vote 
in capital cases in parliament maintained by reason ^and 
precedents ;'^ but Wood does not give this as ceruin. Dr. 
Frankland was esteemed a good scholar while.^ at Oxford, 
but in the subsequent part of his character appears de- 
serving of little esteem.' 

FRANKLIN (Benjamin), the celebrated American 
philosopher^ was sprung, as he himself informs us, from a 
family settled for a long course of years in the village of 
Ecton, in Northamptonshire, where they had augmented 
their income, arising from a small patrimony of thirty acres, 
by adding to it the profits of a blacksmith's busihess. His 
father, Josias, having been converted by some noncon* 
formist ministers, left England for Americaj in 1682, m^ 

> Ath. Ox. ToL IT. 


settled at Boston,- as a soap-boiler and tallow-chandler. 
At this place, in 1706, Benjamin, the youngest of his 
sons, was born. It appeared at first to be his destiny to 
become a tallow-chandler, like his father ; but, as he ma- 
nifested a particular dislike to that occupation, different 
plans were thought of, which ended in bis becoming a 
printer, in 1718, under one of his brothers, who was settled 
at Boston, and in 1721 began to print a newspaper. This 
was a business much more to his taste, and he soon shewed 
a talent for reading, and occasionally wrote verses which 
were printed in his brother* s newspaper, altliough unknown 
to the latter. He wrote also in the same some prose es- 
says, and had the sagacity to cultivate his style after the 
model of the Spectator. With his brother he eontmued 
as an apprentice, until their frequent disagreements, and 
the harsh treatment he experienced, induced him to leave 
Boston privately, and take a conveyance by sea to New 
York. This happened in 1723. From New York he im- 
mediately proceeded, in quest of employment, to Phila- 
delphia, not without some distressing adventures. His 
own description ' of his first entrance into that city, where 
he was afterwards in so high a situation, is too curious to 
be omitted. 

" On my arrival at Philadelphia, I was in my working 
dress, my best clothes being to come by sea. I was co- 
vered with dirt ; my pockets were filled with shirts and 
stockings; I wag unacquainted with a single soul in the 
place, and knew not where to seek for a lodging. Fa- 
tigued i^ith walking, rowihg, and having passed the night 
without sleep, I was extremely hungry, and all my money 
consisted of a Dutch dollar, and about a shilling^s-worfh 
of coppers, which I gave to the boatmen for my passage. 
As I had assisted them in rowing, they refused it at first, 
but I insisted on their taking it. ' A man is sometimes more 
generous when he has little, than when he has much 
money ; probably because in the first case he is desirous of 
concealing his poverty. 

** I walked towards the top of the street, looking eagerly 
on both sides, till I came to Market-street, where Imet a 
child with a loaf of bread. Often had I made my dinner 
on dry bread. I enquired where he bought it, and went 
straight to the baker's shop which he pointed out to me. I 
asked for some biscuits, expecting to find such as we had 
at Boston ; but they made, it seems, none of that sort at 


Philadelphia. I then asked foe a three-penny loaf. They 
made no loaves of that price. Finding myself ignorant of 
the prices as well as of the. different kinds of bread, I de- 
aired him to let me have three-pennyworth of bread of 
some kind or other. He gave me three large rolls. I was 
surprised at receiving so much : I took them, however, and 
having no room in my pockets, I walked on with a roll 
under each arm, eating the third. In this manner I went 
through Market-street to Fourth-street, and passed the 
bouse of Mr. Read, the father of my future wife. She 
was standing at the door, observed me, and thought, with 
reason, that I made a very singular and grotesque ap- 

Notwithstanding this unpromising commencement^ 
Franklin soon met with employment in his business, 
working under one Keimer, a very indifferent printer, 
though at that time almost the only one in Philadelphia. 
In 1724, encouraged by the specious promises of sir Wil- 
liam Keith, governor of the province, Franklin sailed for 
England, with a view of purchasing materials for setting 
up a press ; though his father, to whom he bad applied, 
prudently declineti encouraging the plan, on account of 
his extreme youth, as he was then only eighteen. On his 
arrival in England, he had the mortification to find that the 
governor, who had pretended to give him letters of re- 
Qommendation, and of credit for the sum required for his 
purchases, had only deceived him ; and he was obliged to 
^ork at his trade in London for a maintenance. The most 
exemplary industry, frugalitjiV and temperance, with great 
quickness and skill in his business, both as a pressman 
and as a compositor, made this rather a lucrative situa- 
tion. He reformed the workmen in the Jiouses where he 
was employed, which were, first Mr. Palmer's, and after- 
wards Mr. Watts's, in Wild-street, Lincoln's-inn-fields, 
by whom he was treated with a kindness which he always 
remembered. Desirous, however, of returning to Phila- 
delphia, he engaged himself as book-keeper to a mer- 
chant, at fifty pounds a year ; " which,** says he, " was 
less than I earned as a compositor." He left England 
July 23, 1726, and reached Philadelphia early in October. 
In 1727, Mr. Denbam the merchant died, and Franklin 
returned to his occupation as a printer, under Keimer^ 
bis first master, with a handsome salary. But it was not 
long {before he set up for himself in the same business, in 


concert with one Meredith, a young man who^e father was 
opulent, and supplied the money required. 

A little before this, be had gradually associated a num- 
ber of persons, like himself, of an eager and inquisitive 
turn of mind, and formed them into a club, or society, to 
bold meetings for their mutual improvement in all kijids 
of useful knowledge, which was in high repute for many 
years after. Among many other useful regulations, they 
agreed to bring such books as they had into one place, to 
form a common library ; but this furnishing only a scanty 
supply, they resolved to contribute a small sum monthly 
towards the purchase of books for their use from London. 
In this way their stock began to increase rapidly ; and the 
inhabitants of Philadelphia, being desirous of profiting by 
their library, proposed that the books should be lent out 
on paying a small sum for this indulgence. Thus in a few 
years the society became rich, and possessed more books 
than were perhaps to be found in all the other colonies ; 
and the example began to be followed in other places. 

About 1728 or 1729, Franklin set up a newspaper, th^ 
second in Philadelphia, which proved very profitable, and 
afforded him an opportunity of making himself known as a 
political writer, by his inserting several attempts of that 
kind in it. He also set up a shop for the sale of books and 
articles of stationary, and in 1730 he married a lady, now 
a widow, whom he had courted before he went to Eng- 
land, when she was a virgin. He afterwards began to 
have some leisure, both' for reading books, and writing 
them, of which he gave iQftny specimens from time to 
time. In 1732, he began to publish *^ Poor Richard's Al- 
manack,'' which was continued for many years. It was 
always remarkable for the numerous and valuable concise 
maxims which it contained, for the oeconomy of human 
life ; all tending to industry and frugality ; and which were 
comprized in a well-known address, entitled ^^ The Way to 
Wealth." This has been translated into various languages^ 
and inserted in almost every magazine and newspaper in 
Great Britain or America. It has also been printed on a 
large sheet, proper to be framed, and bung up in con-r 
spicuous places in all bouses, as it very, well deserves to 
be, Mr. Franklin became gradually more known for his 
political talents. In 1736, he was appointed clerk ta 
the general assembly of Pennsylvania ; and was re-elected 
hy succeeding assemblies for several years, till he was 


chosen a representative for the city of Philadelphia ; and 
in 1737 he was appointed post-master of that city. In 
1738, he formed the first fire-company there, to extin- 
guish and prevent fires and the burning of houses ; an ex- 
ample which was soon followed by other persons, and other 
places. And soon after, he suggested the plan of an asso- 
ciation for insuring houses <and ships from losses by fire, 
which was adopted ; and the association continues to this 
day. In 1744, during a, war between France and Great 
Britain, some French and Indians made inroads upon the 
frontier inhabitants of the province, who were unprovided 
for such an. attack; the situation of the province was at 
this time truly alarming, bein^ destitute of every means 
of defence. At this crisis Franklin stepped forth, and pro- 
posed to a meeting of the citizens of Philadelphia, a plan 
of a voluntary association for the defence of the province. 
This was approved of, and signed by 1200 persons imrae-. 
diately. Copies of it were circulated through the province; 
and in a short time the number of signatures amounted to 
10,000. Franklin was chosen colonel of the Philadelphia 
regiment ; but he did not think proper, to accept of the 

Pursuits of a different nature now occupied the greatest 
part of his attention for some years. Being always much 
addicted to the study of natural philosophy, and the dis« 
covery of the Leyden experiment in electricity having 
rendered that science an objecit of general curiosity, Mr. 
Franklin applied himself to it, and soon began to distin- 
guish himself eminently in tltat way. He engaged in a 
course of electrical experiments with all the ardour and 
thirst for discovery which characterized the philosophers ' 
of that day. By these he was enabled to make a number 
of important discoveries, and to propose theories to ac- 
count for various phenomena ; which have been generally 
adopted, and which will probably endure for ages» His 
observations he communicated in a series of letters to his 
friend Mr. Peter Collinson ; the first of which is dated 
March 28, 1747. In these he makes known the power of 
points in drawing and throwing off the electric matter, 
which had hitherto escaped the notice of electricians. He 
also made the discovery of a plus and minus, or of a po- 
sitive and negative state of electricity ; from whence, in a 
satisfactory manner he explained the phenomena of the 
Leyden phial, first observed by Cuneus or Musohen- 


brdieck, which had much perplexed philosophers. He 
shewed that the bottle, when charged, contained no more 
electricity than before, but that as much was taken from 
one side as was thrown on the other ; and that, to discharge 
it, it was only necessary to make a communication between 
the two sides, by which the equilibriam might he restored, 
and that then no signs of electricity would remain. He 
afterwards demonstrated by experiments, that the elec« 
tricity did not reside in thie coating, as had been sup[>osed, 
btit in the pores of the glass itself. After a phial Was 
charged, he removed the coating, and found that upon 
applying a new coating the shock might still be received. 
In 1749, be first suggested his idea of explaining the phe- 
nomena of thunder-gusts, and of the aurora borealis, upon 
electrical principles. He points out many particulars in 
which lightning and electricity agree ; and he adduces 
many facts, and reasoning from facts, in support of his 
positions. In the same year he conceived the bold and 
grand id^a of ascertaining the truth of his doctrine, by 
actually drawing down the forked lightning, by means of 
sharp -pointed iron rods raised into the region of the clouds ; 
from whence he derived his method of securing buildings 
and ships from being damaged by lightning. It was not 
Until the summer of 1752 that he was enabled to complete 
bis grand discovery, the experiment of the electrical kite, 
which b^ing raised up into the clouds, brought thence the 
electricity or lightning down to the earth ; and M. D'Ali- 
bard.made the experiment about the same time in France, 
by following the track which Franklin had before pointed 
out. The letters which he sent to Mr. Collinson, it is 
said, were refused a place among the papers of the royal 
Bociety of London ; and Mr. Collinson published them in 
a separate volume, under the title of ^^ New Experiments 
and Observations on Electricity, made at Philadelphia, in 
America,'* which were read with avidity, and soon trans- 
)ated into different languages. His theories were at first 
opposed by several philosophers, and by the members of 
the royal society of London; but in 1755, when he re- 
turned* to that city, they voted him the gold medal which, 
is annually given to the person who presents the best paper 
on some interesting subject. He was also admitted a 
member of the society, and had the degree of LL. D. con- 
ferred upon him by different universities ; but at tins time, 
by reason of the vyar which broke out between Britain and 

9* F E A N K L I N. 

France, he returned to America, and interested himself in 
the public affairs of that country. Indeed, he \kSLd done 
this long before ; for although philosophy was a principal 
object of Franklin's pursuit for several years, he did not 
confine himself to it alone. In 1747 he became a member 
of the general assembly of Pennsylvania, as a burgess fof 
the city of Philadelphia. Being a friend to the rights of 
man from his infancy, he soon distinguished himself as 
a steady opponent of the unjust schemes of the pro^ 
prietaries. He was soon looked up to as the head of the 
opposition ; and to him have been attributed many of 
the spirited replies of the assembly to the messages of 
the governors. • His influence in the body was very great, 
not from any superior powers of eloquence; he spoke 
but seldoQ), and he never was known to make any 
thing like an elaborate harangue; but his speeches gene- 
rally consisting of a dngle sentence, or of a well-told 
story, the moral was always obviously to the point. He 
never attempted the flowery fields of oratory. His manner 
was plain and mild. His style in speaking was, like that 
of his writings, simple, unadorned, and remarkably con- 
cise. With this plain manner, and his penetrating 'and 
solid judgment, he was able to confound the most eloquent 
and subtle of his adversaries, to confirm the opinions of 
his friends, and to make converts of the unprejudiced who 
had opposed him. With a single observation he has ren- 
dered of no avail a long and elegant discourse, and deter- 
ipined the fate of a question of importance. 

In 1749 he proposed a plan of an academy to be erected 
in the city of Philadelphia, as a foundation for posterity 
to erect a seminary of learning, more extensive and suit- 
able to future circumstances; and in the beginning of 
1750, three of the schools were opened, nailiely, the 
Latin and Greek school, the mathematical, and the Eng*^ 
lish schools. This foundation soon after gave rise to ano- 
ther more extensive college, incorporated by charter May 
27, 1755, which still subsists, and in a very flourishing 
condition. In 1752 he was instrumental in the establish- 
ment of the Pennsylvania hospital, for the cure and relief 
of indigent invalids, which has proved of the greatest use 
to that class of persons. Having conducted himself so well 
as post-master of Philadelphia, he was in 1753 appointed 
deputy post-master general for the whole British colonies. 

The colonies being much exposed to depredations in 


their frcAtier by the Indians and the French ; at a meeting 
of commissionerB frooi several of the provincefly Mr. Frank- 
lin proposed a plan for the general defence^ to establish in 
the col^Hfiies a general governmeiily to be administered by 
a president-general, appointed by the crown, and by a 
grand council, consisting of members chosen by the re- 
presentatives of the different colonies ; a plan which was 
unanimously agreed to by tbe commissioners present. The 
plan, however, bad a singular fate : it was disapproved of 
by the ministry of Great Britain, because it gave too much 
power to the representatives of the people ; and it was 
rejected by every assembly, as giving to the president 
general, who was to be the representative of the crown, 
an influence greater than appeared to them proper, in a 
plan of government intended for freemen. Perhaps this 
rejection on both sides is the strongest proof that could 
be adduced of the excellence of it, as suited to the situa- 
tion of Great Britain and America at that time. It appears 
to have steered exactly in the i^iddle, between tbe oppo- 
site interests of both. Whether the adoption of this plan 
would have prevented the separation of America from 
Great Britain, is a question which might afford much room 
for speculation. 

In 1755, general Braddock, with some regiments of 
regular troops and provincial levies, was sent to dispossess 
the French of the posts upon which they had seized in the 
back settlements. After the men were all ready, a diffi- 
culty occurred, which had nearly prevented the expedi- 
tion : this was the want of waggons. Franklin now step- 
ped forward, and, with the assistance of his son, in a little 
time procured 150. After the defeat of Braddock, Frank- 
lin introduced into the assembly a bill for organizing a 
militia, and had the dexterity to get it passed. In conse- 
quence of this act, a very respectable militia was formed ; 
and Franklin was appointed colonel of a regiment in Phi- 
ladelphia, which consisted of 1200 men; in which capa« 
city he acquitted himself with much propriety, and was of 
singular service, though this militia was soon after dis- 
banded by order of tbe English ministry. 

In 1757 he was sent to England, with a petition to the 
king and council, against the proprietaries, who refused 
to bear any share in the public expences and assessments^; 
which he got settled to the satisfaction of the state. After 
the completion of this business, Franklin remained at the 


^ court of ^Oreat Britain for some time, as agent for the pn>^ 
vince of Pennsylvania; and also for those of Massachusetts, 
Maryland^ and Georgia. Soon after this, he published 
his Canada pamphlet, in which he pointed out,> in a very 
forcible manner, the advantages that would result froih 
the conquest of this province from the French. An e^pe*^ 
dition was. acoordifigly planned, and the command given 
to general Wojfe ; the success of which is well known. 
He now divided his time indeed between philosophy and * 
politics, rendering* many services to both. Whilst here, 
he invented the elegant musical instrametit called the Ar*> 
monica, formed of glasses played on by the-6ngei^. In 
the summei; of 1762 lie returned to America ; on the pas- 
sage to which he observed the singular effect produced hf ' 
the agitation of a vessel containing oil, floating on'watet^; 
the upper surfEice of the oil remained smooth and Undi^^ 
turbed, whilst the water was agitated > with the utmoist 
commotion « On his return he received the thanks of ^;he 
assembly^ c^ Pennsylvania; which having annually elected 
him a member in bis absence, be again took his leat in 
this body, and continued a steady defender of the liberties 
of the people.  * 

In 1764, by the intrigues of the proprietaries, Franklin 
lost 'bis seat' in the assembly, which he had possessed for- 
fourteen years ; but was immediately appointed provincial 
agent to England, for whioh> country he presently set out. 
In 1766 he was examined before the parliament, relative to 
the stainp-aot ; which was soon after repealed. The samd 
year he made a journey into Holland and Germany; and . 
another. into France ; being everywhere received with thifil *" 
greatest respect by the literati of all nations. In 1773 he 
attracted the public attention by a letter on the duel he** 
tween Mn Whateley and Mr. Temple, concerning the' 
publication of governor Hutchinson's letters, declaring 
that te was the person who had discovered those letters. On ^ 
the 29th of January next year, he was examined before 
the privy* council, on apetition he had presented long be- 
fore as agent for Massachusetts Bay* against Mr. Hut^ 
chinson: but this petition being disagreeable to ministry^ 
it was ^precipitately reje<!^ted, and Dr. Franklin was soon 
after. removed from his office of postmaster^general fot 
America. .Finding now all efforts to restore harmony :be« 
tween Gr^t Britain and her Colonies useless, he returned 
to America in 177^^ just after the commencement of hos« 


tilities. Beii^ named one of die dMegates to the Coiui- 
nentai congress, be bad a principal sbare in bringing abotti 
the revolution and deckration of independency on the pav( 
of the Coboies. In 1776 be was deputed by congress to 
Canada, t^ negociate with the people of that country, and 
to persuade them to throw off the Btitisb yoke -, but the 
Canadians bad been lk> much disgusted with the hot- beaded 
seal of the New Englandersj who had burnt some of their 
cbapeis, that ibey refused to listen to the proposals, though 
enforc^ by all the arguments Dr, Franklin could male 
use of. On the arrival of lord Howe in America^ in 1776, 
lie entered upon a correspondence with him on the subject 
of reconciliation. He wfts afterwards appointed^ with 
two others^ to wait upon the English commissionelrsj and 
learn the extent of tb^iv powers ; but as these only went to 
the granting pardon upon submission, he joined hb coU 
leagues in couiadering them aa insufficient. Dr. Franklin 
was decidedly in favour <^ a declaration of independence, 
and waa appointed president of the convention assembled 
for the purpose of establishing a new goyernmeiit for the 
fttate of Pennsylvania; When it was ^termined by con* 
gress to open a public negdciation with France^' Dr. Firaiik- 
lin was ftxed upon to go to that country ; and he brought 
about the treaty of alliance offemive and defensive^ virhich 
produced an immediate war between England and France. 
Dr. Franklin was one of the commtssioo^rs^ whd, on the 
part of the United States, signed the provisional articles of 
peace in 1782^ and the definitive treaty in the foUciwing 
year. Before he left £U«rope, he concluded a treaty with 
Sweden and Prussia. Having seen the aocompltshment.of 
bis wishes in the independence Of his country^ he re* 
quested to be recalled, and after repeated solicitations 
Mr. Jefferson was appointeld in bis stead.. Oti the arrival 
of his sudcessori he repaired to Havre de Grace, and 
crossing the English cliannel, landed at Newport, in the 
Isle of Wigbtj from wbeece^ after a Cavourable passage* 
he arrived safe at Philadelphia in S^pt. 1785. Here he 
was received amidst the accUmatioos of a vast and almost 
innumerable, nniltkude^ who bad fioeked from all parts to see 
bim^ and who conducted him in triumph to his dwn house, 
where in a few days be was visited by the members of con- 
.gress^ and the principal inhabitantSvof Philadelphia. He 
was afterwirds twice chosen president of the assembly of 
.Philadelphia; but in i7S3 the increasing infirmiues of bis 
Vol. XV. H 


^ge obliged faitn to ask tnd bbtniti permi«9ion to retire atid 
«pend the remainder of his life in tranqoiUity; and on the 
Iftli of April, 1790, h6> died at the great age of eighty*- 
f)bur years and three months* He left behind him one sonv 
« zealotrs loyalist^ and a danghter married to a iperehant 
in Bhiladelphia. Dr< Franklin wms author of many tratta 
on electricity, and other bmnchea of natural philosophy^ 
as well as on political and isiscellaneous sabjiacts. Many. 
of bis papers i^re inserted in the Philosophical Transaetions 
of Loiidon ; and bi^ essays have been freqnmitly reprmied 
in tbi» country as weHasin America^ and bai^e, in coai«^ 
men with his other works, been translated into aevevd 
modern languages. A. complete edition of all these vm^ 
{printed in London in lb06, in 3 rols. Svo^ with <^ Me*- 
moirs of his early life, written by^iknseif," to wbicb the 
preceding article is in a considerable degree inddotad; 
Some of his political writings arO' said to be still withheld 
on political grounds, but it is difficult to suppose that they 
c9Ln now he- of much importance, as they relate to a. con- 
test which no longer agitates the minds e^tbe public* : 
' As a philoiiopher the distingoisbing cbaracteriscics. of 
Frankliu^s mind, as* they have been appreciated by a veey 
judicious writer, seem to hare been a oleamess ofappre** 
hension, and a steady undeviating common sense. We <do 
not find him taking unrei^trained excursiosis into the more 
difficult labyrinifas of philosophical inquiry^ or indulging 
in conjecture and hypothesis. He i« in the consfcatit habit 
ipf referring to acknowledged facts and observations^ aiifid 
suggests the trials by wh^di his speculatii^ opinions jouiy 
be put to the test^ He does not seek for extiaordinary 
occasions of trying bis philosophical acumen, nor aite 
down with the precohceived intention of constructing 
a philosophical system. It is in the course of bis iamiiiar 
correspondence that he proposes his* new explanations lof 
phenomena, and brings into notice \m new discoveriies/' A 
4juestion put by a friend, or an accidenta] occurrence of 
the day, genenaily form the ground-work of these sped»- 
lationsr They afro^ak«ii up by the author as the ordiaai^ 
topics of friendly intercourse ; they appear to cost- him no 
Jabour ; and are discussed without any parade^ it' an; iii>> 
get^ious solution of a phenomenon is siiggested, it ta iir- 
'troduced with as much aimplicityas if it were the teat 
natural and obvious explanation that oould be /offered ; 
and the author feems to value himself .so little upon it, 
that the reader is in danger of estimating it below its teal 

]? R A N IC t I N* <'99 

h^p&cUOite. If a inert bypodiesis be pibpbsed^ tbe aci« 
tbor himself is the first to point out its insnAciencj, and 
abandons k witb more facility tban be had constructed it. 
Even tbe letters on electricity, which are by ftr the most 
•finished of FnanlcUn^s performancesy are distinctly charac- 
terized by ail these peculiarttiia. They are at first sug- 
-geated by the acoidenul present of an eleetric^al tube lh)tn 
a correspondent in London ; Franklin and his friends are 
ihsensibly engaged in a course of electrical experiments ; 
the results are from time to time comlnunicated to the 
London correspondent ; several important discoveries are 
AuMie ; ' and at length there arises a finished and ingenious 
theory of electricity. On this account the writings of 
-franklin possess a peculiar charm. Hiey excite a fa« 
irourable disposition and a friendly interest in tbe reader. 
The author never betrays any exertion, nor displays an' 
unwarrantable partiality for bis own speculations; be as- 
sumes no^superiority over his readers, nor seeks to ele* 
vate tbe importance of his conceptions, by tbe adventitious 
aid of declamation, or rhetorical flourishes. He exhibits 
no false zeal, no enthusiasm, but calmly and modestly 
eeeks after truth ; and if he fails to find it, has no desire 
to impose a counterfeit in its stead. He makes a fitmtliar 
Amusement of philosophical speculation ; and wbile the 
reader thinks he has before him an ordinary and unstudied 
letter to a friend, he is insensibly. engaged in -deep disqqi-^ 
altions of science, and made acquainted with the ingenious 
aoluttons of difficult phenomena. Of Franktitt's more pri-^ 
.vate and personal character, we have few particulars ; but 
it is to be regretted that in his religious principles be was 
nearly, and all his life, one of the class of free^-thinkers.^ 

• FRANTZIUS (WoLFOANe), a Lutberan divine, was 
bom in 1 $€4 at Plawee, in the eircle of- Voigbtland, anii 
was educated at Francfort on the Oder. He then removed 
to Wittember^, where in 1596, he was appointed professor 
«f bfetory, md took bis doctor^s degree indivinrty. Three 
yeers after^ he was invited to be seperititendant at Kenra- 
perg, atid i^emained there until 1605, when be was chosen 
divinity professor at Wittembei^« He died suddenly in 
I62S, of a second^ attack of apoplexy. Among his nu-r 
mevoos works are, 1. <' Syntagma controversiarum theolo- 

1 Life prefixed to iiis Works.— HattOD*sDictMnary, S(c, 

H 2 

lOS F R ]0 D £ G A R ; U S. 

FREDEGARIUS, called the scholastic, the earliest 
French bistoriap except Gregory. of Tours, flourished in 
the seventh pentury, and was living in 658. By ord^r of 
.Childebrand, brother of Charles Mattel, he wrote a chror 
nicle, which extends as far jls the yeiir 6^1, His style is 
barbarous, his arrangement defective, iind his whole nar^ 
rative too concise and rapid, but be is the only original 
historian pf a part of that period. His cbroniQle is to. bj6 
found in the collection of French historians, published by 
Duchesne and Bouquet. * i • j; 

FREDERIC II. sUrnamed the Great, the third king of 
Prussia^ son of Frederic William I. was horn Jan. 24, 1712, 
and educated iii sQO^e measure in adversity; for. when he 
began to grow up, and discovered talents for poetry^ 
piusic, and the fine arts in general, his father, .fearing lest 
this taste should seduce him from studies more necessary 
to him a^ ^ l^ing, opposed bis inclinations, and treated 
him with considerable harshness. In 1730, when the 
prince was eighteen, this disagreement broke out; he 
endeavoured tp escape, was dis^^overed, i^nd thrown into 
prison^ and Kat, a young officer who was to have attended 
his flight, was e:)^eci| ted before his eyes. His marriage in 
1733^ with the princess of Brunswick Wolfenbuttel, re-? 
iftoried at Jje^t apparent harmony in the family. But in 
\k\s forced retirement, ypung Frederic had .eagerly culti- 
vated hi$ favQurife sciences, which continued to divert hit 
cares iu the. most; stormy and ^xious periods of his life. 
|le ascended the throne in M|iy 1740, and almost imme*, 
diately flisplayed his ambitious and military dispositions, 
by demanding Sile$ia from Maria Theresa, heiress of the 
^mp^ror Charles VI. in his Austrian and Hungarian do*- 
minions,. and pursuing his claim by force of arms. The 
eaipeKor died October 20, 1740, apd Lower Silesia hard 
submitted te Frederic in November 1741. Ffaneestepr 
ped fprward to support his pretensions ; but in June 1742, 
$e ha^ signed a treaty at Breslaw, with the queen of Hun-r 
gary, which left him in possession of Silesia and the counter 
Qf Qlata. In .the ^ring of 1 744, either suspecting thait 
the treaty of BresW would be broken, or moved Egaiil 
by i^|;)(ition, he took liirimi iinder pretence of supporting 
the Section of th^^^n^jp^i^t Oharles VII; and declared war 
against Maria 1^ beresa, who refused to acknowl€|dge that 

OnMBSfticoa. ' 


priAcQ. The war. was cofitinued with tariouf ftaeces6» but > 
on the whole very gloriously for Frederic, till the Ijjtttejr » 
end of 174d. It was concluded by a treaty signed at 
Dresden on Christmas day, by which the court of Vienna i 
left hioi. in possession of Upper and Lower Silesia (except- 
ing iiome districts, and the whole county of Glatz) on coa-<. 
dition that he should acknowledge Francis I. of Lorraine, 
as emperor. 

In L755, the contest between England and France, con- 
cerning their American possessions, led those powers to> 
sQCtk allies. England made, alliance with Prussia, an4 
France with Austria. The boldness and decision of Fre-» 
clerick's character were now remarkably displayed. Sus- 
pecting a design against him among the continental pow« 
ers^ and having eVen gained intelligence of a secret treaty^, 
in which the kln^ of Poland, elector of Saxony, was con^*. 
cexned, he pubbshed a strong manifesto, and marched at 
once with a powerful army into Saxony. But the stated 
of the empire, not satisfied with the reasons be alleged, 
declaired war against him, as a distui*ber of the publid 
peme^ In 1757, he found himself obliged to contend a|: 
ouce with Russia, tiie German empire, the house of 
Austria, Saxony, Sweden, and France. The numerous 
arosies of his enemies overran his whole dominions ; yet loM, 
lactivity aad courage were ready in every quarter to give , 
them . battle. He . was defeated by the Russians, had 
gained a battle against the Austrians, and had lost another 
in Bohemia, by the Idth of June, 17.57« But on the 5th 
of November the same year, he met the Austrians and the 
French at Rosbach, on the frontiers of Saxony, and re- 
paired his former losses by a signal victory. His geniui 
had invented a new species of military exercise^ and his 
enemies probably owed theii: defeat to tbeir imperfect at-^ 
tempts to imitate what his soldiers bad completely learned. 
Within a month he bad gained another victory over tha 
Austfians near Breslaw^ in consequence of which he. took 
tbat city, with 1 5,000 prisoners, and recorered all Silesia. 
Throughout the war, with an ability almost incredible, he 
gained so many adviantages, and recovered with such 
promptitude the losses be sustained^ that the prodigious 
force combined against him was rendered ineffectiial. Peace 
WAS at length concluded, Feb. 15, 1763, when the pos^ 
^esaoci of Silesia was confirmed to him, and he, bd his 
part^ promisedbis suflfage^. tb^^lectim of Joseph, son 

104 F R E D E B I C. 

of the emperor, as king of the Romans* This^ was (be 
nk)st splendid military period of his life. 

The year 1772 was remarkable for giving a proof of the 
insecurity of a small country situated between powerful 
neighbours, in the seizure of considerable territories be- 
longing to Poland, pf which the king of Prussia had his 
share with Austria and Russia. The remainder of bis 
reign, with very little exception, was devoted to the arts of 
peace ; and bis attention was diligently employed to give 
his subjects V every advantage, consistent with a despotio 
government, of just laws, improving commerce, and tbe , 
cultivation of the arts. Whatever were his errors in opinion 
or practice, which were both of the worst kind, or liis 
offences against other powers, he sought and obtained tlie 
attachment of his subjects, by exemplary beneficence, and 
many truly royal virtues, mixed, however, with acts qf 
extraordinary caprice and cruelty. He died August 17j 
1786, in the seventy-fifth year of his age. 

Frederic, like Csesar, united tbe talents of a writer wi(h 
those of a warrior. He wrote in French, and was a. to-* 
lerable poet; but his abilities are more displayed in hi^tory^. 
His poem on the art of war is, however, valuable, both 
from bis deep knowledge of the subject, and tbe traits of 
genius it displays. His works compose altogether nine- 
«teen volumes, 8vo. His poetical compositions, which, ex* 
cepting his poem on the Art of War, consist chiefly of 
odes and epistles, passed through many editions under the 
title, of *^ Oeuvres melees du Philosophe de Sans Souci.'*. 
But all the works published in his life, both in prose and 
verse, w€;re collected in four vols. 8vo, in 1790, under tW 
title of " Oeuvres primitives de Frederic IL Roi de Prusse, 
ou collection desoui^ragesqu'il publia pendant son regne.^' 
Of this publication, the first volume contains his *^ Anti/r 
Machiavel; military instructions for tbe general of hia 
army; and his correspondence with M. delaJVIotte Fpu-. 
quel." The second, his *f Memoirs of the Houseof Bran^ 
denburgh.'^ In the third volume are his poems;. and iu 
the, fourth, a va;riety of pieces in prose, philosophicat,: 
inora], historical, critical, and (iterary ;. particularly /< Rer 
flections on tbe. military talents apd character of Charley 
XII. king of Sweden ; a discourse on waf ; letters on edu^ 
nation, and on the love of our country;, and -a di6Coaxae.oo 
German literature." His posthumous works had b#eii pub-*^ 
Usbed still earlier^ They appeared at: Berlin- .in 1734, iff 


TS vols. 8iro. The two first of these contain the ** tfistory 
of bis own Time, to the year 1745." The third and foartb» 
his « History of the Seven Years* War.'* The fifth con- 
tains ** Memoirs from the Peace of Hubertsbourg in 1769, 
to tbe Partition of Poland in 1775." The sixth ts filled 
with miscellaneous matter, particularly ^< Considerations 
on the present state of the political powers of Europe/* 
and '< an Essay on Forms of Government, and on the 
duties of Sovereigns.** The seventh and eighth volumes 
contain poetical pieces, and some letters to Jordan and 
Voltaire. The remaining seven volumes continae his cor* 
respondenoe, including letters to and from FontenellCy 
Rollin,' Voltaire, D*Argens, D*Alembert, Cohdorcet, and 
others. Of these productions many are valuable, m(^e 
e!$peciaily his •* History of his own Times,** wliere, how- 
ever, he is more impartial in his accounts of his campaigns, 
than in assigning the motives for his wars, or estimating 
the merits of his antagonists* 

His ** Memoirs of the House of Brandenburg** are dis- 
tinguished by his correctness in facts, the liveliness of hid 
portraits, the justness of bis reflections^ and the vigour of 
his style. The ** Frederician Code*' displays him in the 
light of an able legislator, copying the Roman law, but 
adapting it with skill to the nature and circumstances of 
his t)wn dominions. In his lighter productions he was an 
imitator of Voltaire, whose friendship he long cultivated^ 
and whose irreiigibus opinions unhappily he too completely 
imbibed. The activity of his mind was easily discerned in 
the vivacity of his eyes and countenance : and he was one 
of those extraordinary men who by an adroit and regular 
piertition of their time, accompanied with strong spirits and 
perseverance, can pursue a variety of occupations Which 
doifnmon mortals must contemplate with astonishment^i 
H'ad be not been a king, he would in any situation have, 
been a very distinguished man: being a king, he dis-^ 
played those talents which usually require the retirenstent 
of private life for their cultivation, in a degree of excel- 
tence which his situation and mode of life rendered not 
less extraordinary tlian those qualities which he possebs^d 
in the highest perfection. 

As all particalars respe<^ting a mah so eminent are ob- 
jects of attention, we shall subjoin the account of his ha-^ 
fcjitual mode of life, as it is given by the best aiithoriti^. 
His dress was plain in the extreine, and always miUtarjr > 

»«• F R: 15 D: K R: i Ci . 

a fewmtinites eftrlyitiitbemornm^ serfed blm ^t« arfang^ 
it^ «ck1 it was never s^ltet^d in tbe day ; boots always madoi 
a i^rt of it. Every moment^ from 6ve o'clock in the morti-* 
1]^ to ten at nighty bad it« regular allotment. His first: 
employniectt when be arofe, .waa to peruse all tbe papers, 
that were addressed to lum from all parts of his domipions^.' 
tfa^ lowest of hta subjects being allowed to write to biia^. 
and c«eftatn of an answer. Every proposal was to be made»; 
and every favour asked in writing ; and a single wocd» 
written with a. pencil, in tbe margin^ informed bis,secte*- 
taries vvbat answer to return. This expeditioAis method^ 
excluding all verbal discussion, saved abundance of tiniev: 
and enabled the king so well to weigh his favours, that be 
waa seldom deceived by his naioiaters, and seldom assented 
pr denied improperly, . About, eleven o^clock tbe king ap-»< 
penred in bis garden, and reviewed his regiment of guarda^^ 
which was done at the san^. hour by all the colonels in bia* 
provinces. At twelve precisely, be dined ; and usual^ 
invited eight or nine officers. At table he discarded all 
etiquette, in hopes of making eonversatinn free and equal ;\ 
bui» though bis own bons-mois and liveliness offered ^1 ther 
encouragement in his powei*, this is an advantage that an 
absolute monarch cannot easily obtain. Two hours aftec 
dinner Frederic retired to his study, where be amused him^^t 
sdf in composing verse or prose, or in the cultivation o€ 
some branch of literature. At seven commenced a privatt^ 
concert, in which he played upon tbe flute with the skill 
of a professor; and frequently had pieces rehearsed which 
bebad composed himself, Tbe.concert was followed by a 
supper^ to which few were admitted eiccept literary meih 
and .philosophers} and the topics, of conversation weie 
auited to such a party. As he sacrificed, many of his owa 
gvatificatioB& to tbe duties of royalty, be exacted a severoi 
aecojunt from officers, and all who held any places under 
him. But in many things he was indulgent^ and particui^ 
]arly held all caluopy in so much contempt, that he suf-t 
fered «ome of tbe «io^. scurrilous writers to vent Jtb^ 
viaJice with impunity. ^^ It. is my business^'' said be,/^ to 
do tbe duties of my stakioqr^ .and to lert malevolenm say 
what it will." * 

FREGOSO, or FULGOSO (Baptist), of tbe andent 
Isimily of Fregoao> was the son; of Peter Fregoso, who waf, 


1 Towvrs'g USi 9f Frc4«ri<<»T:1'l^i«l^vl^-' Antedate;! of Fr«ikric the Grest."»> 
t)ict. Hist. 

F R I G O 8 O. lOT 

rieeted ^Dge 6f Genoa in 1450, aiid ariived faiiptelf d 
t^at honour in JNov. 1479* His arbitravy conduct, hoiv^ 
eyeff assisted the ambitioiit deiigoa of his uncle Paul^ 
archbishop of Genoa, Who proouted him to be deposed in 
1483, atid himself to be elected in bia stead. Baptist was 
tium banished to Treg^ui. When he died is not known* 
He amused himself in his exile by writing rarions works, 
limong which was a aollection of ^Meoiorable Actions 
add. Ss^yings,'^ addressed to his son Peter, and contain* 
ing soflfie particulars of bis own life» Vosaius has']ni«>> 
properly classed him among Latin historians, on aeconnt 
of. this work, which was written iii Itslian, but lie had pro^ 
bably eeen only Ghiiini's translation, published under the 
title '^^ Batistas Fu^osi* de dietia factisque memorabiltbuili 
coHectanea a Camillo Ghilino Lattna facta, Hbri norem,** 
JMUUn^ 1508, fol. and often reprinted at Paris, Basil, Ant«< 
iiperp, &c» in Bvo. The best editions are those of Paris^ 
14^19,: and .li;85, 8ve^. which haiv^ additions by Gaillard, 
Ffegoso 0lso wrote <' La vita dt Martino V." pope, bot it 
doe.^' nbt appear whether it was published ; and ** Oe Fce^- 
ininis ^o«e dootriha excelloeront,^^ which appeal^ to hai^ 
beea taken from bis ** Diota,". and inserted in a coUeccioii 
respecting learned kdiea by Raviskis Textor,* Piris, 1531^ 
foi^ 'The- only remaining publication of his was a treatise 
against ^ove,- entitled ^^Adteim." * This is one of th^ 
earliest printed books, bearing date Milan, 1496, accord^ 
ing to Clemeht, b«t Niceron says i4Mi ^ 

fREHER (MARauAap), a GeroMm, was descended fwm 
a learned family, and born- at Augsinirg, July 06, 1565: 
He went into France Very young, to study the civil lair 
under Cnjactus ; yet paid so much atlentiea to history ^nd 
criticism, that he became eminent in both. When he wai 
sctMTceiy thre^aiid twenty, he was chosen among the coun- 
sellors of Casimir, prince of. Palatine^ aod^the ydar aftdt 
made professor of law at Heidelberg, where be lived la 
friendship with Letnudavins, SyHmrgios, Opsopesus, th^ 
younger Doubs, and other learned men of his time. Some 
little time aft^, be resigned his professor's chairs and was 
takea itito ibe most Important cnaploymeiits'by the eteeiot 
Frederic IV. This prince made him Tice-president of his 
GOttrtyjand. sent him in quality of ambassaddr to aevertl 
places. In the midst of these occupations he n«ver inter* 

1 NiceroD, tsI. IX sad Xt^-CtemeBl BibL Ottrteiist. 

lOS F R E H E R. 

nitted bis usual method of ^todyttng ; and \^ot^ a p^Hkt 
many works upon critictsm, law, and history, ttm bisioTy 
of tm own country in paiticukr. When we view the cmii- 
logue.of them given by Malchior Adam, we are reiidy to 
iaiagine that he must have Hve^ a ve^y long Kfe,- liii^^ 
hardly have done any thing but write bodks ; yet he ^ikkl 
hi. bis' forty-ninth year, May 13, 1614. Douza says* tb^ 
he seems to have be^n bom for the advaneemefit of f)otil^ 
iiterature : and Thuaous acknowledges that it wonid be 
difficuit to find bis equal in a)i Germany. Casattbon c^s 
iiim a man of prirfound and universal knowledge i ajMi 
JScioppius say^i tliat be joined great actitenes^t to an iiii5r^- 
4ible depth of learning. Add to this, that bewasp^i^-* 
lectly skilled in coins, medals, statues^ antiques of^atl 
ffortS)' and could paint very well. His moral qnalities'are 
described as not inferior to his intellectual ; so that MeK 
phior Adam seems justly to have lamented^ that a man #bo 
deserved so much to be immortal, should have died so 
soon. His principal works are, '1; '^Origtnes Palatihae>^ 
fol. 2. ^^ De Inquisitionis {Mocessu,-* 16>9^, 4to. 8.^ f^e 
«e monetaria veteriim Ilomanor^m9 &e.** Leydeii, iWB^ 
.4to, inserted by Grscrvhis in \0\. PL of his Retonan'Anti- 
qqities. 4. ^f Kemm Bohemiearum scriptores," Hiana^, 
1602, fol. 5. << Reram Germanicarum scriptores," fol. 
3 vols. 1600 — 1611, reprint^ in 1717. 6; ** Corpus hts- 
xorisB ErancisB," f<J. &c. S 

Paul Feeher, author of the very ttsefal ^Tbeatmto 
yiroriifh erudi'tione singulari clarorum,^^ Nbrib< l^BB{ ^ 
vols, fol^' was of. this family* ^ Of him we have no aocouiht, 
ei^cept that he was a physician of Noriberg, where he was 
born in 16 11, and died in 161^2, The work was prepared 
for the press by a nephew.^ » - 

. FBEIGIUS, OF FEEY <Joiin Tsomas^, a German, ^ho 
acquired great reputation by his learned labours, was h^ftn 
at Friburg in the 16th ccfUury ; his father being a'hoi- 
bandman, who lived near Basil. He studied - the iaw^'iu 
; bis .native country under Zaaius,'. and bad likewise^ H^en¥y 
Glareen and Peter Ramus for his masters^) He wasstrohgly 
attached to the principlea and* method of Ramms. Befifst 
. ttftugbt at Friburg, and afterwards at Basil ; but, fitting 
!himself not. favoured by fortune, he was going to disen^sjge 

.•■■-.-.• V ... 
1 Moreri in Marquard. — Melchior Adam.— Freheri 'fhieatrttiD,r'Nic«ron« 
vol. XXi,— Bailleti Jt^semeos dei ^rtiju, - ^ ^ < ,. 


J^itaself iioia the r«puUic of letUrs^ and to turn peasant. 
While be V9^$ medua^ag upon this plan, ib^ senate of Ntt- 
recubergy u the desire of Jerom Woifius^ offered him die 
fiectqrabip of tbe uew cpUege at Ailorf ; of which place lie 
.took po6ses^qn ia November 157#. He discharged the 
duties of it with great aeal, explaining tbe historians, poets, 
Jastiuian's insritutea, &c. He returned to Basil, and died 
4here of tbe plague in 1583, which disorder had a little 
before deprived him of a very promising sou and two 
danghtecs. One of tbe latter was, it seems, a very ex- 
traordiaary young lady ; for, as he tells us in the dedica>- 
tion to his elegies, or ^^ Liber Tristiuro,*' though scarce 
.twelve years old, she had yet made' such a progress to tbe 
Latin and Greek grammars, and tbe rudimeots of other 
.aeiences, that she could translate out of her mother tongue 
into LatiAi decline and conjugate Greek, repeat tbe Lord's 
Pcayw in Hebrew, ^d soao verses : she understood addi- 
'ttioi} and subtraction io arithmetic, could sing by note, 
sod play. 09 the lute. And. lest bis reader should conclude 
Ivom benof, that, she had none of those qualities which 
moke her sex. useful as well as accomplished, be calls her 
in the aame place, ^* Oeeonomi^ me» fidelem adminifitram 
tet dispensairioem,** that is, a very mtable housewife. 
, Freigiua pobUsbed a. great number of books ; among the 
ve$t, *\ Qu»stioiies Geometric^ et StereometricsB ;*' a sup- 
plement to the history of Paulus JEmilius and Ferron, as 
jfar IMS tbe year 15^, << Logica Coasultcwum :*' a L^tin 
^traoalatiou of Frobisluer's voyages,? and- of the African wars, 
in which Don Sebastian, king of Portugal, lost bis life. 
V Cieeroois Orat«>fies perpeluis notis logicis, aritb^ie- 
Jticis, etbicis, politiiQisi historkia, illustratue,*' S vols. 8vo, 
at Basil, 1583.' 

FREINO (John), a learned English physician, was born 
ia JQ75, at Croton in. .Northamptonshire^ of which* parish 
hia father, WilUam Freind, a man of great learning, piety, 
and integrity, was rector, and where he died in 16€3. He 
was. sent to Westmioster school, with his elder brother 
..Robert, and . put under tbe care of the celebrated Dr. 
Busby. He was thence elected to Christ Church, Oxford, 
in. 1690, over, which Dr. Aldrich at that time presided $ 
a^ under hi^ auspicses undertook, in conjunction with 
another young man, IVlr. Foulkes, to publish ao edition of 

^ Qto. Pict,-— Morcri.-— j^xii OnoAlKst. 

(lio fit e t N& 


well re<iei ved) und bts sinoe hten teprint^dit A4><Mi« the 
'ftame time be w«t preirailed upon to revise the DelpMn 
oditioti o( Ond*fi Metamorpkoses^ imprinted in Bto^ 9it 
'Oicford, in 1696, wtiieh Dr. Bontley has seirerely ciitlc^^; 
'Mr. Freind was director of Mr. Boyle*s studieif, ahd wiM6 
the Exaofinaiioii of Dr. Bentley's Dissertatidn on Xw^p-j 
^hieh may acooont for that great dritic'd »peakfffg'iii<]r6 
^irespectfally of his talents tlMujtistfce required.^ - 
• Hitherto he bad been employed in reading the pd^ts; 
orators, and btMorians of antiquity^ by wbieb'he bad mad^ 
•hiiBBelf a perfect master iil tbe Greek langoage, aild-had 
^acquired a gr^at faeili^ of writing el^ant Latin, in verse 
as well as prose. He now began to apply himself to'pby*- 
«ic s and hid flmt care, as we are told, was to digest 
-thoroughly the true and rational principle^ of natural phi" 
losophy, chemistry) a^ anatoany, to which he added a 
«aufficient acquaintance with the matbematicsi Tb^ Arst 
public specimen tfaat h^ gave of his abilities in tl)^ way-of 
hh profession was in 1699, when he wroteaietterto iDK 
(afterwards sir) HansSloane, concerning an hydrocepbahis, 
or watery head; and, in (70 1, another letter in Latin to 
the same gentleman, ^^ De Spasm! rarioris Historia,^* or 
concerning' some extraordinary cases of persons afflicted 
-wi^h convulsions in Oxfordshire, which at that time madd 
H very great noise, and might probably have been mftgni^ 
lied into something snpematural, if our author had tiol 
•taken great pains to set them in a true light It seems A 
•little strange that these letters should not have been 
thongbt worthy of a place in the collection of his inedic&l 
works; they may be foand, however, in the " Philoso^ 
phical Transactions," the former being Nb. 256, for Sep* 
tember, 1699, the latter No. 970, for March and Apiril, 
<170l. Mr. Freind proceeded M. Av in April 1701, and 
B. M. in June of the same year. 

Being new well known and distinguished, Freind began 
to meditate larger works. He observed that Sanotorins^ 
Borelli, and Baglivi^ in Italy, and Pitcairne aiid Keil here 
At home, had introduced a new and more certain nietbod 
of investigating medical troths than had' been formerly 
known ; and he resolved to apply this way of reasoning^ 
in order to set a certain subject of grfeat impori^nce, of 
daily use, and general concern, about wb^ch the learned 
ba>'e always been divided, in such a light as might put an 

IBHtKa Itt 

^A to dispute*. Tbis he did hy pttbliBliing^ ia 110$^ 
** £tnoienolOf$ia : in. qua fluxus muliebris menslrui pb»<» 
nomena, periodic vitia^ cuiii medeadi methodo, ad ratiooet 
mecbanioas exiguDtar/' Svo, This work, which ia founded . 
ott the principles of the mechanic sect of physicians, wh<^ 
ibea floumbed under the aaspices of Baglivi and otbors^ 
though at. first it met some opposition, and was then aa<l 
afterwards animadverted upon by several writers, has aU 
ways been reckoned an excellent performance; and is, as 
all our author's writing^ are, admirable for tlvr beauty of 
itji style, the elegant disposition of its parts, its,wonderiiil 
succinctness, and at the same time perspicuity, and lor 
the happy concurrence of learning and penetration Visible 
through the whole. 

. In 1 704 he was chosen professor of chemistry at Oxford $ 
and, the year after, attended the earl of Peterborough in 
Jiis Spanish expedition, as physician to the army there, in 
which post he continued near two years. From thence be 
made the tour of Italy, and went to Rome,- as well for the 
take of seeing the • antiquities of that city, as for tbe 
pleasure of visiting and conversing with Baglivi and Lan* 
cisi, physicians then in the zenith of theif repuutiou. On 
his return to England ia 1707, he found the character of 
bis patron very rudely treated ; and, from a spirit of gra* 
titude,. published a defence of him, entitled << An Accouiu 
of the earl of Peterborough's Conduct in Spain, chiefly 
ai^e the raising .the siege of Barcelona, 170$;'' to which 
is added,. ^^ The* Campaign of Valencia. With original 
|>aper8, 1707," $vo. This piece, relating to party -mat* 
^ers, made a gr^it noise, some loudly commending, others 
as loudly conilemning it ; so that a third edition of it wai 
published in .1703. . < 

.; In 1707 he was created doctor of physic by diploma* 
In 1709 he published his ^< Prsslectiones CbymicsB: in 
quibus oinnes fere operationes chymicse ad vera principia 
et ipsius naturae leges rediguntur^ anno 1704, Oxonii, in 
Musaeo Asbmoleano habitss/' These lectures are dedi-; 
(;ated to sir Isaac Newton, and are nine in number, besides 
three tables. They were attacked by the German philo* 
aqphers, who were greatly alarmed at the new principles -^ 
and therefore the authors of ** Acta Eruditorum,^ in 1710, 
prefixed to their account of them a censure, in which they 
trtiated the principles of the Newtcniian philoi»ophy as fig^ 
munts,' and the metbod of arguing made usQ of in these 

m r.R £ I N D. 

lectures as absurd; betauae, iu their opinioii^ it tMJIecl 
to. recall occult qualities in philosophy. To thb groendleiW 
charge ,aa answer was given by Freindy which was puMisfaed 
iii Latid, in the '^ Philosophical Transactions," aodaddedf 
Ixy way of appendix, to the second edition of the ** Prae^- 
leetiooes ChymicsB/* Both the answer and the- book haf« 
been translated, and printed together in English. . * 

'■ In 1711 Dr.> Freind was elected a member of the royal 
society, and the same year attended the duke of Oraioed 
into Flanders, as bis physician. He resided mostly afser 
}iis return, at London, and gave himself up wholly to tbtf 
cares of his profession ^. In 17 16 he was chosen a k^M^. 
of the ccdlegeof pbjfsicians, and the same year published- 
the first and^bird books of '^ Hippocrates de oiorbis popuf 
laribus,** to which he added, a '^Commentary upoii.fe*. 
vers," divided into nine short dissertations. This very 
learned work was indecently attacked by Dr. Woodward^ 
professor of physic in Gresbamcollege^.in his '^ State of 
Physic and of Diseases, with an enquiry into the causes of 
the late i increase. of them, but more particularly of ibe« 
Small-ppx, &c. 1718,'* 8vo: and here was. laid the fouo>r 
dationof a dispute, which was carried on with great Bcti*' 
mooy and violence on both sides. Parties were formed 
under these leaders, and sevend pamphlets were written^ 
Fceind supported his opinion *^ concerning the advantage 
of purging in the second fever of the confluent hind of 
small-pox'* (for it was On this aingle. point that the dilute 
chiefly turned) in a Lsitin letter addressed to Dr. Mead 
in 1719, and since printed among hsa worka^ He was 
likewise supposed to be tlte 'author of a pamphleti entitled 
•^ A i^etter to the learned. Dr. Woodward, by Dr. Byfield^^ 
in 17 IP, in wbich Woodward is rallied with great spmt • 
and address ; for Freind made no aerions answer to Wood^* 
ward^s book, but contented himself with ridiculing hisian'^ * 
tagonist under the name of a celebrated empyric* !n^l7 IT 

* In \'t\3 l)r. Freind was probably I am told is Tery abia in bis ppHjfessicm* 

in Irefond, where the dnke of Shrews- 1 am quite ignorant where be dengiis 

bary,w»s tbe& lord lieutenaiKf a«id had» to retkie, or what be intends lb do^ i*ot 

it would appear., applied to lord Bo- having these several moeibs bad j|py- \ 

lingbroke in bis behalf. His lordship conversation with bim, but I bear ^e 

says in bis answer/ dated Deei of is gone to attend your grace.- Wtfen 1 * 

that ycMir, << As to Dr. Freiud) | liare bear again ih»t tit is ypurgrtfie^ piB^ 

known bim long, and cannot be with- sure I should do so» I will not f^l • 

out some partiality for bim, since be to speak to the queen in the manner ~ 

was o€.jChrist Cbttreb. He has taecel- .you direcL I am, &c. BoLtNeatHixs.^ 

letit parts^ is a thorough scholar, and «^Bohogbroke>s Letters^ by Pari^« ,. 

f* R E r N b. ih 

n€riidS, the GtiUtbhian lecture in lhec6l\6g4 of'physiciariV*; 
*^nd; 1W172Q', spoke the H*arveian oration; wHicH was it- 
terwai^l published. In 1722 he was elected into' parlia- 
meht for 'Liu n Weston iri Cbrnwall ; and acting in His sta- 
tv6u ?is ^ s^iiator with that warmth and freedom which was 
Tiatiiiral to him, he distinguished himself by some' abl6 
speeches ag^nst measures which he disapprovcjcl. fle was 
supposed to have a hand in AtterburyV jilot. as it <tas 
then called, fo^ the'restoration. of the Stuart* family; ^nd 
having' been also one of thtJ speakers in favbW of A tter- 
bury, thi& di^ew upon him so much resentment, that^ the 
Viftbeas Corpus act being at that time suspended^ i|e was^ 
Mareii 15, 1722-3, committed to the Tower. He cou- 
titfued a prisoner there till June 21, when he was admitted 
%o bail; hiir sureties being Dr. Mead, Dr. Hulse, Dr. Leveti 
and Dr. Hale; ahd afterwards, in November, v^as dis- 
charged fro'm Ms ri^cogni^nce. Dr. Mead*s princely cori- 
dfactdu this occasion' must not be forgotten- Vhxeh called 
to attend sir Robert Walpdle in sickndss, hd refused' to 
IMrescribe until Dr. Freind Was set at liberty, arid afier- 
war'ds pr^^nted Dr. Freind with 5000 guineas, which he 
i»ad received in fees frotnbis (Dr. Freind's) patients. 

^Tbe teisure afforded hirii by this confinement was not so 
tnuch .distOrbed by uneasy thought* and apprehensions^ 
bti^:tbat Be eduld emjifloy bittiself iti a manh^ sukable to - 
hih abilities and profession ; and accordirigly tfe wfbte 
^nothek* letter in Latin tb Dr. Mead, "concerning some^ 
parfctcfular kind of Smali-pdx.** Here'also he kid the plan 
of.bts Iti^t aiVd most elaborate work, <* The History of 
Physic*^ -from the time of Galen to the beginning of the 
sjjrteenth cefttury, chiefly with re*gard to pracllce: in a 
dtscrourse written to Dri Mead.*' The first part was ptub^t 
lisbed in 1725; the second, the year following. This work, 
tliaugh justly deemed a masterly performance, both for 
use and elegance, did not escape censure; but was ani- 
madverted upon both at home and abroad ; at hom6 by sir 
CIW%On'^%tringhattt, in an anonymous tract, \*^ Obser- 
vations, oh Dr. Freind*s History of Physic, &c." 1726, and" 
by Jdhn'L^ Clerbiti the" Bibliothec|ue Ancienne et Mp- 
deVne^** buti^s repiits^tioA sufFefed very little b^ either. 

SOQif after t^e obtained his liberty he was made physician 

to the prlntp* of Waf^s ; and, on that priri6e*s accession to 

the tbrciue as George 11. became phystcian to the queen, 

i^ho ^lofidured hioi'V^ith a share of b^ cc^fidea'ce and 

Vol. XV. I 

114 F Jl £ I N D. 

esteem. .« Very early . in 1727-8, bishop- Attefbucy.. ad* 
dressed to Dr. Freiiid his celebrated '^ Letter on the Cha? 
racter of Japis/' of whom be justly considered this learned 
jpbysician to be the modern prototype* But whatever 
opinion he entertained of bis professional abilities^ it apr 
pears from ^^ Atterbury's Correspondence^' that he bad 
some reason to regret, if not resent, Dr. Freind's becom* 
ing a favourite at court, and as Mr. Morice informs us» 
*' an absolute courtier." Dr. Freiwd did not, hoyvever, 
long enjoy ^his favour, but died of a fever, July 26,. 1728, 
in bis fifty-second year. Their majesties expreti^ed tbe 
utmost concern at his death, and settled a pension upon 
bis widow, Anne, eldest daughter of Thomas. Morice^ esq. 
paymaster of the forces in Portugal. . Dr. Freind married 
this lady in i709, and by her had an only son, John, who 
was educated at Westminster school, and became after- 
wards a student at Christ Church iu Oxford.. He died In 
1752, unmarried. Dr. Freind was buried at Hitcbam in 
Buckinghamshire, near which he bad ^ seat ; but there ia^ 
a monument erected to him in Westminster-abbey^ with. a 
suitable inscription. He had himself rendered the like 
kind oiKce to more than one of his friends, being peculiarijf 
happy in this sort of composition ; for the inscriptioiv.ou 
the monument of Sprat, bishop of Rochester, was from 
bis pen; but that on Philips, which had been ascribed. to 
bbuj is since ascertained to be by Atterbury,. pr»,Wigan 
{mhlisthed his Latiq works together at. London, iu 1733> 
in .folio,, adding to them a translation of his ^^ History of 
Physic'^ into the same language^ with an excellent historic 
cal preface; and to the whole is prefixed an elegant d^* 
ilication to his royal patroness. the late qu^en^^ by \\\& bro* 
tber Dr. Robert Freind. His wprks were reprinted ,at 

Pjiris in 1735, 4to. 

. Dr. Freind, in bis last will, dated March 1:2, 1727,, di-* 
i^ects all his pictures to be sold (except those of his wife» 
bis don, the bishop of Rochester and his^on, andhis^ewn 
brother).. ^He gives 100/. a. year to hts brotber^JVilliaint 
and 1 000/. to Christ Church, Oxford, to found, an Anato- 
mical lecture. The greater part of his fortune. be be* 
queathed to his nephe^v William, spn to his brother . Ko- 
..bert. His widow died in Sept. 1737. The manor of 
Hitcham was purchased by the Freinds in 1700^ jand c6n« 
tinned in that family until the death of Robert Freind, esq.' 
Jan. 2^, 1780^ soon after which it was purchased by the 

FiRririNix lis 

pMti^ot lord Greoville, «fho' bus a home in 'stliat Migh*^ 
boiHrbood. . " 

Tbere is liltle oeoasioa to <)uote authorities in firaue of 
DriiFreind, whose workr are/ a lanting testimony of bis 
iH^eoRiQ^on abtiUies iti his profession. He was net only 
venerated in this coantry, but on the continent^ by ytoii 
iiuun> Helvetiusy Heoqnet, and B^oerbaave. • His^bars^ter 
is perbaps drawn with most fidelity and elegance by titi 
Edward Wilmot in the Harveian oration of i735; ^ ' 

FREIND (Robert), eldest brother of the precediiig; 
was bom in 1667, and admitted in 1680 at Westminster 
sehool,' wfaeoce he was elected to Christ Chifreb, Oxfoird» 
in-l6M. While a* student there he wrote sooie good 
veiMs on the inauguration of king William and queen 
Mary, which, wc^re printed in the Oxford collection. In 
the* celdita^d dispute between Bentley and Boyle, Mr. 
Freind. was a warm partisan for the honour of his college, 
butrWas^eTetttually more lucky with Bentley than big bro- 
'ther^ Dr.<John. A neiceof our author's was married to 
meon of Dr. Bentley, who, after that event, conceived a 
better opinion of the Christ Church men, and declared 
^Itbat •<< Freind had more good learning in him than ever be 
had imagined.'* Mr. Freind proceeded M. A. June 1, 1693, 
keoame'seeondmaster of Westminster school in 1699, and 
^oenmiiiated the degrees of B. and D. D. July 7, 1709. In 
1711 he published a sermon preached before the house of. 
eoinalons^ Jan. ^O, 1710*11, and in the same year he sne- 
ee^ded'Duke, the poet, in the valoabte living of Witney, 
in O'Xfordriiire ; became bead master of Westminster school, 
and is said either to have drawn up, or to have revised the 
j^reamble to the earl of Oxford's 'patent of peerage. In 
%jVbireh 1723, the day after *his brother, Dr. John, was com- 
mitted to tbe Tower, be caused much speculation in West- 
- ininster sehool and its vicinity, by giving for a theme, 
^ Prater, ne desere Fratrem.'^ In 1724 he pubKshed Ci- 
eeno's ^^ Orator," and in 172S«Mr. Bowyer, tli^ celebrated 
printer^ waa indebted to him for theWes^iAinster verses 
en the'coronation of George II. In April 1729, Dr. Freind 
obtained a canonry^ - of Windsor, , which in 1 79 1 be ex- 
rel^anged for a prebend of Westminster, and in 1733 he 
• .quitted Westminster school In 1784 be was desirtas df 
resigtiing Witney to his son (afterwards dean of Canter- 

:. \ ' Bkv. Snt.-»Ward'ft OijmImiib Profei9on.-^NMhol«*s Attttbory, tnA Bowyer, 


hfityh bi»«.€<Hll(l i^t 4)q it^ witbolit i^ ptnmsMi of1riilNf|^ 
Hoadly, which be had little reason to expects (^ iqifitl-* 
t/|t»o|i^ 'bQ«vev^<» td thai prelatr^i Lbipngh queen OtMRne 
and lady Sniidot^ be received tbtt iaconte unwrntsff *^ If 
Prw Freind can atb it|. 1 caa «rao« it.?' Dr . Fretmlfa laCNM 
ti^ Udy Supdon are still e»isuog» aad prove ttnt be bad atf 
^ttte scruple in asking, aa bisbop HoadUiji bad iti flaitt«l<«g 
li* Udy9 (f^b^i by her infinence with qaeea Canriine, be-* 
came for a* C99^derabfe. time %he sole aALtness 6t ebnitlb^ 
pr^efeiMD^&iits. Ift I74t4f Dn Freiiid cesigMed 4iia stadi- at 
W'^Mi^^M in ^voi)r of bis sun,, and died AuffUsil^9i'lT9T: 
9y Jaoa bi« wife, one of the twodaagfaaersol' Dk Samii«l 
Detanfleb. |l prabeuciary of WesUBsaater, b^ bad ta^ soim) 
CbarJieSy wh» iHgd iirlTi2Sf. and WiUiam^ hb auaiBe^flisr at 
^yitney^ and aftiera^ards desui of Cancerbiory . . . 

Pr,« Fmnd )»rro^. » good <bfal of ^oetii^, Ltuin mA 
iCngliabf. Ibe ft>f m^r tboiiglvt preCe«nbip. His aamos <pieeea 
are infjeri^ in Mr. Nicbel»'i celicoiianw Hearts a« oMiti 
0f mMp^9>iQJI«bW learning^ biit bskL in ices esiteia^tieift 
ihta l^bi'>atbt»r tba pbyaician/ oe tbe teore .of persMiA 
(skMB^^r. Hi^^^n, I>r. Wiliiaiia Frdnd^deen tffCiiUlM^ 
b^ryi fOQie fWM^a^ars of mh<un may be faaad in ocrr m^ 
tborkyi died in I'^^fi*' . - 

FR£INS«l£Mi][UI$ (iom), a leamad^ dassical ed«Mr^ 
m^ born in |603, an. tbe city o£ Ubn i«i Saitaibla, aiidafMf 
jlU^yiqg l^ar* ii| |]^ unii/^rsitiea of Maiipui<g aa4 6ietoer^ 
joame tp Sirasbargb^ where sonvei paetibal attempts tti tb0 
(German Jang^agp reeoaunended biiii*ao MatdtiastBenii^g'fc 
j^r, who made him his libi^M'ian. Wilb this adi«iniag<^, M 
applieicl tq tbos^ ^la^AJc^l pusmiu^tm which im^tkmefem'i 
if e came aftecwarda to France, whan be was adntiitidii 
among the bing> interpreter^ hot did 'nut remain 1iei<# 
above rbne^y€a^% returmng ia^l^M to^Sivasborgbv * v^b^e^ 
he married the daughter oi his poison < Bemeg^ev^;^' ^6% 
university of Upsal makaig bi«i ^very lifaefial.oifers^ W M* 
cep^ tbo preifessorabip oi ek>qiiteeey ondHlied tUitfl 
oiSce for five yic^cs. Qaeien Cbnetina;tiiieniiiivi«ed<bMi>to 
bor ceupt, appQintadbim her UbraaantMidrJitseaf3ogm|rtiW^ 
vith 9OQQ cronAns salary^ and astaUe^bsH tharai^ af^Mie 
country optagfeisiog witb him, be una obli|je4 toM|iiit ttHa 
, profitable, ^ituatiofi in i 64 j^, and return^ hixn& Fi«ln)lb#^ 
9»HK» ^^ska ma^ of (^^lamver learning; fair;:]j>esi^%itkf^ 

* Kiob^ls't Bswjsr.r»To4a'# J)e«is of Csatsrlninr's^Ni^Uolf^^PMaai. 

F R E I.Xr 8 11 E M I U S. HI 

CfMdti jud Hebrew, lie #at familbr mtk tfkbbfl all tM 
liviug languages of £uropey aod hit fame iniduced th# 
elector Pabnitie, wben h« projected fbe' re&toiratioli of tike 
v»W€tHty of Heiflkslberg, to appeiot him lioDoif*Ty pi«<^ : 
Umpr^ mtiA dectoraJ coimseUor. He acoordiiigl j t^til^ved > 
#tb/lHa faootly to Heklelberg in 1656, aod died ^er^ • 
ia I66Q. 

JFreie^emtos rendered anmny services to the repubRo of: 
iMften^ fint bjr bk ednion of Flferusy wbotti be correiifi^^ . 
amt expkiAed irery bappily. Hit lMher-in^la«»i Berffe|^^ 
gfitf CDfagod bim ifi tbis work ; and wat afeemriiMte so»*' > 
pfimed* at Ibe grMc peseuaiion and jqpdgiti^nlt wbipb 
Fjmosbeimiie bad sbewn in dbceirering^vbinbaMt^acirfiM' 
all ibe ienmed hefoee bim. This wai^ ftpt* pn&l mbaid #he^ 
he waa a very ywmfg mao, in 16S>2» 8vf^ aMif fafis 4ft>ie8 ^ 
baw beeopviiiftaden^reiii tbe best editions ef this fluM^. 
Sq bitye bbttotea upon TacitAls; ifrbieh, tboegh aboi^) tire 
-v^tgy judicio^i i-elaiiog to «iieli. purticdlarra^ Lipsbisarld 
tfae-ialbflr crilict eith^ kirew net or omMbed; Tbiii' veati 
ilttUisbed in iB3S i»d« I6S4^ witb an «d^i«ab4e iftdex* 
. B^ tidB wetfks by arbieh he has hkett mostdmuafg^isliitfiy 
9m bk fitfttoea anppienxeots teQiiiftt«» CilitiMi aod Livy. ' 
Tbere vas a aapplenieikt^ indeed, to Quentaa Curtiiia' be** 
t^m; but as that iwas notbing move dsaiy a tiaisc^aMtf dotn- 
jM^atioik from. JuaiMa and Arrian^ (vfiriiout eicfae» jadgiMM 
QET: md&9i FretfidbemiuB ibonght it expadiemtte diMi^ tipa 
Qihr^e, .'jFoir.thift pttrpoie be^ iconsiilced ev^y tftn^kW^ 
Greek and Latin, ancient and modern, which C6mM be of 
ttm koaat uary and executed bis task sc mueb ta €he apptfo- 
iMksv aed eeia&ckUGiin ^ of the pnMicy tbat they aittie^C- 
OMM«i 10 depLons ibbe Ios» of tbe tvo first boobs oi( ^is* eav 
teatoiain^ bistsirian. His edition appeared at t9eiaib«l«gb^< 
l^tfh S mis* Some, however, have stilt more' adnvhrlrd^ 
hi$V^i^npte<Miit to Liay, whieb is compeeed wMi iiqaat 
JAidggafio* and Jieacoinf,.ai»d ntast haTebeen-d H^evaeleiii^ 
]bdH>i»& he Clero has printed this sttpptomeet wlcto tiie 
miniate edkienl o£ Lifry at AaMteadam, 17IO* ' Hie de-^ 
jjentl tbe whole to be rery ingeoious and lesArned, biMf 
tfciek^ tbat there is most parity and elegance im tbie fi^M 
Hen be0ka of it; some speeches i» wbk;b are ineempiMM^; 
lI'M^lax^ is, ifaaa tthose jusa books wevepubbshed'tfrtmp 
,l|Utbor's life time; the others after his death. Besides 

Wbat bas beei) mentioaed abovc; Fvein$h^U(mu wrvte i^^teti 

^ I 

118 F R E I R E. 

upon Phflilrasy iiiieited in Hobtius^s edit. Amst. 1664,' 
and other philological performances. ' 

FHEIRE D£ Akdeada (Hyacinthe), an el^ant Porta- • 
guese writer io prose and verse, was bom in 1597, at Beja 
10 Portugal, and became abb^ of St. Maiy de Chans. He 
appeared at first with some distinction « at the court of 
Spain, but bis attachment to the house of Braganza i^* ^ 
peded his advancement In 1640, when John IV. watf 
proclaimed king of Portugal, he went to his court, aifd 
was well received. Yet it was found difficult to advance » 
him, for he was of too light and careless a character tobe . 
employed in diplomatic business; and though the king^ 
-would have goue so far as to make him bishop of Visieu, 
this, dignity he had the wisdom to refuse, well-knowing 
that the pope who did not acknowledge his master as king, 
would never confirm his appointment as bishop. He did 
not choose, he said, merely to personate a bishop, like an 
artor on a stage. He died at Lisbon in 1657. Notwith- 
standing the levity of his character, he had a generctus- 
heart, aud was a firm and active friend. He wrote with, 
n^i^h success; his ^^ Life of Don Juan de Castro,^' is 
eateeofied one of the best written books in the Portuguese 
language. It was pubKsbed in folio, and was translated 
into Latin by Rotto, an Italian Jesuit. He wrote also a 
small number of poems in the same language, which hive 
considerable elegance, and are to be found in a cpllectioti 
published at Lisbon in 17 IS, under the title of <' Feoiir 

FREITAG (John), a learned physician, was born ai 
Nieder Wesel, in the duchy of Cleves, Oct. 30, 1581 ; Ktit 
his relations being compelled, by the troubles of the tilhei^.^ 
to retire to Osnaburg, he began his classical studies the^ta 
He was afterwards sent to Cologne, Wesel, and Heldist'adt J 
but his. dispQsition being early turned to medicine, as a, 
profession, be studied at Rostock, afterwards returni^cl to. 
Helrastadt to attend the lectures of Duncan Liddiell and of 
Francis Parco.viu;i; be likewise derived much advantag6 
from .the. lectures of th& celebrated Meibomiu^, in whose 
bouse he resided in the capacity of tutor to bis stfn, and 
was soon thought fit to give private lectures to the younger 
students on the practice of physic. He afterwards lectured 

' Moreri. — Baillet Jj^^pmfiM des Savans. — Saxii OoeiDast. 
^ • Mor«ri.^Dict; Blst-^^e moiv bf this family uBd«r. Andradai yol II. * 

F It E i T A G. lid 

in public as professor extraordinary; and in- 1604, at the^ 
^e of twenty-three, be obtained the ordinary professor- 
ship in the universityi which office he filled during fonr^ 
yeaurs. He then took his degi^ee of doctor, and went to 
the court of Philip Sigisround, duke of Brunswick Lunen*', 
bqrg, and bishop of Osnaburg, who had appointed him 
his principal physician. About 1622, Ernest, duke of 
Holstein and earl of Scbawenburg, offered him the same ' 
office, with the addition of the chief medical professorship * 
in the university which he had lately founded at Rintelir; 
but his patron would not permit him to accept it. This 
pnnce-bishop dying in 1623, his nephew, duke Frederic 
Uiric, gave Freitag the option of being his chief physician, 
or of renaming his professorship at Helmstadt. He con- 
tinued at Osnaburg^ where the new bishop retained him 
as his physician, and also appointed him one of his cham- * 
berlains. He also served his successor in the same capa- 
city, but was dismissed in 1631, on account of his refusal 
to become a catholic. He found protection and patronage, 
however, under Ernest Cassinrir, count of Nassau, and 
the county of Bertheim, who procured for him the vacant' 
professorship in the university of Groningen. He fulfilled 
this new appointment with gr^at reputation, and continued 
to distinguish himself by Ihe success of his practice till the . 
decline of his life, which was accelerated by a complica- 
tion of maladies. Dropsy, gout^ gravel, and fever, termi- 
nated his life Feb. 8, 1641. 

Freitag was a follower of the chemical sect, and also a 
parusan of the philosophy of the ancients, to which in- 
deed he retained his attachment with so much bigotry, that 
DO efforts of his friends could ever prevail upon him to 
change his opinion. He published several works. I . '* Noctes 
M^dicse, sive de Abusu Medicinaa Tractatus,*' Francfort, 
J616. 2. ^'Aurora Medicorum Galeno-chemicorum,< seu 
de rect& purgandi methodo e priscis sapienties detoretis- 
pbstliminio in lucem redacta,^* ibid. 1630. 3. <^ Disputa- 
tio Medica de morbis substantise et cognatis qusestionibus, 
contra hujus temporis Novatores et- Paradoxologos,*' Gro- 
ningen, 1632. 4. ^'Disputatio Medica calidi innati esseu- ^ 
tiam juxta veteris Medicinae & Philosophiae decreta expli- 
cahs, opposita Neotericorum et Novatorum Paradoxis,** 
ibid. 1632. 5. '* De Ossis natura et medicamentis opiatis ' 
Liber singularis, &c.^* Groningen, 1632. 6. ** Disputatio Formaruin origlne,** Groningfin, 
1663. 7. << Oratio panepTica de. persona et officio Phar^ 

idQ F JK JE i T A G. 

5i,'* ^. ibW. -1633. 8. ''Bet^c^p et ^ii^'|lef 
futatio n^so Sectaa ^eni^erto-P^racelsicsB/' Aiygij^RJ^a^ .; 
16^6,* * , , 

F^EMINET (Martin), ^ celebr^t©;! French, painter 5, 
WM ^oni at P^Ls in 1567. When he xras 3t\vdyi^ at 
Ropife, the ^uffragc^ of that place were divided betvy^eu 
Mjchf^ An|;eIo Caravaggi^, ^.nd Joseph of Arpino^ c9Ue,d 
Giu£|epph)o; ^nd be succeeded in imit^ipgibe excellep-* 
cic^s of both. He was a gre^it master of design^. f}tfi of the ^ 
sci|ence>s €onnecl;ed with bis art, perspective aad archueo* 
t^re I but tbei'e is a bolduess in hi$ mannei% ^pproac^ng, 
tp hardness, which is not filways approved. ^?Pry iV' 
how.evier, appoiMed him bis chief painter, and L9^isXJtl. 
hoiipyred him with t^e order of St. Michel. E(e P^M^f ^ 
th(^ c^ejix]^ in th^ chapel a^ Fontainbleau, an^ died at Pari^^ 
Ju^ 16, 1619.* 


Fj?.ENCH (JOB^), an English physician, the son pf Job« > 
French, of Brou^hton, nfar J&anbury in Oxfordsbirey.wjias 
born there in 1^16, and entered Ne\j?-In,n-haU, Oxford, 4^ 
Jj^33, idb/^n he topk his degrees in arts^ He aftei^^.af d& . 
sti,idied ^ie<^icine, and acted as physician ^ the par|^a- . 
mentary am^y, by the patronage qf tb/e Fienaes, 10^9 of 
great in^ueo^e ^ ^bat tingie ; he ^as a^^ oUte of the ItWQ 
physicians to the whole army under general Ffiirfax. I^., 
lg.43, wKe,i? fhfi earl of Pen^h'oJ^? visiiei^ the wvev^iity if 
Oxford, he was created M. D. ayid w^ al^pnt ihj^^ ^^9,^ 
ti^iip physician to the Savoy, ^pd one of tbe.c/?l))ege. l|e 
w^nt abrQ^d afterw^^rds as phy^i^i^ tQ tb^ j^i^'^^^ ^rm^ ^., 
Bji^Upigpe, and died there in Oct, ^r Nov. 1667. ,Besi^ . 
ti;ap$)^tio{is of SQime mjBdical j^r.orks f\:qixf P^'ac^el^^ f^^i 
Qlj^ub^r, be published '^TJi^e A^l^ of Disjull^udou/' LoJ^d,^ 
1651, 4I;q.; apd ^^ TbP yprkstor/e .Spaw, 9? a Treatise v^> 
Fpmr Ci^pos fl^4icinal wells : vi?. the ^p^Wf 9^ yii^rioUng ^ 
w]eU; ^h? ^ii>Mp^ i>^ st^lphpr wejl; the dropping o^.pef rU . 
fying sfeil; and St. JVl^gnus-well, pear Knare^bpf;9W y^t 
YQ^ksbiri^. 'jPoge^ber jvvitb the C9.u^es, yertiie^,. ^i^d n^ ^ 
tlietFeof," J-ond. lj?5J and 165f, 42pap, riepublisbed . ^ , 
Hi^lifax, I76P, lawp.? .. 

rUENICLE DE ftESSV (BER^f ARp), a celebrated French . 
m&thiin)a|:ici|in of tbe seventeenth pei^tury^ Yf^& the. cpp'*^ 
tc;i?)PPr#ry and compauipp pf Des jCarte^, Fermat, ^^i t^^ 

' Rees^i Cvcl(^papdia.-i-Mangret. — Haller Bibl. Med. Pract* 
? Dioi Hr8t.~Pilkiiigrt09.-^D'Argenvfi1e, ^1. It.' 


otiiei* Jearoed matbeomticUns of their time. He was ad^ 
nihted geometrician of the French academy in 1666 ; and 
died fn 1675. He had many papers inserted in the ancient, 
niemoirs of the academy, of 1666, particularly in vol. V. 
of tb^t collection, via. 1. ".A method of resplving .pro-. 
bieitis by Exclusions.'* 2, " Treatise of right-angled Tri- 
angles. in Number^.'* 3. " Short tract on Combinations/* 
4. ** Tables of Magic Squares," 5. ** General method of 
making Tables of Magic Squares." — His brother Nicolas 
Frenicle, a poet of the seventeenth century, born 160Q,.> 
ac Paris, was counsellor to the court of the mint, and died 
dean of the same court, after ihe year 166 1, leaving seve-; 
ral children. Frenicle wrote many theatrical pieces; as.- 
^* Pfilemon," a pastoral, 8vo; " Niobe," Svo; " L'En-, 
tretien des Bergers," a pastoral, which is contained ia 
'* Les Illustres Bergers," 8vo. Also a poem, entitled, 
" Je&us ^rucifi«i" a *' Paraphrase on the Psalms," in 
verse, &c.* . ^ 

FRERET .(Nicolas), ^n autlujr of profound learnings 
and considerable abilities^ grossly misapplied, was born at. 
PaiK in l6Sd. He was bred nominally to the laW| but bi«. 
inclinations and talents not being suited to that professioji^^ 
lie devoted himself, from an early period^ to his favouri^te . 
studies of chronology ^lud history. At twenty-five he w^.. 
admitted into the academy of i^^scriptions, where be ^fo^.f 
duced at t^ same time '^ A Discourse on the "Qrig^n of; 
the French." This treatise, at once bpld apd .^e^s^^^f^Kt 
added ^to ,svme indiscreet conAersations^ 04;cai^ioii€^d hit(< 
b^ing qon&ned in tli,e Bastille. I^ his oonfinement, h.e{ 
cfM;|ild ob^in v}0 book bnt the dictionary of Bay le, wliiichx 
he consequently read so earnestly as almost to learn it Jby i 
he^^. |i^ imbibed, at the same time, the scaptif^ism pf 
Bayle^ ,^i^ even went beyond him ki the grossn^ss aii4 * 
iq[)pu4enGe of his infide) sentiments, as clearly appe^ins ]^y, 
S90^e of b^ 'Waitings* These were, i. ^^ JleM^rs of Thr^y^' 
bi^lus to Leuqippe," in which atheism is re^i^ed to a ^ys-** 
teija. 2, ^> Examination of the Apologift^ for C^ristia^ty,*^' : wprk (not published till 1767), 99 less, ^b-f- 
no4ci0ns than th^ other. Be^id^ ^hese,. he was the •author 
o^ 3. Several very learned memoirs in the voliw^s of the,, 
aps^my, to jivhich bis name is preQx^sd ; and a few Ug}>(. 
pid^Ueal^ofis of ao consequence* ile died, in 1749^ in hi% 

> MorerL^Dict. I|iU,-rHutU>n'8 Dictionary. 

122 F R E R E T. 

61st year. His works were revived afterwards, and eagerly 
disseminated by Voltaire and his associates in their hostili- 
ties against religion and morals. * 

FRKRON (Eue Catherine), a French journalist, ge* 
nerally known for having been the constant object of the 
satire of Voltaire, was born at Quimper, in 1719. His 
talents were considerable, and he cultivated them in the 
society of the Jesuits, under fathers Brumoy and Bougeant. 
In 1739, on sohie disgust, he quitted the Jesuits, and for 
a tinie assisted the abb6 des Fontaines in his periodical 
publications. He then published several critical works on 
fai/sown account, which were generally admired, but sonie- 
times suppressed by authority. His " Letters on certain 
writings of the time*' began to be published in 1749, and 
were extended, with some interruptions, to 13 volumes. 
Iq 1754 be began his " Anti6e Litieraire," and published 
in that year 7 volumes of it ; and aiterwards^ 8 volumes 
every year as long as he lived, which was till 1776. In 
this work, Fr^ron, who was a zealous enemy of the modern 
philosophy, attacked Voltaire with spirit. He represented, 
faim as a skilful plagiary; as a poet, brilliant indeed, but 
inferior to Corneillej Racine, and Boileau ; as an elegant^ 
bat inacburate histWian ; and rather the tyrant than the 
ting 6f literature. A great part of this Voltaire could bear 
with fortitude; but a very skilful and victorious attack 
upon a ba3 comedy, "La Femme qui a raison,'* drove 
him beyond all bounds of patience ; and henceforward his 
pen was constantly in motion against Fr6ron, whose very 
ifame at any time would put him in a rage, nor was Fr6r6n 
more a favourite with the encyclopedists, whose principles, 
he exposed. 

Fr^ron, though very skilful in his criticisms, and of uii- 
cominon abilities (as Voltaire himself confessed before he 
was irreconcileably provoked] suffered by the perpetuat 
hostihties of an antagonist so high in reputation. His 
** Ann^e Litt^raire,*' being constantly accused by Voltaire 
of partiality, began to be suspected, and. the sale in some 
measure decreased. In foreign countries his talents were 
not well understood. He is the hero of Voltaire's Dun- 
ciad, and nothing more is known about him. He was, bx 
truth, a man of great natural genius and liveliness, with 
a correct taste, acute powers of discriminatioBi and a pe^« 

» VU^ Hist, 

F H E R O N- 12S • 

ctrliir talent of entei*taintng his reader, while he pointed 
out the faults of a work. He had an active zeal against 
false philosophy, innovation, and affectation, and was 
steddtly attached to what he considered as sound principles. 
In private life he was easy and' entertaining. Such were, 
tfae'real talents of this formidable journalist. It must be 
owned, also, that he had hii partialities; that he was 
sometimes too precipitate in his judgments, and too severe 
ill his censures. Too strong a resentment of injustice 
sometimes rendered him unjust. His language also was ' 
sometinteis over-refined, though always perfectly pure. The 
academies of Angers, Montauban, Nanc}^, Marseilles, 
Caen, Arrai, and the Arcadi at Rome, wer6 eager to have 
bitn enrolled amons: their members. He died in March 
1776, at the age of fifty-seven. 

* Besides his periodical publications, FrSron left several 
works. I. "Miscellanies," in 3 vols, comprising several 
poeins, to \Vhich it has only been objected that they are 
rktber over-polished. 2. ** Les Vrtiis Plaisirs," or the loves* 
oif Venus and Adonis ; elegantly translated from Marino. 3. * 
Part of a translation of Lucretius. He also superintended ' 
and retouched Beaumelle's critical Commentary on the* 
Henriade, and assisted in several literary works.-^His son, 
Stanislaus Freron, was one of the most active accom- 
plices in the atrocities which disgraced the French revo- ' 
llition, arid appears to have had no higher ambitiotl- than ' 
t6 rival Marat and Robespierre in cruelty. He died at St. 
Domingo in 1 802.^ 

■FRESNAYE (John VAuauEUN de la), an early poet of 
France, fother of the celebrated Iveteaux, and the first 
wh^ wrote satires in French, and an Art of Poetry, was 
bom of a noble family at Fresnaye, near Falaise, in 
1534; He wais bred a lawyer, and became the king's ad« 
Vd^Cate for the bailliage of Caen, and afterwards lieutenant- 
g^enperal and president of that city, where he died at the 
a*ge of seventy -twa, in 4-606. He- wrote, I. *** Satires,'* 
vi^hich though esteemed less strong than those of Regniei^ 
and less witty than those of Boiieau, have truth and na- 
ture, and contain simple narratives, the style of which has 
something pleasing. 2*. " The Art of Poetry.'* -Copious 
specimens of this performance may be seen in the notes 
of St. Marc, on Boileau's Art of Poetry. It has cousider» 

' - . > J)ic\, Hist. ' • '  ■■' ' 


F KtliV Ar ^. 

al^W cttftFit, I^ut fk merit wbnsb has been mf^^^ hy l«Mf 
efforu. 3. Two book» pf Idyllia, and ibn^e of epigfl«ii9# 
epiukpbsy and sonnets. 4< A poem oi> |he moi^r^by* AH 
tb^^e wj^re ^spliect^ by hioaself m an edttioo of pOeiiM^ 
p4>blubed Ht Caen in 1605.' 

FRESJ^S {CvkAfRVBS Du Canoe ihj), oommeiily eali«idi' 
Dy Cange, a learued Fcenobqiafi, was desK^^niJed fjfifnnm 
gjQod &afti^y» %ni born at Am^w in 161Q. Aft«r being 
ta^gbt polite literature in the Jeanils oeJIege tb^r^^ be Vitnft 
t9 study tbe law at Orleans^ and wfiaiswpru ^aecate ^ %hn 
parliament of Paris in 163l« |i<d- pr.aciised so9>e ti«ie«ii' 
tltfi bar^ but witboiH i\H^ndia»g to make k ihf bi»«Miies$ of. 
bis life* He tben retn^*n^ to AmeiiSj wber^ be develj^ 
hioKHelf to study 9 >fid .r^n tibrougb 91II sorts of le^rjMn^ 
languages and philosophy, law^ physic, divinity, and hi^-'i 
tory. In If 6#» b0.w.ent and eeitM &t (Paris; «knd soon 
afier a pFQpoj»fti nm^ laid b^fone Coltief t« to €<^e5>t all i%\kef^ 
ai)tb€^s wbo H- 'diffsrjant itina^s b»d >wntten d3M» iNStory 9i- 
F^E^cej and to form a body .ooi of the». Tbis QHnif««r 
lill^ng tbe proptosalt andMi^v^iog JH Fre^M tbe b^« 
cyi^li^ed &>r ^e Mnd^Haking, funnii^hed him wUb meip^i)! 
and qiiinvspripta jha^ t\4§ pwpo««[^ I>n Fresne wroti^l^: 
vj^ tbese inHerials, Md di^^w up a largie pf^hc^^ Mn* 
t^ink^ tb^'iiMMne# of tbe ai^onit tbeir ctbaraei^r and imh*^ 
n^Ty tjti^ twe ill wb^ob !tbey ii^ri^i iand tbe order ii» wbinb 
tbey ought in bn arfaiiged. j^ing iEHfj^rmed from :lb0 
minisiief tbatbls plan w^ n^ appov^, a«Kl tbaft he tf^iat 
adopt another, and convinced that if be followed tbe ordtfc 
pr^esG^ibed^ die whole woxk would be ispeUed^ b^ frfpMy 
t^d bia^mploy^s tbat sin^e b^bad motbeen bappy ^noiigb 
tp ple^s^ tbose .19 ajw^boFiiyjf bis advif:e wa«»^ ibat.tbfDiL. 
sjjikQuld looifi out i^oi.e of tl^. h^t bands in tbe kidgdem;* 
Bpii a^ tk^ saw^ ijm^ b^ r^Hir««d them nil ^r liemoM^ 
(S^ ppugirgT),. Biping thjis difi^ngftged *fo» * lodWHtt' 
aji^4 Ubori^di^ undartubin^^ be gnii^bed bi$ -Glossary .^* tovi; 
LatbV'9r ^'' GIo^s^riMfl^ Mediae ^t injSiinfe Latinita^>''^ 

' Diet. Hist.<i-Moreri in Vaqquelin. 

* The following? a^iecdote is rel.ited 
of Mr. Du Cange : He seat for oertaiii 
|i^^S«llert of Paris, aad aft/sr Tf^i/oi" 
ii|g to an old tninW vhich stood ia 9 
cdroer of bis cabinet, be told' tbem 
tlMit it .coQtwiitd aiatermls mfl- 
deqt to make a book, and if they 
would undertake to priat it, h^ «s<t 

ready to treat with them. With plea- 
sure they embraced Ills offer | but>efft<¥ 
t|iey'ba:d seavetK^d €01* tfao mafMfiGiiipIV 
tbey f^od only a heap of small bite, of 
paper not larger than tbe breadth 0^ 
a kager^ Mid vhica ajBctted to IM^C 
been torn to pieces as of no naoner 6f 
iif^. Du Cans? Uoghed at their Um^ 



iAAilk i¥ii«Ye^eked with general cotetnendatiofi ; andthotigfr 
Hadkrkkn Valechifl, in his prefhee to the Valesiatia, nV>te^ 
iftveraLiiiifttakes in h, it is nevertheless a very excfeHenif 
and useful work. It was afterwards enlarged by the additlonT 
«f more Tdluines ; and the edition of P^ris, by Carpentier^ 
ill i733y make? no less than six vi folio ; to which Car- 
^etHS^ afterwards added four of supplement. Both bavef 
bee6 -since excellently abridged, consolidated, and ina- 

SJt^*, in 6 vols. 8vo, published at tfalle, \1T2 — ^^1784. 
s tf»ext peribrmance was a ^ Greek Glossary of the middle 
dge^** consisting of (furious passages atid remarks, mo3t 
6f which are drawn from manuscripts very little knowtu 
This wetrh is in 2 tok. folio. He was the author add edito# 
$^ of several other performances; He drew a genealo* 
gieal map of the kings of France. He Wrote the bidtx)ry 
b( Conatantinople under the French emperot^, which wa$ 
flrinfed at the Louvre, and dedicafted to the kitig. Hb 
puMisbed an historical tract concc^rnmg John Baptist'^il 
h^adi some relics of which are supposied to be at Aniens: 
He published, lastly, editions of Cinnamus, Niceph'brus, 
Anwa Commena, Zonams, and the Aleicaddrlan Cbro- 
nicbn, with learned dissertations and noties* 

Du Cange, as be is more commonly^ called/ died ill 
1688^ aged seventy-eight; and left four clrildren, on' whom 
touisXIV. settled good pensions, in consideri^ion of thelir 
fhther^s meint. 

Though the general merits and abilities of this profound 
Mid accurate etymologist have been oft^en recorded. Dr. 
Sufney pays tribute to bis memory for the assistance 
which he has fi^aetitly afforded musical historiatls; when 
aiH4)lher resources failed. lu the slow progress of the art 
«f muisic from the time of Guido, whose labours' were 
^wholly devoted to the facilitatihg the study of canto fermp 
%y the monks and choristers ; in the glossary ^* De la Basse 
LatiiiYt6,^* 6 volumes folio, we find the derivatidn' and 
^rly use of musical terms and phrases, particularly in 

if^fy 9iMipoiitiviely anitred ttemtliat 

t^ nuuMscript wa«. in Uie trnuk. Ai 

Icirgth, one of tbem haring viewed 

-wMk ptttt attemion tome of ibeit 

tfirapf of pafver, he di9eofered some 

«bser?ations whicH he knew to be the 

4»Mk <rf Uto Canfe. fl» famKJ^toa, 

that itwai not impotsible to place 

them in nfimt Ipocn^Me at this btfinning 

ef crer/ wurd which the learoed author 

nodertook to e«ptain» he hid rang^A 
Uiem a^babetically. With this kef* 
and the knowledge he had of* the ex- 
teative eruditieo o# Mr. Du Cange, da 
did not hesitate a moneat ^e bidmoac|r 
for the trunk and the riches it con- 
tained; The treaty was concluded 
without further explanation ; and such 
WMi iht o«igiD of the faiBOus ** Qlos« 
sariom Medio; & inQmae Latinitatis«" 

126- F.R'ESNE. 

France and neighbouring states; and there is •scarcdly.'a^ 
tero) connected with the music of the church, of which an 
early use. may not be found, either in this Glossary, ^r-.ia 
its continuation by Carpentier, 4 vols, folio.* 

FRESNO Y (Charles Alphonsus du), a celebrated: 
French poet and painter, was born at Paris in 1611. .Hiy. 
father, who was an eminent apothecary i a. that city, intended 
bim for the medical profession, and during the first year. 
which he spent at college, he made very oon^iderabte 
progress in his studies ; but as soon as be was wse4 
to tbe highest classes, and began to contract a ta^te fot 
poetry^ his genius for it appeared, and he carried all the 
prizes of it, which were proposed to excite the emulatiae 
of his fellow-students. His inclination, for poetry was 
heightened by e;xercise ; and his earliest performai^es^ 
shewed tliat be was capable of attaining very oonsiderabte 
fame in tbis pursuit, if his love of painting, which eq«alljf^ 
possessed him, had not divided his time and application* 
At last he laid aside all thoughts of the study of pbysie^ 
and declared absotutely for that of painting, notwithstanding 
the opposition of his parents, who by all kinds of severitj 
endeavoured to divert him from pursuing that art, the pre- 
cession of which they unjustly considered in a verycon- 
temptible light. But the strength of his inclination^ do» 
feating all the measures taken to suppress it, be took the 
first opportunity of cultivating bis favourite study. . \ 

• He was niueteen or twenty years of age wbea he begtfh 
to learn to design under Francis Perier, and baving-speUt 
two years in the school of that painter, and of- 4iMiioii 
Vouet, he thought proper to take a journey .into Italy, 
where he arrived at the end of 1633, or the begii^ning #f 
1634. As he had during his studies, applied himscrlf 
very much to that of geometry, he began upon his coming 
to Rome to paiut landscapes, buildings,- and ancient rtii«isi. 
But, for the first two years residence in that .city, he hltd 
the utmost difficulty to support himself, being. aJbandoned 
bv his parents, who resented his having rejected their ad- 
vice in the choice of his profession ; and the little ^ckbf 
money which he . had provided before he left T^t^niSe, 
proving scarce sufficient for the expences of bis journey 
to Italy. Being destitute therefore of friends atid ui:- 
quaintance at Rome, he was reduced to such distress, that 

^ Moreri.— Diet. Hift io Cange.^-Chsttfepie.— Ssxii OnsBtet. . 

F R E SN O y. lat 

lib chief subsistence for the greatest part of that ttme was 
bread, and a small quantity of cheese. But he diverted 
the sense of uneasy, circumstances by an intense and inde* 
fatigable application to painting, until the arrival of the 
celebrated Peter Mignard, who had been the companion 
of bis studies under Vouet, set him more at ease. They 
immediately engaged in the strictest friendship, living to- 
gether in the same house, and being commonly known at 
Rome by the name of the inseparables. They were em- 
ployed by the cardinal of Lyons in copying all the best 
pieces' in the Farnese palace. But their, principal study 
was the works of RafFaelle and other great masters, and th^ 
antiques ; and they were constant in their attendance tve^lf 
evening at the academy, in designing after noodels* 
Mignard had superior talents in practice ; but Du Fresnoy 
was a great master of the rules, history, and theory of his 
profession. They, commuuicated to each other their re- 
marks and sentiments ; Ou Fresnoy furnishing his friend 
with noble and excellent ideas, and the latter instructing 
the former to paint with greater expedition and ease. 

Poetry shared with painting the time, and thoughts of 
Du Fresnoy, who, as be penetrated into the secrets of 
the latter art, wrote down his observations ; and baying 
91 last acquired a full knowledge of the subject, formed a 
design of writing a poem upon it, which he did not finish 
till many years afterwards,, when he had consulted the best 
writers, and examined with the utmost care the most ad- 
mired pictures in Italy. Wbile.he resided there he painted 
several pictures, .particularly the ^^ Ruins of the Campo 
Vaccino,'' with the city of Rome, in the figure of a woman: 
a young woman of Athens goUig to see the monument of 
her lover, &c. One of his best pieces is ^^ Mars finding 
Lavinia sleeping.^' He bad a peculiar esteem for th^ 
works of Titian, several of which he copied, imitating that 
excellent painter in his colouring,, as he d^d Caracci in bis 
designs. About 1653 he went to Venice, and travelled 
through Lombardy, after which he returned to France. 
, He bad read his poem to the best painters in all places 
. through which he passed, and particularly to Albano and 
GuerciuQi, then at Bologna» and he consulted several meo 
famous for tbeir. skill in polite literature. He arrived ^t 
, Paris in l656, where he painted several pictures, and cour 
tinned to revise his poem, on which he bestowec^ so much 
attention as frequenUy to interrupt his professional la* 

•lis F ft E is N O ir. 

' bours. But, tbougb he wis ctepirdiis to se6 hU work pfloV 

fished, he thought it JrjijiVoper to print the tdtln itithotit 

a French transiatton, vtfhich was dt length ilikde by Die 

''Piles, 'Du Fresnoy had just begun a confimerttar/upon it, 

'v^benhewas sei2red with a palsy; and after languishing 

four or five' months under it, died at the house of onfe of 

'his brothers, at Villiers-le-bd, four leagues froni Paris, 

-in- 1665, From the time of Mijrnard's return to Pslri^ ih 

1658, the two friends continued to live together uatil deatti 

separated them. 

His poem was not published till three years after hh 
death, at P^iris; 12mo, with the French version, and re* 
HK^rkflr of Motis. pu Piles, and it has been iustly admired 
for its eieganee, perspicuity, and the utility of the in- 
iftruction it contains* In 169*4, Dryden made a prose 
translation of it into Englrsh, Which he accompanied with 
his ingenious pardlel between poetry and pilinting. It 
was again translated into English by Mr. Wills, a painter, 
who gave it in metre without rhyme. He attempted to 
produce the sense of his author in an equal numbetdf 
lines, and thus cramped hts own skill; and produced a 
work imequal in itself, in whic^, however well he appears 
lo baVe understood the original text, he fails to impress it 
on bis reader. It is now almost totally forgotten. More 
«mple justice has been done in our language td the talents 
i>f Du Fresnoy, by our late skilful poet, William Mason^ 
M. A. ; by whom, in 1782, he was first clothed in an Eng^ 
)ish dress suited to his elevated pretensions. And stilt 
greater honour was done to him by the hand of that extra* 
ordinary genius of our isle in the art of painting, sir Joshua 
Reynolds^ for whose more valuable remarks upon the mosi^ 
important points in the poem, Mr. Majjon was induced tQ 
discard those of Mons. Du Piles. By the^ union of the ta« 
lents of two mep so renowned in the arts of poetry and 
painting, Du Fresnoy is reridefed for ever dear to the 
English reader ; and the thorough knowledge be has ex- 
hibited of the best principles of the art of paintihg, is be^ 
come more agreeably and more extensively diffused.* 

FRESNY (Charles Hivieke du), a French poet, chiefly 
celebrated for his dramatics writings, was born ^V Paris in. 
1^4$. He had a good natural taste for music, painting, 
sculpture^ art^hitecture^ and all the fine arts. He bad , 

> laft preft)MnliaMas<m'ttraii8lstieD»<-«M6ireri«'--^I)'Ar^nVB)e. 

, F R £ B N Y. ia» 

^lioa.tasle for laying-out gardes, and this prooured him 
the place of ov^rfteer of.gardem to the kingi which he solA 
f»r a moderate sum, aa a supply to his extravagancCy 
*af^icb was uabounded. He was Yalet^de-ehambre to Lou» 
Xiy. and highly in favour with him ; but his love of ex^ 
penue outwent even the bounty of bis master. ^* There 
are two n>en,'^ said Louis^ '< whom I shall never enrich^ 
Fresoy and Bontems.*' These were bb two vaiets-de- 
chaosibret who were well matched in extravagance. At 
length) Fresny sold all his appointments at court^ and flew 
tfQm thte ooiistraint of Venuulles . to the liberty of Paris, 
where he became a %vriter for the stage. He is the person 
wbo;is humourously represented by Le Sage in his^^ Diable 
. JBieiteqx/' as macryieg his laundress by way of paying her 
kilL ' He was twice married, and both times, it is aaid^ in 
a similar .way. He wrote many dramatic pieces, some of 
wtiich «j«ere long established* on the stage. These were, 
^^tLaiReooociliation Normande, Le' Double Voyage^ La 
Coquette, de ViUage, Le Marriage rompu, L'£sprit de 
Gontradictiony Le Dedit." He was diso Ae anthor of 
oamtatas, whidhiie set to music himseif ; several aongs^ 
aome^ which > were famous; a little work often reprinted, 
43alkd '^ Les Amusements serienx et ecxniques/*' and 
'^Noavelles Historiques ;*' all enlivened by asingnhtr and 
gay fancy. He died, aged seventy^six, in 1724. D'Aiem- 
Uisft has drawn a parallel between Desiouches and him as 
comic writers. His works were collected in 6 volumes, 
^BAEYTAG (FaBDBBic Gotthilv), an eminent literary 
*ian, was the son of a learned schoolmaster, who is 
▼ery highly celebrated by Ernesti, and was bom at Schulp* 
forten, in 1 729. Ail we know of his personal history is^ 
that be studied law, and became a burgomaster of Nurem^ 
berg, where he died in 1776. His principal writings are^ 
1. ^^ Rhinoceros veterum scriptorum monumentis descrip* 
tus^* Leipsic, 1747, 8vo. 2. ^^ AnalectaliterariadeLibris 
raiioribus,'' iUd. 1750, Svo. 3. ^* Oracorom ac Rbetorum 
Gnecbrum, quibus status honoris causa positse fuerunt, de^ 
caa^V '^id. 1752. 4« ^* Adpstratus litterarius^ obi libri partim 
antiqui partim rari recenseatur,'* ibid. 1752-^1755, 3 vols*. 
8ve. This is a continuation of the ^^ Analecta literaria,^ 
and Jboth^are of the highest value to bibliographers. They- 

' I Diet Hi«t.—NieenB, voL XVII.<*-l(<»«ri. 

^ Vol. XV, K 


aSbrd astrildngproof of awidnityy dose appUcatioil, mA 
a dtsciiininatki^ judgoient: in appreciating die valise of 
what are termed rate and eniio«is books. 5. ** Specimen 
historian literate, qtio vironiin, fefninammque peiigAipuSt^ 
4iieinoria recoiitur,^* ibid. I7€5, Svo.* 

f REZIER, orprobaMy FRAZER, (Amadevs Frawis)^ 
was bom at Ckambenri, 1682, descended from a distin- 
g«ii<sfaed family of tlie robe, originally of Scotland. He 
was intended for the oSioe of magistrate, but his fantiify, 
in compliance widt hts inclination, permitted him to go 
into the military service, from which he entered the corps 
of engineers in 1707. He was sent by the conrt, in 17 it, 
to examine the Spanish colonies at Peru and Chili; and 
employed his talents for fartt6cations at St. Malo, at St. 
Domingo 1719, and at Landau 1728, in which year he 
also Yeceived the cross of St. Louis, and married. Freeier 
was afterufards employed in Btetany, but rose no higher 
than the rank of lieutenant-colonel, the various oooiinis^ 
sions in which he had been engaged having prevented his 
being present at mote than two sieges; and the number of 
sieges at which the officers of ^gineeti have been pre- 
sent, are the steps by which they rise to superior stationc 
He died October 16, 1772^ leaving two daughters nfar^ 
ried, and a grandson, his son's child. This son died be- 
fore Frezier, on board a king's ship, in the storm of 17^S, 
which sunk him with all his property. His works arei, 
<* Tn des Feux d' Artifice," 1747, 6vo. « Voyage d^ la 
Mer du Sad/' 1716, 4to. ** Theorie et Pratique de la 
Coupe des Pierreset des Bois,'*' Strasburg, 1769, S vols. 
4to ; an abridgment of this woric, by the title of ^'fii6mena 
de Stereotomie,'* Paris, 1759, 2 vols. Svo.* 



FRiSCHLIN (NtcoDEMUs), a learned critical andpoetii^* 
cal writer of Germany, was born at Baling, in Suabia, in 
i 547. His father being a minister and a man of letters, 
taught him the rudiments of learning, and then sent him 
to Tubingen, where he made so amazing a progress in th^ 
Greek and Latin tongues, that' he is said to have written 
poetry in both when he was no more than thirteen yearn 
of age. He continued to improve himself in compositions 
of several kinds, as well prose as verse ; and ac twenty 

i DWt Hist— Saxti Oiioma«t. * DlcU Bi^t 

• FKI S C H LIN. :t31 

*^fmLTs (M was made a professor in the unmrsity bf Tubin^ 
gen. Thovgh his turn lay principally towards poetry^ in- 
•aonmeb, that as Melchior Adam tells us, be really coilld 
make verses as fast as he wanted them, yet he was ac*- 
quainted with every part of science and learning. He 
Osed to moderate in philosophical disputes ; and to read 
poblic lectures in mathematics and astronomy, before he 
bad reached his twenty-fifth year. In 157d, his reputation 
being much extended, he had a mind to try bis fortune 
^abroad, and therefore prepared to go to the ancient uni»- 
versity of Friburg, where he had promised to read lectures. 
Bot he was obliged to desist from this purpose, partly be- 
'oause his wife refused to accompany him, and partly be* 
cause Ae duke of Wirtemberg would not consent to hh 
going thither, or atiy where else. 

Hitherto Frischlin had been prosperous; but now an af*- 
ffAr happened which laid the foundation of troubles that 
did not end but with his life. In 1580 he published an 
oratiooin praise of a country life, with a paraphrase upon 
VirgiPs Eclogues and Georgics. Here he compared the . 
4ives of modern courtiers with those of ancient husband* 
men ; and noticing some with great severity, who bad de* 
generated from tbe virtue and simplicity of their ancestors^ 
mad^ himself so obnoxious, that even his life was in danger. 
He made many public apologies for himself; his prince 
even interceded for him, but he could not continue safe 
any longer at home. With his prince's leave, therefore^ 
be went to Laubach, a town of Carniola, in tbe remote 
part of Germany, and kept a school there ; but the air 
not agreeing with bis wife and children, he returned in 
about two years, to his own country. He met with a very 
ungracious reception ; and' therefore, after staying a little 
while,, be went to Francfort, from Francfort into Saxony^ 
and fvcMn thence to Brunswick^ where he became a schooU 
iwster af^in. There he did not continue long, but passed 
fifom place to place, till at length, being reduced to ne- , 
cessity, be applied to the prince of Wirtemberg for i^eliefi 
His application wais disregarded, which he supposing to. 
proceed from the malice of his enemies, wrote severely 
against, tbem. He was imprisoned at last in Wirtemberg 
caatie ; whence attempting to escjspe by ropes not strong" 
enough to support him, he fell down a prodigious preci* 
pice, and -was dashed to pieces among the rocks. 

x; 2 

Htt death haj^ned in 1590, and#«t'i»iMiiftll]r^Mfl 
just)y lataented ; for he wim certainly tngeaioiiaaiid learned 
in a great degree. He left a great maoy woi^ht of : ▼arioiii 
kindfy as tragediei, cooiedies, elegies, tmnaktioiis of 
Latto anid Grleek aothovs, with notes upon them^ i orations, 
&c. These were poblisfaed 1598-^16079 in 4 toIs. ft^^ 
He faad^^Iso «rritten « translation of Oppian, but this wss 
ne? er. p«iblisfaed. His scholia and torsion of ** Callimaelwis,** 
with his Gredk life of that poiet^ are in Stephens's- edi^li 
of 1577. 4to. While he was master of the school at La* 
hacuoi, or Laubach, he composed a new grammar; mt 
there was no gprammar estaat that pleased him. This was 
more methodical, and shorter than any of them ; and, in- 
deed, was :generalfy approved ; but, not oootemt witfaf gi^hig 
a grammar of bis own, he drew up another pieeei eidled 
^^'StrigilGrammMica,'' in which he disputes wiUi some 
ItttleecriiBonyagauist all' other gfammarjims; and- this, as 
was; natural, increased the number of lus enemies. With 
all his parts and learning/ he -aeemattot a Httle to Imire 
wanted prudence.^ . 

FHI5CHMUTH (Jo»n), an eaMnent scholar, and in* 
gen ious philologist, washorn i619,rRt Wertfaeim, in Fran-^ 
Cdi^ia. He was teacher and afterwards professor of lan- 

E'uages at Jet>a, in-Mvioh ^ity he died August 19, 16S7^ 
eaving smne veryexoelieoD explieaticms of several dvfieuk 
passages in vHoly^^ Scripture, and above sixty >pfailc^logiecd 
and theological dissertations, aU much esteemed ;> printed 
at different times at Jena/ in 4to.' 

FRIBI (PA&L),'a very eminent philosopher atid mathe« 
matician, was born in Milan, April 13, 1727» 'He was 
first educated in' the schools' of • the Barnahite finabem fas 
that metropolis; 'jand' so un<$ommon was his progress in 
the classes, Ibat it was soon pcedioted by -bis teaebets and 
s^sboolfellows, thttt he* would one day excel in police Ute«* 
lature, in- poetry^ and in pulpit irioq^tience; natutej how*: 
ever, bad more unequivocally designed' htm< to be whatrhe 
really proved, a philosopher and 41 mutbetaMtieian. In*174d^ 
(the sixteenth of bis age) he embmced the moaastic M^ 
among the Barnabites>wf Lombardy, ^wherehepassediao 
iupidly through ail the remainder of his studies, that W 
bad the honour of beiqg appointed, while ^tUl in thetsft* 

^ • 

> Melcbior Adam, in titis^ Oernir Pb}loi.*-Bai)lftt ^9|te«ns«f^ioert«rwA. 
XIX « jp?ct rilrt. 

ierior orden^ to ibe profeiBorihip ^JF pUioiopbgr in th« 
ooUege of Lodi^ and afterwards pvomottd^ in tiio san^ 
c^paci^, to tbo royal school of» Caiaie^ in M«»Dferrat$ as 
a^niooesaar tothe late oelebirated'oardtDal Gerdil. 

Edsi unfortunately posaessed a^ Tsotont aadatrabilarieiii 
temper^ and* a lo%, disdamfttl^ andv independjmtefaaracter ; 
and honoe be was never raited to eaiinent'Stations^in chundi 
or state^ but was- perpetually involve in tbe most dia* 
ai^reeable oodtesta with e?eiy peraon with whom he b»fh» 
peeed' to be cooneoted; Ereii as soon- as he had taken 
possession of« bi» chair in Gasale, be quarrelled with bis 
coUeagueS) and was'OompeHodby bis Sardinian majesty lo 
witbdrnw. His superiors, not cboesing* to employ fatbee 
Fiiei any more in- tbe- sebolastio department^ sent him to* 
Moaara, in the- capaoity of annual- preacher. His- meitt, 
howererv as a^ soientifie man, bad already become so co4i« 
apiouousy^ that in 1755, (tbe twenty^'oightb of bis^age) hs^ 
was requested by tbe superintendant of tbe university of 
Pisa^tp^fiU tbe vacant obair of metaphydNcsand etbios< in 
that Kterary corpemtton^ tben- in tbe zenith- of- its glory. 
He had indeed given some specimens of bis knowledge in- 
the. piuflosopby of the human mind by his essays- on morat 
pliilosopby, published at Lij^no in 17J3 ; but he had ex-^ 
hibited before that time still greater proofs of- his superior 
abilities' in mathematics' and natural philosophy, by his 
two ezceilenl works ^^ Disquisteio Mathematilsa in eausanii 
phy«icam figwrs et magnitiMlinis teUwis- nostrie,'' and tbe 
/^Nova Electricitatis tt^ria/* &o. which were published 
atMUan, theformerin 1T51, and the latter in 1755 ; aiid^ 
itvia earious that be was thus indebted for bis first step in 
tfae higfaer patibaof Ikerary bonours^ to other pursuits than 
tkoae which were bis ftiveuritef and which have so deser*' 
vmily immortalissed bi» naase. 

It vk, perhaps, equally curious, that even when nnQta- 
physic» and e^ics had become his professed, avocations, 
b# never «o much indulged in the study of fhem as to prp^ 
dtttte any other work in their several departments. He 
maber availed himself of his situation at Pisa, in cuitivating 
mMMiral science witb greatea ardour than before; and he 
aisemodi ix> have the best opportunity for the purpose^ 
The atteran^ professor PereliA was still alive, and stili re* 
tained his amiable disposition of communicating «o hia 
friends tbese<viahiaMe dtiscovertes wiiich were the frmts of 
hia long meditations, and which, Arem his great modesty^ 

lU F R I S L 

bad nerer be^o published under bis own name. Bj Ibis 
powerful assistance, and by bis own extensive learnin^^ 
Frisif whilst at Pisa, was enabled to publish the two to** 
lumes of dissertations which appeared at Lucca under the 
title of '^ Dissertationum Variarum,*' &c. 1159 and 1761^ 
and the two hydraulic performances relative to the pre* 
servalion of the provinces of Ferrara and Ravenna, from 
the inundation of rivers, which were likewise published at 
Lucca, in 1762. Among his dissertations, the most re- 
markable were that ^' De AtmosphsBra Ccelestium corpo-^ 
rum," which in 115% obtained the prize from the royal 
academy of sciences in Paris, and that ^^ De insequalitate 
MoiOs Planetarum," which in 176B received the honour 
of the accessit from the same corporation. The last work 
published by Mr. Frisi at Pisa^ was a tribute to the me« 
mory of his worthy and beneficent friend Perelli, which 
appeared in the 53d volume of the Journal of that uni- 

The Milanese government, duly sensible of the superior 
merit of Mr.. Frisi, and most likely jealous of so many ho- 
nours received by him in Tuscany, induced him to return 
%o bis native place, by tendering him the chsur of mathe- 
matics in the Palatine schools of that metropolis. This 
offer was made in 1764, and was soon accepted by Mr* 
Frisi, who flattered himself that he abould there be of 
greater assistance to his family than he had been in a fo- 
reign place ; it was bere he wrote his two capital works, 
** De gravitate universal!," in three hooks, and the " Cos- 
mographia Physica et Mathematica," in 2 vols, both of. 
which were afterwards ptiblisbed at Milan, in 1768 and 
1774. Many years had now elapsed without his being in- 
volved in any of those quarrels which were the result of 
his temper ; but as be was threatened with an event of tint 
kind soon . after his return to. Milan, he was advised by 
his friends to escape the storm by a temporary peregrina- 
tion^ He consequently made the tour of several European 
countries ; and it was during this excursion, that he at* 
tained the friendship of some of the greatest characters in . 
those times, especially in England and France, and ac« 
quired many literary honours ; but the danger of incurring 
new evils was inherent to his nature. The famous perio- 
dical work entitled ^< The Coffee-house,*' was at that time 
publishing by some of the most eminent Milanese literati, 
i^mong whom was Mr* Frisi himself, who had already beeii 

F B 1 S 1. 1^ 


jafpolmed royal censor of aew Ulerary poblicatioofw Ip. 
this capacitjf be did moi scntple to give his approbakioD U> 
a peraiciotts work wbicb waa soppoeed to bare is$«ied from 
ibe above-iBentioned society^ and when tbe book wa^ 
afterwards suppressed by eccJesiastical and civil antbority, 
be bad tbe itpprndeacey or rather tbe efirontery, to be- 
cofBe its apok^ist. Sensible, perhaps at last, of tbe dan-« 
gers to which be bad exposed binoself, be resolved ta 
spend some years in retireDoent A new field of exertions, 
bowever, was opened to bim in his retreat, wbicb prored 
nore beneficial to society, and more bonoiunUe to biin* 
Jielfy than any he had be Core cakivated. His uncoa»DioR 
.talents in bydronymics were already celebrated . in Italy, 
and as many bydrostatical operations bad been projected 
at the time by tbe several Italian governments, be becacne 
the chief director, and almost tbe oracle of sncb under* 
takings. Tbe Venetian senate, and the late Pius YL also^ 
wished in latter times to have his opinion on the projects^ 
wbicb they had respectively adopted for the coorse of the 
river Breiua, and for the draining of the Pontine noarshea. 
But. even in these honourable commissions, be disgusted 
every person in power with whom he had to deal, and ibe 
necessity of applying to a man of his temper was frequently 
tbe subject of regret. In >777, the Milanese government 
.recalled bim from obscurity, and appointed him dirc^ctor 
of tbe newly- founded school of arc hi tec lure ^ and from ^his. 
period he became as active in ibe republic of letters as 
.ever. He published in the same year, 1777, his ^^ Course 
-of Mechanics,^' for tbe use of the royal school; in 17B1 
bi^ ^^Philosophical Tracts,'' and from 17a2 to 1784, bis 
/•^v, Opera Varia,'' ^ vols. 4to ; and in the interval from 1778 
to 1783, be wrote tbe eulogies of Galileo, Cavalieri, New- 
:ton,. tbe empress Maria Theresa, and of count Firmian. 
His eulogies on Galileo and Cavalieri have been pronounced 
.by Montucla^ ^^ two finished specimens of scientiBc bio* 
'gcapby.'* Frisi died Nov. 22, 1784, a man of unquestion*- 
.aj^lelearniDg, but, unhappily for himself, of an impetuous' 
«nd turbulent dbposition. ' 

^ FRITH, or FRYTH (John), a learned preacher and 
martyr, was tbe son of an Seveno^ks, in 
lilent, where be was . born (or as Fuller says, at Wester- 
.bam, in tbe same county)* He was educated atKing^^*- 

> Saldiriq'f literary JqxuraaJl, toI. 1L from Fri»i'g MnniNTsi, by Counf Vckt'i. 

&A\egjBf Cambridse, where he procseeded B. A; but afiM^ 
wards went CO Oxrord, wzs aAmitied ad amdetnt aRdnpori'. 
ftccount of (lis extraordinary learning, was chosen one of 
die junior canons of cardinal Wolsey^s new college^ now 
Christ church. About 1525 be was instructed in the prio'^ 
ctples of the reformation, according to the Lutheran sys>^ 
tern, by the celebrated Tyndale. These be openly pro- 
fessed, and with some other young men c^ the same per«^ 
suasion and boldness, was imprisoned by the commissary 
of the university. The hardships of this imprisonments 
proved tatai to some of his companions, but he obtained 
his release^ and about 1128 went abroad^ where be re* 
mained about two years, and became more seriously con« 
firmed in bis new opinions. On his return, he was nar^ 
Vowly watched by the lord chancellor, sir Thomas Morey 
whose resentment was said to have been occasioned by a 
treatise which Fryth wrote against him. Simon Fish, of 
Gray*s-inn, had written his ^^ Supplication of the Beggatis/* 
against the begging friars, and against indulgences, kcd 
(See art. Fish) This work was highly acceptable to Henry 
VIIL as favouring his quarrel with the pope. The lord 
chancellor, however, who was a more consistent catholic 
than bis majesty, answered it, and Fryth answered More^- 
denying the doctrine of purgatory. His opinions on the 
sacrament were also highly obnoxious, and after a strioi 
search, be was betrayed into the hiands of the civil power 
by a treacherous friend, and sent prisoner to the Tower. 
He was several times examined by the lord chancellor^ 
M^o uniformly treated him with contempt and cruelty, but* 
refusing to recant, he was ordered to be burnt, which sen* 
tence wai executed in Smitbfield, July 4, 1 533, in the 
prime of his life. He had a very remarkable opportunity, 
some time before, of making his escape, the servants who 
Were to convey him to the archbishop^s palace at Croydon^ 
offering to let him go. But this he refused, witbaiove zeal 
than prudence. He was, according to all accounts, « scbo* 
lar of great eminence, and well acquainted with ttte learned 

His works are these : ^^ Treatise of Purgatory; Antithesia 
between Christ and the Pope ; Letters onto i^e fiiithf^rt 
feUowers of Christ's Gospel, written in the Tower, 1 5%^ ff 
Mirror, or Glass to know thyself, written in the Tower,* 
1532; Mirror or Looking-glass, wherein you may behold 
Ihe Sacrament of Baptism i Articles, for which be died. 

FRIT I|. 157 

wuHum m ICsirgsle^pmoOf June St, ISSSy Aoswcnr to 
^ ThooM More*s Dialogues concerning' Heresies ; An- 
Mwer to John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, &o.** all which 
treatises were reprinted at London, 1575^ in MiOj with the 
works of Tyndale asid Bamesi He also wmte some trans- 

FRIZON (P£TEB), a doctor of the Sorbonne, bom in 
the diocese of Rheims, was penitentiarf of that church, 
and afkerwaids grand-master of the ooH^ge of Nav^arre nt 
Paris. He died in 1651. He pttblisbed in 1629 a histoiy 
of the French cardinals, entitled^* Gallia Pnrpurata,** 1639, 
fot. M. Bainze has pointed ont a great aaitibett of fiailts 
in thb work, in his <* Antifriaonios,'* and his *< Bistoiy 
of the Popes of Arignon.'* Frison also published' an edi<^ 
tion of the Bible of LooFsin, with a method of distitigaish^ 
iog the Catholic French tnmslations of the Bible from the 
Fiotestant, 1621, fol.* 

FROBENIUS (John), an eminent and learned Gerncian 
printer, was a native of Hammelburg, in Franconia, where 
he was from his childhood trained to literature. After- 
wirds he went to the otiiversity of Basil, where be acquired 
the repatatton of being uncommonly learned. With a 
view of proaioting ilteful learning, fcM* which be wad ^ery 
awloos, he applied himsdf to the art of printing ; and j 
beoomittg a master of it, opened a shop at Basil. « He 
waa the first of the Garman printers a4ki brought the^ 
art t» any -perfection ; and, being a man of great probky 
and piety, as well 'as skilf, bewas, What very few have 
bessK^ pandcolviy choice in the a«ehors he printed. Hd 
would nerer soffer libels^ or any thing ihat might hurt thef 
reputation of another, to go through Ms press ror the sakef 
of. profit ; but very justly tbooght all such' pfactioes dis- 
graceful to his art, disgraceftil t<l letters, and kifinitely 
pernicious to rehgion and society. Tlie great reputation 
and character of this printer was the principal mofive which 
led Erasmok to fix his residence at Basil, in order to have 
his own worics printed by him. The connection between 
Erasmus and Frobenius grew very close and intimate ; and 
wasaconnectbn of friendship afid the sincere^t cordiality. 
Erasmus loved the good qualities of Frobenius, a^ much as 
Fiobenius could admire the great ones of Erasmus. 

1 Fox's Acts Mid Monuments*— Burnet's Reformmtion.— Clark's Ecel. Hifltoiy. 
-^Fuller's Abd Redivivas,— Tann^s Bibliotheca. * Konri.— ]>iot. Hist. 


There h an epistle of Erasmos extant, which contsiw 
ao full an account of this printer, that it forms a verj cu*^ 
riouft memorial for bis life. It was written in 1 537, on theocu- 
casion of Frobenius's death, which happened that jrear ; and 
which, Erasmus telU us> he bore so extremely ill, that he 
really began to be ashamed of his grief, since what he£ek 
upon the death of bis own brother was not to be compaved 
to it. He says^ that he lamented the losa of Froben, noc 
so much because he had a strong afFeetion ior him, but 
because he seemed raised up by Providence for the pto'« 
motiug of liberal studies. - Then be proceeds to describe 
bis good qualities, which were indeed very great and na^ 
merous ; and concludes with a particular account of his 
death, which was somewhat remarkable. He relates, that 
about five years before, Frobenius bad the misfortune to fidi 
from the top of a pair of stairs, on a brick paveniei>t ; 
which fall, though be then imagiiTed himself not mnoh 
hurt by it, is thought to have laid the foundation of his 
subsequent malady. The year before he died, he was 
seized with most exquisite pains in his right ancle; but 
was in time so relieved from these, • that he was able to go 
to Francfort on horseback. The malady, however, what'* 
ever it was, was not gone, but had settled in the toes- of 
his right foot, of which he had no use. Next, a numbness 
seized the fingers of bis right hand ; aud then a dead palsyi, 
which taking him when be was reaching something frosii 
a high place, he fell with his bead upon the ground^ 
and discovered few signs of life afterw^ards. He died at 
Basil, in 1527, lamented by ail, but by none more than 
Erasmus^ who wrote his epitaph in Greek, and Latin* 
Both these epitaphs are at the end of his epistle. 

A great number of valuable authors were printed by Frop> 
benius with great care and accuracy, among which were 
the works of Jerome, Augustin, and Erasmus. He had 
formed a design to print the Greek fathers, which had w»t 
yet been done; but death prevented him. That woxk, 
however, was carried on by his son Jerome Frobenius and 
bis son-in-law Nicolas £piscopi«s, who, joining in parr^ 
nersbip, carried on the business with the same reputatioUy 
and gave very correct editions of those fath^s.' 

FROBISHER (Sir Maktin), an enterprizing English 
navigator, was born near Doncaster, in Yorkshire, of low 

^ Mor^ri. — ^Jottin's Erasmus. — ^Patttaleoms Prosopograpbia, part III. p. 94, 
95.-^Saxn Onomast 

F R O B I S H £ R. U9 

]»f0iita^ but it i» Dot kuowu in wbmt year. Being brought 
up to Dangalion, be very early displayed the talents of aa 
eminent sailor, and was the first Englishman that attempted 
to find out a north-west passage to China, He made offers 
of this to several £nglisb mercbants for fifteen years to« 
gether ; but meeting with no encouragement from them, 
he at length obtained recommendations to Dudley earl oif 
Warwick, and other persons of rank and fortune. Under 
their influence and protection he engaged a sufiicient 
number of adventurers, and collected proper sums of 
money. The ships he provided were only three ; namely, 
two barks of about twenty*five tons each, and a pinnace of 
ten tons. With these he sailed from Deptford June %y 
1576 ; and the court being then at Greenwich, the queen 
beheld them as they passed by, ^' commended them, and 
bade them farewell, with shaking her hand at them out of 
the window.^' . 

Bending their course northward, they came on the 24tfa 
within sight of Fara, one of the islands of Shetland ; and 
on the lUh of July discovered Friezeland, which stood 
high, and was all covered with snow. They could not. 
land by reason of the ice and great depth of water near 
the shore; the east ppint of this island, however, they 
named *^ Queen Ehzabeth's Foreland.'* On the 2dth they, 
had sight of Meta Incognita, being part of New Green* 
land i on which also they could not land, for the reasons 
just mentbned. August the 10th, he went on a desert 
island three miles from the continent, but staid there only 
a few hours. The next day he entered into a strait which 
he called << Frobisher's Strait ;" and the name is still re*> 
tained. On the 12tb, sailing to Gabriel's Island, they 
came to a sound, which they pamed Prior's Sound, and 
anchored in a sandy bay there. The 1 5tb they sailed to 
Prior's Bay, the i7th to Thomas Williams's Island, and 
the 18th came to an anchor under Burcher's Island. Here 
they went on shore, and had some con)Diunication with the 
natives ; but he was so unfortunate as to have five of his 
men and a boat taken by those barbarians. They were 
like the Tartars, or Samoeids, with long black hair, broad 
faces, fiat noses, and tawny ; the garments both of men 
and women were made of seal-skins, and did not differ ib 
fashion ; but the women were marked in the face with blue 
streaks down the cheeks, and round the eyes. Having 
endeavoured in vain to recover hi& men, he set sail again 

140 F R O B I Sf HER; 

for EnglftU'd the 26th of August; ftiid, ncHwitlMtaftditi]^' t 
tetrible storm on the 7tb, arrhr^d safe at Harwich dq^the 
iad of October. "^ 

He took possesAoo of thatconntiy in the queen of En^-* 
laad*9 name; aiid^ in token of saefa .possession, ordered 
bis men to bring whatever they conM' first find. One among 
the rest brought a pteee of black stone, moeh like seat- 
coal, but very heavy. Havihg at his return distributed 
fra^mentB of it anoong his friends, one of the adventurer's 
wives threw a fragment into the fire; which being taken 
out againi and quenched in vinegar, giitiered like gold ; 
aad^ being tried by some refiners in London, was ^litfd 
to contain a portion of that rich metal. This circumstance 
nking prodigious expectations of gold> great numberi' 
earnestly pressed Frobisher to undertake a second* voyirg^ 
tiie^ next spring. The queen lent him a ship of theroyat 
navy of 200 tons ; with which, and two barks of afeout 90 
tons each, they feU down to Gravesend May 26, 1577» 
and there received the sacrament together ; dn act of rey 
Kgion not so frequently performed as it ought tO' be, among 
inen exposed to so many perils, and more particularly 
under the protection of heaven. They sailed i¥oai' Wat^ 
wich on the 5 1st of May, and arrived in St. Magnus SountiP 
at the Orkney Islands, upon the 7th of June ; fir^m whence 
they k-ept their course fijr the space of twenty -«x daysy 
without seeing any l«Dd; They met, howeirer, with greats 
drifts of wood, and wbol^ bodies of trees; which were' 
either blowa^ off the eliflb of the nearest lands by violent 
sbormBf or vooteA up and carried by floods into the sea.' 
At length, on the 4tb of Jlily, they discovered Friezelahd';; 
aioag the coasts of which they found islands of ice of in-^ 
Gsedible bigness, some being 70' or 80 flsithoms^ tind^r^ 
water, besides the part that stood above water, and tiMfriS^' 
tb«i half a tmle in circuit. Not having- been able safi^Ijr 
to land in this'piaee, they proeeeded for Frebisber's Straittj 
aiid^oQ the ii7^bof the same month otade the North Fore* 
land in them, otherwise called HaH^s Island; as a4^ af 
snafler island of die same naime,, where they bad'inf their 
laat voyage^fiMMMl the ore, b«t could not now get apiece" 
so large as a waliiun. They met with some of it, however, 
i»r o^r ad^oetit islandis, but not enough to merit tfa^tr** 
attention. . Th^ sailed abeuv to make what dhKxyvet^ecr* 
tbi^ eould> and gave «ames to severs^ bayv and isl^ ; ad*^ 
J%dmwi^M Smin^ 8mitl^*s Matfd> Beare^tf 9wmi, Lei^ 

F S O B I S H S K. 141 

^est^Ps Isle, lAnne countess of Warvrick's Soiind and 
Jj^laodi York Sound, &c. 

The captain^s commission directed him in this voyage 
only to search for ore, and to leave the further discovery 
of the north*wQst passage tiil another time. Having, 
therefore, in the countess of Warwick's Island, found a 
good quantity, he took a iading of it ; intending the first 
.^opportunity to return home. He set sail the 23d of August^ 
and arrived in England about the end of September. He 
was most graciously received by the queen ; and, as the 
gold ore he brought had an appearance of riches and profit, 
and the hope of a north-west passage to China was greasy 
increased by this second voyage, her majesty appointed 
commissioners to make trial of the ore, and examine 
thoroughly into. the whole affair. The commissioners did 
so, and reported the great value of the undertaking, and 
the expcfdiency of further carrying on the discovery of the 
north-west passage. Upon this, suitable preparations were 
made with all possible dispatch; and, because the mines 
newly fb^nd out were sufficient to defray the adventurevs' 
charges, it was thought necessary to. send a select nuoiber 
of soldiers, to secure the places already, discovered, to 
make further discoveries into the inland parts, and to search 
^ain for the passage to China. . Besides three sbipd a« 
before, twelve others were fitted out for this royage, which 
weiie to return at the end of the summer with a lading of 
gold ore. They assemblexl ai Harwich the 27th of May, 
and sailing thence the 31st, they came within sight of 
]friezeland.on the 20th of June ; when the general, going 
on shore, took possession of the country in the queen of 
England's name, and called it West-Englaad. They met 
with many storms and difficulties in this voyage, - which 
jTietarded them so much, that the season:. was too far ad* 
vftnced to undertake discoveries; ao that, after getting as 
much ore as they could,^ $bey sailed for £nglaod, where, 
4fter a stormy afnd dangerous voyage, tbey arrived about 
the beginning of October. 

It>does not appear bow captain Frobisher employed hiia* 
self .from this time to 1585, when he commanded the Aid, 
in sic Francis .X>rake's expedition to the West Indies. In 
i588, be bravely «xerted himself against the Spanish Ar« 
inada, commanding the Triumph, on^ of the three largest 
ships in that service, and which had on board the greatest 
number of men of any in the whole English fleet July 

143 F R O B I S H £ R. 

^26th^ he received the honour of knighthood, from' the 
hand of the lord high adnniral, at sea, on board his own 
ship; and when afterwards the queen thought it necessary 
to keep a fleet on the Spanish coast, he was employed in 
that service, particularly in 1590, when he commanded 
one squadron, as sir John Hawkins did another. In 1594» 
he was sent with four men of war, to assist Henry the 
Fourth of France, against a body of leaguers and Spaniards 
then in possession of part of Bretagne, who bad fortified 
themselves very strongly at Croyzon near Brest. But iti 
an assaiUt upon that fort, Nov. 7, he was wounded with a 
ball in the hip, ot which he died soon after he bad brought 
the fleet safely back to Plymouth; and was buried in that 
town. Stow tells us, the wound was not mortal in itself, 
but became so through the negligence of his surgeon, who 
only extracted the bullet, without duly searching the 
wound and taking out the wadding, which caused it to 

He was a man of great courage, eTtperience, and con- 
duct, but accused by some of having been harsh and vio- 
lent There is a good painting of him in the picture gal- 
lery at Oxford. ' 

' FROELICH (Erasmus), a learned medallist, was bom 
at Grat;? in Stiria in 1700, and entered the society of the 
Jiesuits in 1716. His reputation afterwards procured him 
the professorship of belles lettres and mathematics at 
Vienna, where he employed his leisure hours in the pur- 
suit of medallic history. He died in 1758. His works are> 
i. ^^ Utilitas rei nummariae, et Appendiculie ad numos 
coloniarum per CI. Vaillantium editse,'* Vienna, 1733, 8vo. 
2. ** Quatuor Tentamina in re numaria vetere," ibid. 1737, 
4to. 3. ** Animadversiones in quosdahi numos veteres ur- 
bium," ibid. 1738, 8vo, reprinted at Floi-ence in 175I,, 
4. *^ Appendicul^ duee * novs ad numismata antiqua a CI. 
Vaillantio edita," ibid. 1744, 8vo, reprinted at the end of 
** Opusculum posthumum de familia Vaballathi,*' where- 
there is also an eulogium on Froelich. 5. " Annates com« 
pend. regum et rerum Syrrae," ibid. 1744, folio. 6. ** Re- 
gum 'veterum numismata,** ibid. 1753. 7. *' Dubia de. 
Minnisari, aliorumque.Arnieniae regum numis et Arsaci- 
darum epocha nuper viilgatis pi'oposita," ibid, 1754. 8% 

1 Bi<*g. Brit.— »la Pednant's Introduclioo to his Arctic JZoolofy, art fOOM ttf' 

JDark^ on tMe errors in the original map of Frobisber's voyages. 

IF R O E t I C H. H% 

^ Diplomatorittoi Garstensium emendatum, auctum, et 

illustratum/* ibid. 1754, 4to« 9. ^^ Casultt S. Stephani, 

re^is Hungaris, vera imago et exposition* ibid. 1754, 4to. 

10. '^ Ad numismata regain veterum anecdota aut rariora 

^ccessio nova," ibid. 1755, 4to. 11.** Notitia elementaria 

-antiquorum illonim, quae urbium liberarum, regum et 

principum, ac personarum illustrium, appellantur," ibid. 

1758, 4to, a work which Mr. Pinkerton pronounces ** most 

excellent and useful," although not altogether without 

iatilts. He particularly mentions that the list of Greek 

cities of which we have coins is defective in about a third 

of the number; and he censures, in strong terms, the 

plan of splitting the series of kings of every realm into 

different epochs. After Froelich's death was published, 

^i already mentioned, the ** Opusculum posthumum de fa- 

milia Vaballathi numis illustrata,^* with an appendix to the 

'^^ Numismata antiqua,'* edited by Joseph Khell, 1762, 4to. 

Saxius gives us the title of another work by Froelich 

printed the year of his death in 4to, " Specimen Archon- 

tolograe Carinthi«." * 

FKOISSART (John), an eminent and ancient French 
historian and poet, was born in Valenciennes, about 1337. 
OF his parents we know only that his father, Thomas Frois* 
sart,. was a painter of arms, and although our historian it 
titled knighty at the beginning of a manuscript in the 
abbey of St. Germain des Prez, it is thought that the 
copyist had given it to him of his own authority. His in* 
ftncy announced what he would one day be: he early 
fhanifested that eager and inquisitive mind, which during 
the course of his life never allowed him to remain long at* 
tached to the same occupations, and in the same place ; 
and the diiferent games suitable to that age, of which he 
gives us a picture equally curious and amusing, kept up 
in his mind a fund of natural dissipation, which during his 
early studies tried the patience and exercised the severity 
of his masters. He loved hunting, music, assemblies, 
feasts, dancing, dress, good living, wine and women ; 
these tastes, which almost all shewed themselves from 
twelve years of age, being confirmed by habit, were con- 
tinued even to his old age, and perhaps never left him« 
The mind and heart of Froissart being not yet sufficiently 
occupied, his love for history (illed up that void, which 

^ l^ict Hist.-«Saxu Ooomait— Plnkertoa's Bstty on Medals, Praface, {>• xt. 

144 F R O I 8 S A R T. 

tiif passkmfor pleasure left ; aad became u> him an ioe^ 
baoatible source of anuaeoieDt 

He bad hiut just left #cbool, and was scarcely twenty 
years obt^ wbeo at tbe iotreaty of *^ his dear lord and mas* 
ter air Robert de Napmr, lord of Beaufort^" be undertook 
to write tbe bistory of the wars of bis own time, more pat* 
ticiilarly of tbose wbicb ensued after tbe battle of Poitiers* 
Four y^acs afterwards, haying gone to £ogland, be pre* 
)Seoted a part of this bistory to queen Pbilippa of <Hajinault» 
tbe wife of ]£dward III. However young be might tb^i 
be, be had already travelled into the most distant provinces- 
of France. Tbe object of bis visit to England was to tear 
himself from tbe pains ef an attachment which had tor- 
mented him for .a long time. This passion took possession 
of bis heart from bis infancy.; it lasted ten years, and 
•parks of it wece s^ain rekiiodled in a more advanced age. 
The history of this attachment may be s^ien in our autho«- 
rity. .It appears to have been first childish, and then ro* 
mantic, and for bis feelings in either state, we have only 
poetical evidence, and from that we leam tha:t he bad 
more mistresses than one. He had made two jouraies to 
England, but on which occasion he presented his bistory 
to queen Pbilippa is not certain. It was well received^ 
boiwever, and probably gained him tbe title of Clerk (se- 
evetary or writer) of tbe chamber to that prineess, which 
be ^as in possession of from 1361. She is said fiequeatly 
to have amused herself^ in that age of romantic gaUanjtry» 
by making Froissart compose amorous ditties; but ^a 
occupation must be coinsidered solely, as ^a relaxation that 
no way impeded more serious works, since during tbe %ig» 
years he was attached to tbe service of queen Pbilippa, be 
travelled at her expence to various parts of Europe, the 
object of which seems to be a research after whatever 
might enrich bis history. 

Of all the particulars of Froissart^s life, during bis resi- 
dence in EogUnd, we only know that he was present at 
tbe separation of tbe king and queen in 1361, with their 
son the prince of Wales and tbe princess his lady, who 
were going to take possession of the govertuaent of Ac^ 
quitaine ; and that be was between Eltbam and, West^ 
minster in 1S63, when king John passed on his return to 
England. There is in his poems a pastoral which seema 
to allude only to that event. With regard to his travels 
during the time he was attached to tbe service of tbe 

F R O I S S A K T. 145 

<|^en, be employed six months in Scotland, ^d pen^ 
trated as far as the Highlands. He trayelled on horaeba^k 
with his portmanteau behind hiin, and followed by a grey-" 
hound. The king of Scotland, and many lords whos^ 
names he has preserved to ns, treated him so handsomely^ 
that he could have wished to have returned thither. Wil« 
Itam earl of Douglas lodged him during fifteen days in his 
castle, of Dalkeith, near Edinburgh ; but we are ignorant 
of the date of this journey, and of another which he made 
into North Wales. It may be inferred, however, that he 
was at this time no ordinary character, and that he must 
have possessed talents atid accomplishments to entitle him 
to so much respect. 

He was in France, at Melun sor Seine, about April 20, 
1366 ; perhaps private reasons might have induced him to 
take that road to Bourdeaux, where he was on All Saints* 
day of that year, when the princess of Wales was brought 
to bed of a son, who was afterwards Richard H. The prince 
of Wales setting out a few days afterwards for the war ia 
Spain, Froissart accompanied him to Dax, where the prince 
resided some time. He had expected to have attended 
him during the continuance of this grand expedition *, but 
the prince would not permit him to go farther; and shortly 
afi^r his arrival, %efit him back to the queen his mother. 
Froissart could net have made any long stay in Englaitdi 
Ance in the following year, 1368, he was at different Ita-^' 
lian courts. It was this same year, that Lionelduke of 
Clarence, son of the king of England, espoused Joland, 
daughter of Galeas II. duke of Milan. Froissart, whb pro- 
bably was in his suite, was present at' the magnificent re- 
ception which Amadeus count of Savoy^ surnamed the 
count Verd, gave bkn on his return : he describes' the 
feasts on this occasion^ which lasted three day s ; and doea 
not forget to tell us that they danced a virelay of his com<*' 
poution^ From the court of Savoy he returned to Milan^ 
where the same count Amadeus gave him a good cotardicj 
a sort of coat, with twenty florins of gold ; and from thence 
to Bologna and Ferrara, where he received forty ducats 
from the king of Cyprus, and tt^en to Rome. Instead of 
thehiodest equipage he travelled with into Scotland, he 
wasiUQw like a man of importance, travelling on a hand* 
UPBCMOf horse attended by a hackney* 

; It was about this time that Froissart experienced a loss 
which nothing could recompense, the death of queen 
Vol.. XV. L 

149 F B O I S S A B T, 

PhiU|E]|pa, ivbicb todk flaoe ia 1369» He ccdonposed a lajr 
on ithU oielancAioly event, of ^hiob, tbowmfoci be was not 
SLyvk^QBfk'^ for Jke Bays, in ancMher place^ that in 4.3id*S k 
was twentynseveo yea«» siiice he had seen Eiigland. Acf 
CQrcUng to Vqssiim and BuUsgit he wiote the Ule of queen 
Bbilippa ; but this aasertion is not foundod on any proMia. 
Independently of the employment of cler^ of the chamhcr 
to the queen of EngJaQd, which Froiaaart had held^ he had 
tieon ako of .the household oS Edward III. and even of that 
of J.ohn, king .of frmtioe. Having, however^ loeA his pa^^ 
U-ooeasi be did not return to Englantd, bat went into hie 
own country, where he .djNtaioed the Iiv,iug of Leatiaes. Oi 
all that he performed during the time he eKeccised this 
jQunistry, he testis us notbiog asnore than that the 4avern- 
keapees of Lestines had &ye hundred feancs ,q£ his money 
in the short space of time he ^as their rector. It is msa^ 
taoned in a MS journal of the bidiop of Chartres^ chan-i 
eeUor (to the duke of Anjou^.tbat accoixLing to letters sealed 
Dee. 12, 13Sd, this prince caused to ihe aeised i&y^sis^ 
%u4rfis of the Chronicle joi Fxoiasait, cector of the p«rkh 
church of Lestines, which tbe faistoriaB had sent to ha 
illuminated, and then to he forwa^rded to the bis^ of £og«« 
land, the enemy of France. Froissart attached kimsiiiS 
afterwards to Winceslaus of LuxAmbourg, dake <of Bra* 
bant, perhaps in quality of secretary.. I'hia pranoe had. a 
taste mr poetry; he had made by Froissart a coUecdan of 
his songs, rondeaus, and vireiays, and Froissart adding 
aome of his own pieces to those of the prince, forined a 
sort of romance, under the title of ^^Meliador, or the 
Knight of the Sun f^ but the duke did not live to see tb€ 
eompletion of the work, .for he died in LS^4. 
* Almost immediately after this event Feoiss|ir( found aoo*' 
dber patcon in Guy count de Blois, who soadehiai^iflerfc 
of his chapel; and he testified his gratiittde by a f^i^stoad, 
and epithalamium on a marriage in the family. Hofiassied 
the years 1S85, 13S6, and, 1^87, sometioBes in the Blaisois, 
aometimes in Touraine ; but the count de Bikns haviag 
•ngaged him to continue his history, which be left iin** 
finithed, he determined in 138i to t|ika a^hwitagfi 4»f die 
peace which was jui^ concluded, to visit tbe court of iGas*^ 
ton Phoebus count de Foix, in order to gain full h 
tion in whatever related to foreign countries, and the 
distant provinces of the kingdom. His health and age still 
ftUowfd him to bear gr^at fatigue i his memory was 4ut£«^ 

r R O I S S A R T. 147 

ctetidy strong to retiim whatever he should hear; and his 
jadgneBt dear enough, to point o«t to him the use he 
sboitld make of iL In his journey to the count de Foix, 
km met on the road with sir E^aing du Lyon, a gallant 
knight who had served in the wars, and was able to givfe 
luin moch information. At length they arrived at Ortes 
in Btmm^ the ordinary residence of cbe count de Fois*^ 
where F4X>issart in^ with a society suited to his views^ 
i^oaiposed of brave captaiiiis who had 4istiog«ished them- 
selves Hi coiirtiats or tournaments. Here Froissart used to 
entertain Gaston, after supper, by reading to him the to* 
Inanoe of ^ iMeliador," which he had brought with him. 
After a conuderable residence at this court, he left it in 
the suke of the young duchess of Berry, whom he accom* 
panied to Avignon. His stay here, however, wm uiyfor* 
tanate, as he was robbed ; which inctilent he madethe ^siA- 
ject of a long poem, nepresenting bis loss, and his expend 
si^e turn. Among other filings he says that the composi-- 
lion of his works had cost him 706 francs, but he r^rel3te4 
not tbis OKpence, for he adds, ** I have composed many a 
history ^hich witt be spoken of by posterity." 

After a series of travels into different countiies, for the 
sake of obtaining infonmation, we find him in 1390 in bis 
owB country, soiely ocnqpied in tbe'cotnpletion of hSA 
history, at least until 1392, when he was again at Paris. 
From the year 1378 he had obtained from pope Cloai^mt 
V^. the ireversion of a csiDonry at Lille, and in the ctil^ 
leeaon of bis poetry, which was completed in 1393, and 
elsewhere, he calb hiobelf caooa of Lille ; but popie Cie* 
meat dying in 1394, he gsrre up his eHpectations of the 
reversion^ aad began to ^qualify himseif as canon and treii- 
sumr of the eoUegiate churoh of Chsaoay, which be pro- 
bably dwed to ite ^iendship of the coant de Slois. In 
1395, -after an absence . of twenty^seviaB yeanrs, be returned 
to England^ where he was reconwd with marks of high 
fvvour and affection by Richard IL and the r<yfal fatfiiiy ; 
tod here he went on c6Uectiog infornia)tion for his history, 
and had <the iibnaar to <pissenthis *^ Meliador'* to the king, 
%ho wBssnuchdtslighted with it. After a .residence of tbree 
wnoiths, he was dismissed with mai4cs of princely favoui", 
which foB dxteaireared to retarn by his arffec&iot^te and 
grateful lamentation on the death of his royal patroo,, at 
3ie end of the fourth volume bf his histpyry. 

The time of the death of Froissart has not been decided 

L 2 

148 F R O I S S A R T. 

by his biographers. He relates some events of the year 
1400, and by some is thought to have lived considerably 
beyond that period, but nothing certain can be affirmed. 
He probably ended his days in his own chapter, and was 
interred in the chapel of St. Anne in the collegiate church. 
Although he was die author of SO, 000 verses, his poetical 
character is forgotten, and he is now celebrated, and most 
justly, as a historian. His Chronicle, which is divided 
into four books, comprehends the period between 1326 
and 1400, and relates the events which took place not only 
in France, but in Flanders, Scotland, and Ireland, with 
numerous details respecting the papal courts of Rome and 
Avignon, and collateral particulars of the transactions in 
the rest of Europe, in Turkey, and even in Africa. . Hit 
reputation' stands high as a faithful and diligent narrator of 
what he saw and heard. By the French he has been 
charged with gross partiality towards the English; they 
bring! against him the crime of making Edward, and his 
son, the Black Prince, the heroes of his history. But it 
cannot be denied that, they were the heroes of the age in 
which they flourished, and therefore an impartial historian 
was obliged to represent them in their true colours, and to 
make them the leading characters of the day. Mr. Johnes,' 
to whom the public is indebted for an admirable editioiv of 
Froissart's Chronicles, has successfully vindicated the cba* 
facter of the historian from the charge of partiality : through-^ 
out the whole work, he says,* there is an evident disposi- 
tion to give praise to valour on whatever side it was em- 
ployed. The historian mourns over the death of each 
valiant knight, exults in the success of every hardy enter- 
prize, and seems carried away almost by his chivalrous 
feelings, independently of party considerations. Till the 
publication of Mr. Johnes's translation, the best edition of 
the^^ Chronicles'* was that of Lyons in four Tolumes folio, 
1559 ; and Mr. Johnes has since gratified the public . wish 
by an equally accurate and well illustrated edition of 
Froissart's continuator, Monstrelet. ^ 

FRONTEAU (John), canon regular, of the congrega- 
tion of St. Genevieve, and chancellor of the university ^f 
Paris, was born at Angers in 1614. His father, wa^ a no*" 
tary x>f that place. He was first educated under a private 

1 life of Froissart) by St. Palaye, translated and edited by Thomas JohneSy 
esq. M. P. ISOl, 8to, a work which supersedes the necessity of referring to any 
other avtbority. 

F R O N T E A U. 149 

ecclesiastic in the neighbourhood of Angers, and is said to 
have made such rapid progress in these' his early studies, 
that in less than five years he could readily translate into 
Latin and Greek. On his return -to Angers he studied 
three years in the college of the oratory there, and was 
afterivards sent to that of La Fleche, where he completed 
his classical course. In 1 630 he took the habit of a canon 
regular of the abbey of Toussaint, at Angers, and made 
profession the year following. Having dedicated his phi- 
losophicikl thesis to father Favre, this led to an acquaint* 
ance with the latter^ by whose orders he came lo Paris in 
I€S6, and in 16*37 was chosen professor of philosophy in 
the abbey of St. Genevieve* His first course of phiioso^ 
phical lectures being finished in 1639, he was employed 
to lecture on divinity, which he did with equal reputation, 
following die principles of St. Thomas, to which he was 
much attached; but his lectures were not dry and scholas* 
tic, but enlivened by references to the fathers, and to 
ecclesiastical history, a knowledge of which he thought 
would render them more useful to young students : and 
besides his regular lectures on theology, he held every 
week a conference on some subject of morals, or some part 
of the scriptures. Jansenius having published his *^ Au* 
gustinus,'' he read it^with attention, and thought he dis- 
covered in it the tf ue sentiments of St Augustine. Some 
time after, the Jesuits having invited him to be present at 
the theological theses of the college of Clermont, and 
having requested him to open the ceremony, he delivered 
a very learned and eloquent discourse, which was at first 
well received, but having attacked a proposition concern- 
ing predestination, he was suspected of inclining towards 
innovation. In a conference, however, with twp fitthers 
of the congregation, he explained his sentiments in such a 
manner as to satisfy them. In 1648 he was made chan- 
cellor of the university of Paris, although with some oppo* 
sition from the members of the university, not upon his 
own account, but that of the fathers of the congregation 
in general, who had rendered themselves obnoxious to the 
university by the erection of a number of independent 

• After passing some years in the quiet prosecution of his 
studies, he encountered some opposition in consequence 
of the five propositions condemned by the popes Innocent 
X. and Alexander VIL He was now suspected of favour** 


iag the Jan^enUts, and af asserting tbal ncr one e6uAd sign 
the formulary witbaut distinguiahing the fact fioa the 
right This induced him to quit his office of regent ia 
1 ^54, and aeeept of the conventual pricey of Benay, ini 
the diocese of Angers, Here, however, he did not con* 
stantly reside^ but preached frequently in some cathedrab^ 
a«id performed the duties of his office as chancellor of 
the university, until 1661, when happening to be at Benay, 
he received an order from the court to remain there untii 
farther orders. This was occasioned by the afpprobation 
be had given to a French translation of the Missal of M. 
Yoisin, which at first be did not choose to revoke. It does 
not appear^ however, idiat while he i^eiltured to express^ 
liberal notions, he had the courage* to. maiataiat them; 
against the authority of his superiovs, for he soon concededr 
every pointy and odered^to sign the formuhiry att>ove<- 
tiaentioiied, virfaicb he had hitherto refused^ aikl accord^ 
iiigly was permitted to return to Paris in 166^, where the) 
sircbbishop of Sens bestowed on him the office of pvioiK 
our6 of St. Mary Magdalen> of Moiitargis ; but t&is he en^ 
jo3^d but a very few daysy being seized with, a diaorder 
which carried him ofTy April 17, 1662, whom only forty <^ 
eight years of age. He was a man of extensive reading \w 
ecclesiastical and profane history ; and as a preacher wa» 
lively and eloquent. He obtained much reputation for his. 
discourses when bestowing the degree of master of antSy 
which was his province for fifteen years. He was an abler 
linguist, not only in the modern, but ancient, and partis 
cularly the Eastern languages. Dupin, who gives him in- 
other respects a very high character, observes, that ho' 
never attached himself so closely to any subject as to» 
handle if. tjiorougbly, but was always making discoveries, 
starting conjectures, and formjng new ideas, and giving 
his subject a turn altogether uncommon. 

His works were, 1. ^^ Summa totius philosophiee e D. 
Thomas Aquinatis doctrina,'' Paris, 1640, fol. 2. " Tho^ 
mas a Kempis vindicatus per unum e Canonicis regulari* 
bus congregationis Gallicanae,'' Paris, 1641, 8-vo. The 
purpose of this is to prove that Thomas a Kempis, and noti 
Gerson, was the author of the celebrated " Imitation,^' &c» 
and it produced a controfiersy, of which some notice will 
be taken in our article on that writer. 3. " Ivonis Carno^ 
tensis Episcopi opera,'' Paris, 1 647, fol. This edition oS 
tlie works of Ives de Cbartres gave some offence to Souchei^i. 

F 11 O N T E A U. 151 

^kose notes- he hadb adufited; and he WM o}>lig^d to d\^)d 
himself iiy a letter adcbeMecf to cbe bishop of Pay. 4. 
^ BissertmiD pfaiiolegtca de virginkate hotiorata, e^uditiay 
adortHOai^ foecunda/' 'MA. 1651. 5. '* Antitheses Aiigus^ 
tini et Calvin V ibidi 1651, 16nio. In' this be give^- the 
pMrallel paarfagerof St. Aueu^in and Galvin on the subject 
ef grace. The general of the coagi^gation^ thinking it 
iiight tiekm smne noise in the world, stippri^sed ail the 
cofiiea except one, from which a friend of Fronteau bad a 
new edition printed. %, '^Kalendarium Romanum," tzk^n 
froto an ancient MS. and- illustrated by a preface and two 
diasertrntiDiiB,' on festiral days, and saints' days, ibid*, \651tf 
tro^ 7. '^ Oiutio in obituni Mutthaei Mol^,'* ibid. 1656, 
4(0. Mol6 w«B Keeper of the seals. He pnblished also 
TarioiiB epistles and tract* on subjects of ecclesiastical his« 
tory. His own liiiie was pubNshed in 1663, 4to, undet* the 
tkte ^ Joiin, Frontonis Memoria disertis pei^ ainkos visrosque 
ebMrissini09 encomiis celebrata.^ ^ 

FRONTINU8 (Sextus Jones), a Roman writer, who 
floiivisbed^ in (be first cetitary, and was in high repute 
undM Vespasian, Titus^ Dotniti&til> Kerva, atid Trajan^ 
was a man of consular dignity, a* great officer wIm> com^ 
manded the Rooian armies in' Englainl, and elsewher^^ with 
aucoess ^ and he is mentioned m high terms of panegyric 
by all the writers of his time. He vma city- praetor when 
Vespasian and Titus were consuls. Nerva made hihi- tVL^ 
lairor of the aqu«educts, which occasioned^ htm to write' his 
treatise, << &e Aqoseductibus Urbis- Roins." He wrote 
also << Tres libros Stmtagematum," or, coiKierning' the 
strattatgems used in war by the most eminent Greek and 
Romam commanders ; and afterwards added a fourth, con- 
taining examples of those arts and maxims, dii^oursed of 
ki' the foro»er. These two works are still extant, together 
with a piece *' De Re Agraria ;" and another, <* De Limi^ 
libuB." They have been often printed separately, but 
were all published together in a neat edition at Amsterdam 
in' 1^661, with note» by Robertus Keuchenius, who has 
pieced' at the end the fragments of several works of Fron-i* 
cinos that are lost. This* eminent man died in the year 
10^6, under Trajan, and was succeeded as augur by the 
younger Pliny, who mentions him with honour. He for* 
bade any monument to be erected to him after his deaUi^ 

' Dupin.— Niceron^ toLXXL — Moreri, 


declaring, that every man was sure to be remembered 
without any such testimonial, if he had lived so as to de- 
serve it His words, as Pliny has preserved them, were 
these: '^Impensa monumenti supervacua est; memoria 
nostri durabit, si vita meruimus.'" 

FRONTON (Du Due, or Le Due), known by the name 
of Fronto Due^us, a learned Jesuit, was the son of a 
counsellor of Bourdeaux, where he was bom in 1558, and 
made a Jesuit in 1577. He studied with unwearied appli^ 
cation the Greek tongue, and became one of the ablest 
translators and editors of Greek works in his time. He 
published notes and corrections, both on the text and on 
the translations of many of the works of the Greek and 
Latin fathers, particularly St. Clemens Alexandrinus,. St. 
Basil, St. Gregory de Nazianzen, and St. Gregory of Nyssa, 
Zonaras, Balsamon, &c. But his principal work. is. his 
edition of the works of St. Chrysostom, 6 vols, foU. Paris^ 
1609 — 1624, and reprinted there in 1636, and at Franc-^ 
fort in 1698. He was also engaged in controversy, and 
wrote against Philip du Plessis Moroay. He died at Paris, 
pec, 12, 1624. Dupin informs us that he was as much 
esteemed for his prudence and modesty as for his learning 
and judgment, that his merit was equally acknowledged by > 
catholics and protestants, and that there was scarcely a 
learned man in either communion with whom he did not 
correspond. ^ 

FROWDE (Phiu?), an English poet, was the son of a 
gentleman, who had been post-master in the reign of queen 
Anne, and the grandson of sir Philip Frowde, a loyal officer 
in king Charles I.*s army. He was sent to the university of 
Oxford, where he had the honour of being distinguished 
by Addison, who took him under his protection. While 
be remained there he became the author of several pieces 
of poetry, some of which, in Latin, were pure and elegant 
enough to entitle them to a place in the ^^ Mussb Angli* 
canae.*' He wrote likewise two tragedies : " The Fall of 
Saguntnm,'' dedicated to sir Robert Walpole ; and " Phi- 
Jotas," addressed to the earl of Chesterfield. Neither of 
these were very successful on the stage, to which they were 
thought less adapted than to the closet* He died at his 
lodgings in Cecil-street in the Strand, Dec. 19, 1738 ; and 

* Taciti Agtco1a.«~Vos»ius dc Scient. Math.— Fabric. Bibl. Lat. — A list of the 
editions of his woi|is is given in Dr. Clarke's Bibliographical Dictionary.— Sax^ 
O^omast. * Moreri in Dae,— NiceroQi yol. 2Qpcyi|l. 

F R O W D E. 15S 

in the London Daily-Post had the following character 
given him : " Though the elegance of Mr. Frowde's writ- 
ings has recommended him to the general public esteem, 
the politeness of his genius is the least amiable part of his 
character ; for be esteemed the talents of wit and learning, 
only as th€iy were conducive to the excitement and practice 
of honour and humanity. Therefore, with a soul chearful, 
benevolent, and virtuous, he was in conversation genteelly 
delightful, in friendship punctually sincere, in death Chris- 
tian ly resigned. No man could live more beloved; no 
private man could die more lamented.^' ^ 

FRUGONI (Charles Innocent), an Italian poet, was 
born November 21, 1692, at Genoa, of a noble family, 
which ended in him. He was persuaded by his tutors to 
enter the order of regular clerks of Somasquo ; but that 
confined life was so contrary to his gay temper, and fond- 
ness for pleasure, that he obtained leave from the pope to 
quit the order, and remain a secular priest Frugoni then 
setti^ at Parma, where the different sovereigns procured 
him all the conveniences of life; but the infant don Philip 
showed yet greater attention to him than the rest. He 
gave him the titles of court poet, inspector of the theatres, 
and secretary of the fine arts. He died at Parma, Decem- 
ber 20, 1768. His poems are much esteemed by the Ita- 
Kans, and his songs, in particular, were.the delight of his 
contemporawes. An edition of this author's works was 
published at Parma in 1779, in lOvols. 8vo. They con- 
sist of every species of minor poems. ' 

FRUMENTIUS (St.), a Romish saint, is usually called 
the Apostle of Ethiopia, on account of bis having first pro- 
pagated Christianity in that country, in the fourth century. 
He was the nephew of one Meropius, a philosopher of 
Tyre, who being induced to travel to Ethiopia, carried with 
him his two nephews, Frumentius and Edesius, with whose 
education he had been entrusted. In the course of their 
voyi^e homewards, the vessel touched at a certain port to 
take in provisions and fresh water, and the whole of the 
passengers were murdered by the barbarians of the coun- 
try, except the two children, whom they presented to the 
king, who resided at Axuma, formerly one of the greatest 
cities of the East. The king, being charmed with the wit 
and sprightliness of the two boyssi had them carefully edu- 

1 9iog. Dniin.-!!i-Clbber'8 Lirei. * Diet Hist, , 

I5i F R U M E N T f U S. 

^ale(i> dBd; when' ggown up, nsftde Ed^us bib eu^^b^rer^ 
and FrtimQotms, who was the elder, bis ti«|i9«irev fttid- se^ 
Gffetavy of s^aie, eHtr«9tiDg bim witk ali the fmbUe ivriti^s 
and ac€<Hui43. Nop were t^ey lesfrbig^y boiiaiii^ after 
tbe kiag's d^s^hr ^y tbe q^e<H)| who ym»i veg^et dump hits 
son's {Biiion^y. Frumenuusr bad tbe priacipal maoageioenfc 
of affairs, and soon tui^ned bi^ attention- to bi^er objecto 
tb^n tibe p(^ii^s of tbe • <$oaatvy. He met wttb some Re^ 
luan ii>0FobaB€s wbo traded tbere, died hating by theiv 
«ieans disQQVQred soi»9 Cbmtians wb(r wejfe in the king-» 
dom, be encouraged tbem ta associate for the purposes of 
feUgious wQcsbip ; aind at length erected a cbiir^k for their 
u^e; and certain natives^, ii^trueted in^ the gospel, were 
converted. Oa the young king's accession to the goveto** 
pieat,^ Fri|aienti;us, though Wiib much f^lneli8«ic0 on the 
part of %be king and bis aiatber, obtained lea?e to return 
%Q bis own country, £desiu» accordingly mtumed to 
Tyre I buf; Frunoentins-, on bis; ai^rival at A^ssaadvia^ ceon 
taunicated bis advenitures tx> Atbanasius ibe bishepy and 
informed bim of tb^e^ probability of ce^veftiii^ tbe counttjr 
%o Christianity, if rai^isianaeies' wc^e aent tbither. Ola 
pature consideration, Athansisi.'Oft' cold biiii> that none 
was so fit fine the: office as faijBiaelf> He consecrated him 
therefore ficst bisbopf of the Indians^ and Frumentras re^ 
^^ning to a people who- had bee^ ae(|Maint<id with bis 
iniegmy and capacity, preached the- gospel with* moeb 
aiAQcess, and erected many churches, akhou^ the em"* 
peror Constantius endeivv^eu^redtO' introduce Ariant^mv. and 
^tmally ordered that Frumentius. should be deposed; and 
an AriaiL bishop: appGanted;bittr the country was happily 
put q( his reach. Frunpentkis is sdipposed to bate died 
about the year 360^ The Abyssinia^^ boi»eur Mmas the 
apostle of tbe country of tbeAxuufiite&», which- is tbeniase 
eon sid arable jiart of their enipire. ^ 

F{IV£ (TjKOfiiAis),. an ingenious artist, was anative e£ 
Ireland,: where be w^ born in 1710. He came very earlj^ 
ta London^ when he practised portrait-paiatiog in oil^ 
crayons, and in niuMature. In 173^^ be bad the honour oS 
painting bis royal highness, Frederick prince of Wales^ ai 
All! leoglh> now in Sadler's<>hall, Gheapside. But- biisl 
geniiis was* not confined to this arty and k is said that be 
was the inventor and first manufacturer of porcelain ia 

k Butler's SaiDts.-*Milae('j( Cb. Eist, . > 

F E Y E. 153 

Ifiigbinid, aod lliat be spont flfi^iaii yeani of hit life m brings 
Hig tl^ to p«r£ectioB at a mairafectory at Bow,, ducing 
whiQb, bis opi)k9t4tutio» being iiapaired by coastaady work* 
V)g ia fornnce^, 1^ ^ettped ioto Waller, witb little bopje. of 
reeovery. Here, however, bis healjth^ wa,s perfeetly re-« 
at^red, ^nd bet returned again to London, and resumed hin 
pFQfessio% to which he now added the art of mezzotiatat 
eageaving, ai^d had coiisider^le employment and aoceess^ 
botb asr a patpter and engravet*. He' died o( a decUnei,, 
bpongbt QU by intense application, ApnUt 9, 1762. 
. I«* the first e&habition in- 1760 there was a balf-leogtb 
poc^r^it of the famous singer, Leteri^ge,, which was^ painted!' 
by! Fiye, and possessed very coosid^able mevk ; and in 
tho exbibition of tb^ following year be. also bad pictures iur 
all tbe different processes of oil-colours, cvayOns, and mi*^ 
ijiature. Qf bis mezzotiato productions,, there ares siit 
heisKis ais large as life ; one of tbem ihe porti^tof the artist 
bkni^elf ; to which, may be added two oilier portraits o# 
Mieii^ majesties,, the ^ame size with the former, but iitferiop 
i» exeoutioi). He bad issued pcx>posals in 1760 for twelve 
beads in the above' maaneff, btU we presume bis iHness and 
sfibsequent death prevented bis^ completing more than six ^ 
ip, these, however, be shewed rather more inidMstry thanl 
JMdgnaaiit; fiw no branch of efigraviug,. whether in mezzo- 
tinto, or in strokes, can be suited to the display of portraits) 
of such niiagnitude. ^ 


FUCH8, or FUCHSIUS (Leona«d), an eminent Ger- 
man physician and botanist, was bora at Wembding, iu< 
BsMi^aris^ in 15Q1. After a cla^cal education aJb Haalbfun» 
a0d £rfurt, be went in his nineteenth year to Ingoldstad«, 
where he pursued the study of the learned languages under 
Gapnius and Ceporinus, two eminent professon^ who hact 
embraced the doctrines of the reformation, which they 
imparted ta their pupil. He received the degree of master 
of arts in 1521, and having also studied medicine, was 
admitted to his doctor's degree in 1524. He first praC'-^ 
tised at Munich, where he married, and had a large family, 
and in 1526 he removed to Ingoldstadt, and was made 
professor of medicine; but his religion occasioning some 
trouble, be settled at Onoltzbach about two^ years after- 
wards^ under the patronage and protection of George, 

) Edfvards's Paiiitcrs. — StroU*6 DIctieaary.^Geut, Mag. vol. X^IV. 

156 F U C H S. 

margrave of Bayreuth. Here he was very suocessful as a 
practitioner, and published some treatises on the healing 
art. In 1533, the management of the university of Ingold-' 
stadt being committed, by William duke of Bavaria, to 
Leonard Eccius, a celebrated lawyer, acquainted with the 
meri^ of Fuchs, he procured his return to his former profes- 
sorship ; but his zeal for the reformed religion was still too 
prominent not to give offence, especially, we should sup- 
pose, to John Eccius (see Eccius), then a professor there, 
and he returned to Onoltzbach. Two years after, how- 
ever, he found an honourable asylum in the university of 
Tubingen, which Ulric, duke of Wirtemberg, had deter- 
mined to supply with protestant professors, and where he 
provided Fuchs with an ample salary, and every encou- 
ragement. In this place he remained until his death, May 
10, 1566. He died in the arms of his wife and children, 
full of faith and fortitude, having in the course of his ill- 
ness been observed to experience no relief from his suflfer- 
ings, but while conversing with his friends on the subjects 
of religion and a future state, which made him forget every 
thing else, and he expressed himself with all his usual 
energy and perspicuity. He was interred, the day zlter 
his death, in a burying-ground adjoining to the town, 
where his first wife had been deposited but little more than 
three years before. 

Some botanical remarks of Fuchs, relating principally 
to the Arabian writers, are found in the 2d volume of the 
^* Herbarium" of Brunfelsius. But the work on which 
hiis reputation in this study chiefly rests, is his " His- 
toria Plantarum,'* published at Basil in 1542, fol. with 
numerous wooden cuts. A German edition appeared the 
following year. In this work he chiefly copies Dioscorides, 
adding a few remarks of his own, and falling, as Hatler 
observes, into the common error of the writers of his time, 
who expected to find in their own cold countries the 
plants of those more genial climates where the ancients 
studied botany and medicine. The publication of Fuchs, 
l;hough nearly on a par with those of other learned 
men of his time, would probably have been long since 
forgotten, were it not for the transcendant merit of its 
wooden cuts, inferior to those of Brunfelsius alone in exe- 
cution, and far exceeding them in numbers They chiefly 
indeed consist of pharmaceutical plants, which though 
mere outlines, are justly celebrated for their fidelity and 

F U C H S. 157 

elegance. These original editions are become very rare ; 
but copies and translations of them, various in merit, are 
common throughout Europe. Amongst the poorest of 
these is a French duodecimo, printed at Lyons, under the 
title of Le Benefice Commun, in 1555, for which our 
author is certainly not responsible, and it is rather bard in 
Linnaeus to class him, on account of some such spurious 
editions, under, the heads of monstrosi and rudes in his 
*^ Bibiiotheca Botanica," though indeed he there properly 
stands amongst the usitatissimi with respect to his original 
edition. By some of his writings, especially his " Cor* 
narus fureus," published in 1545, against Cornarus, who 
had attacked his << Historia Plantarum'' in a work entitled 
.". Vulpecula excoriata,'" he appears to have been vehement 
in controversy, but in his general character and deport- 
ment he is said to have been dignified and amiable» with a 
fine manly person, and a clear sonorous voice. His piety^ 
temperance, and indefatigable desire to be useful^ were 
alike exemplary. As a lecturer he was peculiarly admired 
jftnd followed, especially in his anatomical courses. The 
famous Vesalius was present at one of his lectures, in which 
he found himself criticized. He afterwards familiarly ad- 
dressed the professor, saying,. '' why do you attack me 
who never injured you ?*' " Are you Vesalius ?" exclaimed 
Fuchs. " You see him before you," replied the former. 
On which great mutual congratulations ensued, and a 
strict friendship was formed between these learned men. 
Fuchs was so famous throughout Europe, that the great 
Cosmo duke of Tuscany invited him, with the offer of a 
salary of 600 crowns, to become professor of medicine at 
Pisa, which he declined. The emperor Charles V. also 
bora testimony to his merit, by sending him letters with 
the insignia of nobility, which honour also Fuchs for 
some time declined. He was indifferent to money, as well 
as to all other than literary fame. ^ His great ambition was, 
whenever he undertook in his turn the rectorship of the 
university, to promote good order, industry, and improve- 
ment among the students, whom he governed with paternal 
assiduity . and affection. Two colleges were always under 
bis immediate care, one of them founded by duke Ulric 
for. students of divinity alone, and more ampiy endowed 
by his son and successor. ^ . . 

' Melcjiior Adam in vlt. German, medic. — Niceron. rol. XVIJT.— Ualler 
BibWBot.«-p"Tbe latter part from £>r. Smith ']Xi Rses's Cydo^ae I. — Saxii Oaomast. 

158 FU E S S L I. 

FUE»»U, w FUS8LI (John Gasfard), a Swim «^^, 
•nd a man (^ considerable learnit^, was born at Kuhod 
in 1706. After acquiring the elenients of panttng from a 
very indifferent artist, he left his country in cbe .eigiite^h 
year of bis age, and going to Vienna, associated Mms^lf 
wdth Sedelnieier. Gran and Meitens were lus firincipal 
guides, if he could be said to have any other guide tbali 
bis own genius. He became well known at court, bat hbi 
love of independence indaced him to refuse very advanta* 
geous offers. He would not, faowerer, have probAVy ever 
left Vienna, bad not the prince of Sohwarzenburg per^ 
amaded him to go to Radstadt, where he beoaine the fa* 
irouarite of the court Among others whose portraits be 
painted was the margrave of Doutiwdi, wbo bad a gneat 
affection for him, and advised him to go tx> Ladmgsbmrg^ 
wfaicfa be did with letters of recooMneiidation to the duke of 
lA^irtemfaerg, who imroediateiy took bim into bis serviceL 
Mem be ipassed liis time very agreeably, making occasional 
excuMions to paiiiit the portraits of persons of diat&nction^ 
until the war of Poland, when the Entrance of the French 
itit» Gerowny threw every thing into confusion. The dobd 
bis patiron at the same time felt sick, and was reteeiretl to 
Sbtttgas^d, but on Fuessli's leaving him ie go to Nuremberg^ 
bis highness pnese-oted bim widi a gold watch, andceopiestwd 
bjn to ireturu when the state of public %1h.m wa^ changed* 
At Narembei^ he had a strong desire to see the ceMbrated 
9<itiflt Kupeski', of whose teanners lie had imbibed an un< 
>&voiirable impression, bwt he vi«s agreeably, disappointed^ 
and <they beoatne friends from dieir irst inberview. Alter 
semaimng <six «iontbs'at Nuremberg, the dtvke of Wirmsi'* 
beiig died, and flbere being no i«»(Medfate prospect of 
peaiee, FuesG^i returned to his own country, and in lV4d 
married. Akhougb bis wife was a very amiable woman^ 
be €ised to «ay that maniage was inoom|>atible with the 
cidlavation of the fine arts : if, 4)owet^, ne {ete ibimself 
^oadionally disturbed by domestic cares, be bad tbe hap'^ 
piiMsss t(5 comnMtmcate bis art to his three sotis^ How 
dolph, who settled at Vienna ; fleiity, at present so well 
known in Ekigland ; and Caspar, who died in ikm vigour of 
life, an entomologist of fidelity, disccinafination, and taste. 

Fuessli's talents and repuution procured bfan tlve ^friend- 
ship of the greatest artists of his time, and Mengsisentbiiii' 
his treatise '^ on the beautiful,^' which he published with 
a preface. Winkelmann, especially, lived in great intimacy 

E U E S S L I, 119 

with bim. HU ^aiaito for poetry adso procured tiftn the M- 
quaifttance and oorreeqpMidence of Keist, Klop^took^ Wie-* 
land, Boidaier, and Sreidi^guer, nor was he'les^ ^j^cted 
by many pcnoas of the first distinction in rKtifa, and iAs 
house was freqoeoted by all the Uteratr of his titne, whom 
he .delighted byliis eonversation-talents. Nor 'was be in- 
considerable Bs a patron of %he arts. He -gav^e lessons 
gratis to aiany young persons, and made Qollections tt 
acfiifit them in Hkeir studies and travels, eniiploying 4iis 
interest .with the gr«at only fot the b^6lit of •genius an4 
tidents. la 174^ and i742 he had ihe'iiiisforttune to lose 
bifl two friends Kupeaki and Rngefidas, both whose li^^fii 
he iwnate, mikd this employiaaent seems to have suggested to 
him ^ Tbe Lives of the Artist of Switzerland/' which he 
wKOtB with great elie^mce and oritwcai discrimination^ ' H6 
pnUhsfacd Bbo a ^^ Catalogue raisenn^ of the best £ngirav«- 
i^ga." ttis awn collection was uocon^monly lich^ in the 
finest apecioienA of that art Of his paintitigls, hiis son ap«- 
peals to the series of consular portraits, which he painted 
M&ef his return «to 24iiriob, engraved in ■mez-Eot^to by 
Pi-eisler and odaers, as a lair-^est of his style and ta^te. 
He died at Z«rich, May 6^ 4 784. His lives of Rngendas 
and Kupexki were pnidis^faed at Zurich in 1756 ; his Swiss 
Artists in 6 yols. 1769 — 1779 ; and his Cat^dogue of £n- 
graMcrs and their works, in 1770. Besides these he pub <» 
l^ed <^ Winkelmann's Letters to h^is' friends in Switzer«» 
land," 1778^ and Mengs f' On Beanty," in 1770.* 

FiJGGEM, (HuLDRic)^ an eminent benefactor to litera*^ 
ta^rcy was born, at Aiagsbnrg in 1526, and deserves a place 
in ithis woitk for his affection to learning and learned men^ 
His family was coninderable for its antiquity and opulence ; 
and Th^anus informs ms, tihat when Charlei V. changed 
the gOFernment ^f Augslnirg, in 1 548, he nominated the 
£smiiy of the Fuggers among Aose who thenceforward 
were to be raised to the dignity of senators. Yet this iU 
hotrious family, as all the genealogical writers of G^ro^any 
notice, sprang from a weaver, whe> in 1^70, was made 
firee of 4;he cky of Augsburg. Huidric bad been ehamb^er'^ 
lain to po^ Paul liL and afterwards tuiDed pix>testant. 
He laid out gr^eat suras in purchasing good manuscripts of 

ancient authors, and ''getting them printed; and for thi^ 

. ■• . 

1 Meister'g Portraits of Illustrious Men of Switzerlancl. — Pilkin^on's Diet, bj 

IM F U G G E R. 

purpose be for some time allowed a salaiy to the famom 
Henry Stephens. His relations were so incensed at him^ 
for the money he expended in this way, that they brought 
an action against him, in consequence of which he was 
declared incapable of managing his affairs. Thuanus, and - 
some other writers observe, that this sentence proK^ounced 
against Fugger plunged him into a deep melancholy, which 
accompanied him almost to his grave ; but it is asserted ia ' 
his epitaph, that he was unmoved at the shock, and that 
he was soon after restored to his estate. He had retired to 
Heidelberg, where he died in 1584; having, bequeathed 
:his library, which was very considerable, to the dector 
Palatine, with a fund for the maintenance of six scholars. ' 
. FULBECK (WiLUAM), an English law-writer, was the - 
son of Thomas Fulbeck, who was mayor of Lincoln at the 
time of his death in 1566. He was born in the parish of 
St Benedict in that city in 1560, entered as a commoner 
of St. Alban hall, Oxford, in 1577, and was admitted ^ 
scholar of Corpus Christi college about two years after. In 
1581 he took his baehelor^s degree, and the liext year 
became probationer fellow. He then removed to 01ou<» . 
cester-hall (now Worcester college) where be completed 
the degree of M. A. in 1584. From Oxford he went to ' 
Gray^s Inn, London, where he applied with great assi-» 
duity to the study of the .municipal law. Wood says, he 
bad afterwards the degree of civil law conferred on him^ : 
but where he had not been able to discover, nor is the 
place or time of bis death known. From an extract from 
bishop Kennet, in the new edition of Wood, it seems not 
improbable that he took orders. His works are, i. ^^ Chris- - 
tian Ethics," Lond. 1587, 8vo. 2. "An historical coUec-^ 
tion of the continual factions, tumults, and massacres of 
the Romans before the peaceable empire of Augnstur 
Caesar," ibid. 1600, 8vo, 1601, 4to. 3. " A direction or 
piteparative to the study of the Law,*' ibid. 1600, Sto, ^ 
afterwards published, with a new title-page, as ^* A pa- 
rallel or conference of the civil, the canon, and the com- 
mon law,** ibid. 1618. 4. " The Pandects of the Lawsc^ 
Nations; or the discourses of the matters in law, wherein 
the nations of the world do agree," ibid. 1602^ 4to. * 

FULBERT, bishop of Cbartres, who flourished tbvi^di - 
the end of the tenth and beginning of the eleventh cen» 

1 Bayle in Gen. Diet.-- Moreri. ^ Atb. Ox. new edit, by Blist, toI. I. 


i»vf, H cetebmtdd^ in di* Bomkh cburch. hi^ory, for hU 
leajruiiig: and .^iety* Some authors rank bkn among tiae 
obAMeliofB of Fraoce^ under the reigo of king Robert, but 
be .was ooly cbanaellor of tbe church of Cbartrefl, at the 
^aine time that he was rector of the school. He bad been 
himself a. disciple of the learned Gerbert, who was aft^- 
wiMxls pope Sylvester IL in the year 999. Fulbert came 
frooi Rome to France, and taught in the schools belonging 
to tbe ehurcb of Chartrea, which were then not pnly a^- 
' tended 'iiy a^gteat concoocseof scholars, but by his means 
cotitrilHitedi *gceatly to tbe revival of learning and religion 
.in Fraooe and Getisaoy ; and most o£ the eminent men of 
Jiis time thought tt :aQ bpnour to be able to say that they 
had been his scholars. In 1007 he suc^ceeded to the bishop*- 
ric of Chartxes, and the duke William gave him the oCBce 
of treasorei^ of St. Hilary of Poiuers, the pro6ts of which 
fulbert eoipbyed in rebmlding his cathedral church. He 
was di^inguisbed in his time for attachment to eoclesias'* 
tical discipline, and apostolic courage; and such was- his 
cbaraoter and f(ime, that be was higiily esteemed by the 
priocea and sovereigns of his. age, by Robert, king-wf 
£rano^ Canute, king of England ; Richard II. duke of 
Norsaandy ; William^ duke of Aquifcaine ; and the greater 
part of due contemponuy noblemen and prelates. He 
ooDtimied bishop of Cbartreafor twenty-one years and^x 
months^ and died, aoeordii>g to tbe abbe Fleuri, in 1029; 
))ut others, with more probikbility, fix that ^vent on April 
10^ Iil£d.. -. His woidLs, which were printed', not very jcop- 
raetljy-. by Charles do ViUieis in 1608, consist of letters, 
jemuos, and some Lesaer pieoes in prose and versa His 
eermonsy Dopia thinks^. contain little worthy of notice; 
bttt hia letters, which .amoumt to i84, have ev^r beencon«> 
eidbfcA as curious inemonals of tbe history ^nd sentimknla 
of the Junes. They pnohre, boweyer^tfaat although Fuibett 
laigkA ceatribute imuihito the propagation of learnings he 
liad.nat advanced in liberality <^f sentimemt befove bis eon^ 
teospctrams. Tfaera^ate klso two other letters of pur pre^- 
I^M .m texiatenoe, t|ie one in D'Acheri's ^Spictlegium,^ 
and tbe etheit ia Martcbae's <^ Theaaufus Anecdo^ocum/! 
both lUoatratiKe of his jentimejota, and the aentimeflilM of 

liisage.^ ■*. ''"' 'V  


Vol, XV. „ .' M '■, 


:t49 F V htH. NTI US. 

<- FUC&ENTIUS (St.) an ecdcriastical writer^ was bortt 
««t Tri^pu^ or Teltepte, almit tbe year 468. He waa^of 
^ti iHastrioits family, ibe son of X^taodiusi and grandson of 
«6brdiiuius, b. senator of XIarttiage. Claodias flying early, 
^laft hit^ son/ tiben very youag, to. tbe care of bis widoar 
4tfariana. He was^prof^eriy educated in the knowledge of 
tbe Latin and Greek langaages, aiid made sucb progvess 
in- bis studieS) that while yet a boy be oooid repeat all 
•Udm^r^^tod spoke Greek with fluency and puritjr. A 
^-sooft^MiR) was capable of an enploymeni l^e was.florade 
^procuiMor or receiver of tbe revemies of ;fais province, 
•l^at tbit/ situation dispteased him, because of tbe ^geur Ji6 
was forced to use in levying taxes; and therefore^ not- 
withstanding th^ tears and dissuasions of bis mother, he 
leA%he wortd, and took the monastic, vows under Fanstu^ 
a bishops pcfrsecuted by the- Ar ian faction, who bad founded 
•amon^tery in that fietghbourbood. The continued peiw 
%eeu^orl^-^'tbe Arian)$ soon separated ^htm and.Faustus^ 
■and not long after, the incursions of the Moors obliged 
btid to r^fttre into tbe country of l^cca,: where be 'Was 
^«Mpp6d';litid' iddprisoned. ^ Afterwards .be resolved tO'gls 
imp'kgfpt; but in bia voyage was dissuaded by Euhitos 
IfMici^^of • Synccilse, becniase tbe monks of theJEa^Jiad 
aeparated from ^ibe-catholic churcbw He consulted >alaei 4 
bikn^ ^Africa, who bad retired: into; SiciW:L-aiid. tlal 
bishop- iidvised him tatetumtobis o«sn. country^ after 'jUc 
bad floade^'a jciorney • tO' Home.- - Kintg Tbeodorie wasJoii 
that 'city wb^u be arrived* tbere^ ^iKfaicbi.waES'in:.:tbeijDetHp 
509. After be bad visited tbe sepulcbfts of )tfa€^ apostles 
he returned to his oWAcoaatfy^ wterebebuiltamoQaatesjr: 
:, Africa was -tfaeii tiiider the dominion^ TbrasimondJciiig 
<it tbe Vandals, an- Arian, and ^a- cruel enemy tortba^JBa^ 
tbolics. He had forbidden tdotdain catboliC' bishsfiaiii 
Ibe room of tbdse who. died : but thelusbops ofAfricainaeNt 
determined not to 'obey m^ order iWbieb tbneaieadd the 
extfnction of orthodoxy^ Falgentios,«nder.tbeaeoeiresMii^ 
atalices, wished to avoid being ia bishop ;<aad wbeitideeiyftd 
for the see of Viata in the year JiOuT^ fled aodicainB^^isd 
BimMslf, but being soon diseoviaaad^ iaaaappotomdl>isbjDp: 
of Rnspe .much against faiS wilb ^< X)n tUa efevatfaoJi^ im 
not^ange either his habit or manner of lining,. I>tttiiised 
the same austerities and abstinence as before. He still 
loved the monks, and ddighted^b retire into a mohasti^jr 
as often as tbe business of his episcopal function allowed 

him time: * Afterwaidi be bad tbe same fate 9fiA aboiit 

two buiidred aod twenty catholic bishops of Africa, Wboioi 
•rThrasimond banished into the island of Sardinia^; and 

tfaough be was not tbe oldest among tbem, yet tbey pw4 

mocbi respect to. bis learaiog, as to employ his pen in alt 

:tfae^wfittaga produced in the name of their body. Slo 

:gfeat' was his raputation, that Tbrasimond had a curiosity 

to see and hear^bim ; and having sent for him to Carthage 

be proposed to him many difficulties, which FulgeotitU 

-sohed to h|s aaltsfactioo : but because he -confirmed the 

oatbolicf, and convefted many Arians, tbf^r bishop at 

•C^rtbage. prayed the king to ^nd him back to. Sardioif* 

Tiairasimond dying about tbe year 523, his son Hilderlc 

Tdcalbsd the catholic bishops, of whom Fulgentius was one» 

.Ueretamed, to tbe great joy of those who were concerned 

«i«ithjbim, led a most exemplary life, governed bis olergy 

well, iafkd performed all tbe offices of a good bishop. He 

'dmd in theye8v.53S, on tbe first day of the year^ being 

>lib«^ sixty«>five. 

. His^wDrks, as. many of them as are extant, eonsistin^pf 

4octriaal treatises and some epistles,- bave^ oftff^ beOft 

panted j but the last and completeat edition is in one^or 

liime^ 4to^ Paris, i684. Fulgentius did not only foUqir 

Hboidoctrine of St. Austint but be also imitated bia.slyji^ 

I2is language, indeed, is not q^iite so pure ; but be ba^s^spt 

tUe same play of .words as St* Austin. Jie had a quick and 

aubtler-^IHrit, which eaaily comprehended whatever be ap^r 

pliediximaelf to learn ^ aod be had a clear aod copious way 

of seiqag it off; too copious indeed, for he often repeats 

tbe^Mme .things in different words, and turns the question 

iptany.differeDt ways. He was deeply versed in tb^e holy 

fcripturea, andas well read in. the fathers, particularly St. 

. Au9^ : but,. as he loved thorny and scholastic questiopi^ 

Jbetenetimesintrodttcedtbem in thedUcussion of mysteries,^, 

. jt F0LOE.NTIUS PLANCIADES (Fabius), who is somer 

tnwnr. Gonfoonded with tbe preceding St. Fulgentius, ia 

dujppoaed so bave^beep bishop of Carthage in the sixth ceii^ 

ttuy^ Jiiiit some think not before the eighth or ninth. He 

ia^ili^Autbor of three books of my thoIogy,< addressed to 

one €at08,:<a priest. They were first published in 1 4:999 

dr JttiUn^ in, folio, by Jo. Bapt Pius, who added a cpmmei>.T 

- ''•b 

. 9r J>upUi.««CMet vqU l.'-»|fortri.-r-Miiner*s Ch. HUt. vqI. HI, p. l.-»S^xii 

M 2 

1*4 F U L G E N T I \J'S. 

taiy. Jerome Commelin reprinted them in 1599, with tlie 
works of other mythologists. There is likewise a tr^tise 
by hitn ** De Prisco Sermone, tiA Cbalcidiuin," published 
by Hadrian Junius, at Antwerp^ 1565^ atbl^ mth Nonius 
Marciellus, and afterwards reprirtted with the " Auctores 
Lingoae Latinse," Paris, 1586, '^nd eVse#fiere, Hiswoirfts 
are now rather curious than valuable, as they bear the im- 
press of the dark age in which he lived.* 

FULGOSO (Baptist). See FREGOSO. 

FULKE (William), a eeleb^ated English divine^ abd 
tbaster of Pembroke-hall, Cambridge, was bdrn in Lbn- 
Uon, and educated in St. John's college, Cambridge, of 
"which he was chosen fellow in 1564. He wds a youth of 
•great parts, and of a very high spirit. When a boy at 
school, he is said to have betrayed great anger and mor- 
tification oh losing a literary contest for ^ silver pen> with 
the celebrated Edmund Campian, and as the latter was 
edjucated at Cbrist*s hospital, this incident s^fns to prove 
that Fulke was of the same school. Before he becamj^ 
fellow of his college, be complied with the wishes of his 
father, by studying law at Clifford^s-inrt, but on his return 
To the university, his inclinations became averse lo thitt 
ptirsuit, and he was unable to conquer them*, althoug^b his 
rather refused ro support him any longer. Y6ung Fultci?^ 
however, trusted to his industry and endowments^ ^ifd 
soon became a distinguished scholar in mathematics, lat|- 
fruages, and divinity. Having taken orders, bis early io:^ 
timacy with some of the puritan divineis induced him to 
preach in favour of some of their sentiments respectiW 
'%., the ecclesiastical habits and ceremonies. This occuft^ 

about 1565, and brought upon him- the censure ctf the 
chancellor of the university, which, it is said, proceeded 
to expulsion. On this he took lodgings in the tdi^ t)tf 
Cambridge, and subsisted for some time by reading W!r 
lures. His expulsion, however, -if it really took ' pIiK^^ 
which seems doubtful, did not lessen his general teputai^ 
lion, as in 1569 there was an intention to choose him o^as*-^ 
ter of St. John's college, bad not archbishop Parker ihleP-? 
fered ; but about the satne time he found a patron in Ihb 
earl of Leicester, who was more indulgent to the ^ritana^ 
and who received Mr. Fulke into his bouse, as hi^ domestic 

> Mof^rL-^^Baillet Jugemeib;^ — Clarke's BIbliograpliicar Ijictiobarjr.— 

Onomast. in Piaaciadea^ 


F U L K £• 4€5 

clmpUJn. It was noyf also that he fell under the cUarge 
^of being qojDcerned in some unlawfal ixsarrkges, and ip 
such circutnstanpes thought ii his duty to resign his feUow* 
$hrp9 biU baring honoutably accjuitted in an examination 
before the bishop of Ely, he was immediately re^elect^cl 
by the college. 

In 1571 the earl of Essex presented him to the rectory 
of Warley, in Ebs^x^ and soon after to the rectory of Ke^ 
dington^in Suffolk, ^nd about this time he tpok his doctor^s 
degree at Cambridge, and was iiicorpprated in the same 
'at<?X'ford. His degree at Cambridge w^s in consequence 
qf tt mandanitu from the earl of Ks>;i^ex, that he might be 
iquati£ed to accompany the earl of Lincoln, who was then 
gom'g as ambassador to the court of France. Upon bis 
ratbrh be was chosen master of Pembroke-hall, and as 
IfVood says in his Fasti, Margaret professor of divinity^ 
but Buker, in a MS note on Wood) sayf he never held tha 
ktter office. 

Irt' (5S2, Dr. Fulke, with other learned divines, was 
<$ngaged in a' public disputation with certain Roman 
catholics, in the Tower, and had to contend again with 
liiif old school-fellow Campian, but was more ' success* 
ipL Be died in the month of August, 15^9, and was 
l)orie4 in the chancel of the church at Kedington^ where 
if «in inscription to his memory, partly in Latin, and partly 
tn English. His was married, and had a large family, to 
niiomne appears by his will to bare been able to bequeath 
cohsiderable property. To Pembroke^hall he beqireatfaed 
a^ piece of plate, to be called Dr. Fulke's cup, and used 
only at commencements and solemn feasts. 
*^' His works, chiefly controversial, ve, I. " Anti-prog** 
nosticon contra predictiones Nostradami," &c. 1560. ^» 
*^'Sermon at Hampton-court," 1571. 3. " Canfutatbn 
^f a libelle in forme of an apology made by Frocknam,** 
l^K 4. ♦* A goodly gall«y, or treatise on meteors,^* 
li7i. 5. f< Astrologus ludus," 1571. 6. ^ Metpomaxia^ 
shts Liidus geometricus," 1578. t. ^ Responsio ad ThoK 
Stapletoni cavillationes," 1579. B. ^^ A retentive against 
the motives of Richard Bristow; also a discovery of the 
dangerous rock of the popish church," 1 580. 9. *^ A de* 
fence of the translation pf the Holy Sicnptures in ^nglifcb>^^ 
1583. 10. ** Confutation of Will. Allen's treatise in de*» 
fence x>f this usurped power of the popish priesthood.*' But 
die work by which be is best known, and is still remembered 

U6 F U L K E. 

with high esteeni) is his Comment apon the Rh^ims Te«ta« 
ment, printed in 1 580^ suid reprinted in 160 i with this title': 
** The Text of the New Testament of Jesus Christ, trans- 
lated otit of the vulgar Latin by the Papists of the traiterous 
Seminarie at Rhemes.4 With arguments of books, chapters, 
tind annotations, 'pretending to discover the corruptions of t 
divers translations, and to dear the controversies of these 
days. Wberennto is added the translation out of the ori* 
ginai Greeks commonly used in the Church of England ; 
with a confutation of all such arguments, glosses, and an<- 
notations, as containe manifest impietie of Heresie, Tlrea^ 
SOD, 'and Slander against the Catholike Church of Go3, 
and the true teachers thereof,- or the translations used hi 
the church of England. • The whole worke, perused and 
enlarged in divers places by the author*s owne hand be* 
fore his death^ with sundry quotations and authorities out 
of Holy Scriptures, Counsels, Fathers, and History. More 
^ amply than in the former Edition.'' This work was pub- 
li$he4 again, 1617 and 1633, in folio, as it was befot'e, 
Und proves that in power of argument and criticism, he 
was one of the ablest divides of his time, and one bf 
.' the principal opponents of the popish party. One otb^r 
" woric has Men attributed to him,^ we know not on tvhat 
; authority, which was published iinder the name of Mr^ 
■^ l^ttdley Feoner; entitled "A brief and plain dechratioh, 
' containing the desires of all those faithful ministers Who 
[ seek discipline and reformation of the church of Engla^, 
which n^y serve as a just apology againrst the fiilse accli« 
^sations and slanders of their adversaries,"^ 1584. Ha^ifig 
^ never been molested oti account of his opinions, unless 
when at college, there seems no reason why he should n6w 
publish them under another name.' 

FULLER (Isaac), was an English painter of some'^note 
ih the reign of Charles IL but of his family or masCefs^^e 
bave no account, except th^t be studied many years-^in- 
France under Penrier, who engraved the antique stat^l^s. 
In his historical compositions he has left little to admil-e, 
his colouring being raw and unnatural, and not compen- 
sated by disposition Or invention, but in portraits his peticil 
was bold, strong, and masterly. In the latter he Was 
inucb employed, particolariy at Oxford. His own porti^is 

• • Folkr*9 Wbrtbi€fl.~Wood*s flNa^Vrooi'S P<n{laiii;--5ti7iw^ PsrkcCi 

^ U t L E R. \^ 

lA^lie gallery there is touched with great force. >Qd cli%* 

nei:9r. The akar^piece of Magdalen was f^sQ by hihi, 

hut baa not been much approvcnl.. As an iimiuitio^ qi 

{^icbel Angela, itfaUs far sbortof the sublinpe* .aitbpMgh 

tomeueiea wild ioiaginatton of thai great artist; ^or is the 

v^kwrbig harmonious. Some of the figureSt bpwever, ar;^ 

<;orrectly drawn ; and be has at l(Mat imitated the temper 

of^MMiel Angelo with success, in introducing iKBong tb^a 

daoinedt the portrait of an hostler at the GreybQund-inny. 

Mar the cdlege, who bad offended him. Th6 picture^- it 

ia.well knowoi was honoured by Addison in an elegant 

Latin poem* At Wadham college is an altar*clotb by 

Fuller ki a singular manner, and of merit ; wbicK i^ just 

brushed over fpr the lights and shades, and |be coloufi 

9)elted in with a hot iron. Soon after the restoration, be 

- 9ras engaged in painting the circumstances of king Charles 

:JV$ escape^ which he executed in five lars;^ pictiires* 

These were presented to the parliament. pf Irehin(r> where 

^ ihey remained for many years in one of ;^be jcooms of t^ 

' pariiameot house in Dublin. But some time ib tfie^Wt 

ceiiturj the bouse undergoing a thorough f€y[>4^^,' tb^fo 

7 fHctur^s were not replaced, but lay neglected, until tli^y 

: were rescued by the late earl of CUnbrassil, i^ho obtained 

^possession of them^ and had them. cleaned ap.d rempyed to 

^ hi^ «eat at Tullympre park, co. Down,, wbefe^^ey, we^ a 

'^ i%yv jean ago. Lord Orford speakjs . aligbtingly ^^^ thf^ 

jwbiobhe had never seeuj and probably with as pii'uc^ujp* 

. liee aa of Fuller's altar«piece at All-spuU Qpllege^ y^^ph 

^ )be qever could have seen, for Fuller bad no picture there* 

'Fuller died in moomsbury-square July ij, 167^, ,andl J[fft 

X ^-m^f w ingenious hut idle mao, chiefly i eopployed^Jia 

coach -painting, who died youpg*'.. ./. . i-, y 

^y, FULLER '(NiCHaUA))*a le$irned r^Englisb .;c(iv^iM^' and 

^tic^ . was bom at Sfoutbampton; in. l jlS*?, .and e^uca^fl^at, 

tbjpiree-!Scbool in that town* H^ di^ nof g^^^^re^^ly theuice 

$0 tbe university, but was. tak^^n into ih^ .family o£ ^e 

bishop of Winchester,rDr. Robert^orne^^ wbereapeyn^ing 

tome time in study, be was made^ ^t, length, t^is.secj^etafy, 

, an4 afterward^ coiutipifed in- thiajt ^office : by' his sifcy^^r^ 

2>r^; Watson. But Watson. dying fiUo in about tbr^ y^^^f 

J Fuller leturnpd bomjQ, with a re^qlutioh to., ^^Ilavy ||ij|,'^u- 


iAei. B€f6te he wa:^ seeded tb«t^, ht wfts itivitdd MrJbr 
Ultof td the sons of a knight in Hampisbit^ev ivfae'iii hf& W^ 
dbtn^nied to St. John's college, Oxford, in 1 584^ Hi^ 
^iipits leaving hiin in a little ttoie, be removed htfntoil'>Mi 
Hart- ball, whend he took both the degfrees in aitsy-anifc 
tten retired into the country. He afterwards took onAeri^ 
attd fvas pr^sent^cl to the rectoi^ of Aldington, or AHIng- 
ifon, near Am^sbovy, in Wiltshire. He aftervf avUte bedatnn 
a prebendary m the church of SaUsbufy*, aftd- recidr ct 
Bishop^s-Waltham, in Hampibire. He died in 962^ 
He Wa^ extremely Jearned in the sacred tongues, 'aad,' a» 
Wood quaintly says, '< was so bappy in pitching npon ti^^ 
Al diffieultiei, tending to the uivder^tanding of I'be Sorip4 
ture, that he surpassed aH the ciritics of bis tiiae *^ « ttts 
^ iMfstetlanea Tbeologica,'* in four bbokS) were puUiriied 
iil*9t at Heidelberg) 1612^, Svo, and allber^atds at Chelb#di| 
ifi 16 1 6, a^d at London, in' 1617, 4to. These miscaila^ 
tii^ coming into the hands of John Drusitis, in HoUand, 
he charged Fuller ' with pt&giari^m, and with talung hM 
b(tet notes froEti htm without any ackaov^ledgment^ Buff 
Fultei', knowing himself gniltless, as having n^ver ^een 
Btui^ius^s worics, published a irindioation o4f himsetf ailt 
l^^yden, fii 1'622, together wirii t\^'<^mot*e books' Krf<< Mi«c 
6elkuiea Sacra,'^ Leyden and Strasburgh, 1*6^50, Atso, AH 
A^90 mlsceltnnie^ aVe printed* in the ^ib volume ef tb^ 
Gtitici 8a6ri^'- and dispersed t*roughoutf^ool*s "^Synop^ 
eritieonuh." The»e are sotac maniisertpw of Filler in 
. die Bddhsian Kbrary at Oxford, which shew bis great skift 
in Hebrew and in philological learning ; as *»* An Eteposi** 
lioM of rabbi Mordecai Nathan's Hebrew Rtx>t9, wf th miMi 
«|^o«i it," Imd *< A LexicM,*' wbtdi he kift^ded to. ha(?A 
published with the preceding.' 

FULLBR (THOi$lA8), an Engli^.histo^nan and^ diiine^ 
#fts the son bf the ret. Thomas Fuller, njtntster of 8ii 
Pdti^r's, in Aid-v^incle, in Nonhamptorishit^, «nd fimt 

^ ^ fa the Aatn«y MSS. his ^r^aeittii* K1kU»|) seit fMr iiAdi, $rid ibe pqi^ fpstm 

tmo to the prebend m thus tneotioned. wait jafrayd, aod knew i>pt Q'hat bwf± 

. After noticing that bishop Andrews he had doiie. tie maies him siri 

aatde ft poiM to prefer *' m^eAiose per- dftwa m dittli^ and, aatr |fae •4<MKf 

|qqa tbat were si^Jfed to poor fiTin^t ^^ Woq^h^ v^ i|i a dii^ ^ ip^tftHkio^ 

and did delilescere,'* he adds that the and induction* or the donation of t 

Biyh<yp ** m^de h bis idnq[u}rv to and prebetid, «4iicht«a^ Ufs ^y:*> letrert' 

#ut such men. Amoosstsereral others, written by eminent persunsj &e* 3 :roif« 

aeerAmesbury^ in Wilts, was one. The 

1 Ath. Ox. rot I.— Poller's Worthies. , 


ill' 1$08. Tk^ cfattf ^assWfaMe lie had in tte tv^U 
iMotR of learoiiig wtB from his fether, under wtiom he 
ntde sa extraordiDary a pragress, Uiat he was sent at 
tmhre yeara of ago to Q,«eeit*s-coUege, in Cambridge i 
SiL/D«yenMty «rho was his mother's brother, being t^^i 
QMister ol ity aUd soon after bishop of Saiisbuiy^ He look 
his degrees in arts^ that of A. B. in 1024^5, and th^t of 
A. Ml 18 ISMy and would have beeu fellow of the colleges 
iNit tbera l>eiag already a Nonfaaniptonshire man a fellow^ 
fafe was prohibited by the statutes from being chosen, ami 
eteho«gh be might bare obtained & dispensation^ ho pre4 
liayred reneiring to Sidney-coUege, in the anme universityi 
He hud uot been long there, before he was-ehoseti uii^^ 
iriHer of S«» Bennetts, in the town of Cambridge, aud sooi» 
tocmoie a very popular preacher. In 1631, he obtained m 
fellowship in Sidney-college, and at the same time a pr^ 
bend m the chUreh of Saltsbury. This vear also he issued 
Ms 0rst pablieation, a wofk of the poetical kind, now bet 
Kslle koi^wn, eatiitled ** David's Haineus Sin, Heartie Aor' 
fMadtances, and Heavie Punishment,^* in a thin 8yo. 
< He waasooti ^er ordained priest, and presented to tb^ 
aectory of Broad Windsor, in Dorsetshire ; in 163^5 fad 
eame again to Camsbridge, and took his degree of B. Dl 
after which, reMirning to Broad Windsor, he married abbui 
M9Bj and had one son^ but lost bts wife about 1541: 
&uniig hfs retiretnent at this Irectory, be began to eom'^ 
plete several works he bad planned at Canibridjge ; Imt 
gnlwing weary of a country parish^ a^nd uneasy at the un<* 
settled state of publie aflairs, be remOTed to London ; and 
distieguisbed himself so much in the pulpits there, that 
he. was inviited by the master and brotherhood of the Savoy 
to be their lecturer. In i640, he published his *^ History 
pf the Holy War ;** it was printed at Cambridge, in folio, 
Stid'was so favourably received, that a third edition ap-< 
peared in 1647. On April 13> 1640, a parliament was 
ealled, and then also a convocation began at Westmiusteri 
In Henry VIL's ehapel, having licence granted to make new 
entionSi for the better government of the church ; of thi4 
eowrocation he was a member, and has amply detailed its 
proceedings in his ** Church History." During the com* 
piien^ement of the rebellion, and when the king left Lon-* 
dimn in 1644, to liaise an army, Mr. Fuller continued at the 
(Savoy, to the great satisfaction of his people, and thd 
lieighboUJing nobility and gentry, labouring all the while 

tn r u L L E & 

m pn^fte a»4 io paUic to aenrc the timg. To tlw 
oo tke aonhfcnoTf of lut ioaagonooD, MaoA 27, l€Mp 
be pfeacbed at Wesunimter-ebbejr, on tliistezt, S Smm^ 
jcix. 30/. ^ Yea, let km take allt to that ay kmi tbe Jung 
mmn in peaee ;^* fffaidi being primed^ gnre great ofleaae 
to tboie wbo were engaged in the opposkiooy and brangbft 
the preacher into no tirall danger. He sdoo found that 
be nHut espect to be •tlenDedaod ejected* as olben bad 
heeo4 yet desuted not, till be cstber vat, ortbongbt baair 
erif wnettlrd Tbts^appeamfepai what be aaja im-ikm 
preface to-, bis 'Mioty^ikate^" ifriu^b was printed i»Ailin 
that saaie ye^r at Cainbrtdge-^ Tbis is a coUeeuoD of cbn^ 
sacum, moi9l ess^aand liresy ancient, ibr^gn, and'doit 
neitie. Tbe second edition of 1648^ cootaba ^ Awdm- 
QSCtti^ or tbe onfonuoatc^ politician/' originaHy piialed 
by stsdf io 1 646, 1 2oio. 

In 1643, refusing to tabe an oath la the.pariianMM^ 
milesa with such resenwa as tbey would ooi admit, be 
obliged in April of tha^year U> convey, himself to the 
at Oxford, wbo received bim g^ly. Aa bu majes^ bad 
beardof bis extraordinary abilities in the pulpit, be was 
BOW desirous of knowing them peraoqally ; juid acoordtng^ 
Fuller /preached before him at St. Mary's chnrcb< Uis: foe- 
tone opoO' this occasion was very singular. . He bad he* 
fore preached and published., a- sermon in London^ ^npon 
f* the new^moolding cbusob-refurfuation,". wliicb caosttd 
him to be censored as too hot a royalist^^ and now^. fropi 
bis seimoD at Oixfetd,,. be was thought tobe too luhewnnw ; 
which oan« ooty be ascribed to hiamodeiatiou,. . which <be 
woold . sincerely have ioeulcated in earii party, aa the 
only means of reoonoiliQg both. During hia stay bere^ he 
resided in Lincoln college^ but was not long, after seqoes- 
tered, andloataU bis^boobs and.manuaoripts. This Ices, 
ibe heaviest he cofldd ^sustain,, was - made up to hint partly 
by Henry lord Beaucbamp, an^ partly by Liosel.Crao^- 
field, earl of .Middkae^,. >wbo gave him the remains of his 
father's lihaary. That, .however, ,he might not lie undiar 
^ the suspicion of want of zeal or courage in thoToyal ca«ie, 
be determined, tp . join tbe;anny.;. and. tbereforc^ ' 
well recommended to air Ralph Hopton, in 1643^ be 
admitted by him in.<|uaUty of chaplain. For this emplay- 
ment be was quite at liberty,; being 4^nved.Qf ftUi other 
preferment And. now, * attending the. army from plaoaito 
piacf, he cQustwtl^r exercised .bi^ duty . ia. c^aplwi; »7^l 

FULL EJR« 171 

ftaftd proper intervals for bis beloved .studies, whickr he 
eoiployed chiefly in making historioal collections, and 
especially in gathering materials for bis '^ Worthies of Eog* 
laad,^' which he did^ not only by an extensive correspond* 
eftce, but by personal inquiries in every place which the 
army had occasion to pass through. 
:; After the battle at Cberiton-Down^ March 39, 1644^ 
lard Hopton drew on his army to Basing^house, and Fttller^ 
being left there by him, animated, the garrison tp so vi*- 
gorotts a defence of that place^ that sir William Waller vaa 
obliged, to raise the siege with considerable loss. But the 
«ar hastening to an end^ and part of the king^satmy being 
^siven into Cornwall, nnder lord Hopton, Fidler, with the 
^sve.of that nobleman, took eefnge at Exeter, where he 
jresun^d his studies, and preached constantly to the citi* 

zens. During his residence here he was appointed chap- 
Jails to the infant princess Henrietta Maria, who was bora 
HSt Exeter in June 1643; and the king soon after gave 
^m a patent for his presentation to the living of Doi^chee- 
hstfi in Dorsetshire. He continued his attendance en the 

prinMss till the surrender of Exeter to the partiamenl^ in 
\ April 1646; but did not accept . the livmg, because he 

determined to remove to London at the expiratixm of the 

war. He relates, in his ** Worthies,'* an extraorctinafy 

circumstance which happened during the siege- of Exeteii: 
*M When the city of Exeter, he says^ waa besieged by the 

paurliament forces, so that only the south side .thereof to- 
. warda-the sea was open to it, incredible numbers. of- larks 
^ were found in that open quarter, for multitude .19^ jqu^s 

in the .wilderness; though, blessed be God, unlike tfaem 
'- in the cause and edSect ; as not desired with man'e^estruo- 

tien, nor sent with God's anger, as aimeared by their safe 
, digestion into wholesome nourishment* ^ Hereof I was an 
veyecand mouth<witness. I will save my credit in not coe- 
- jecturiog any^ number; knowing that herein, though I 
^ should itoop beneath the truth* I should mount wove 

belief. They were as. plentiful; so that being sold 

for two-pence a dospeu uid under, the poor wbe could have . 
: no cheaper, aiid the riob no better meat^ make pot«i 

: titge of them, bottieg them down therein. Several. causes 
' were assigned hereof, &c. but the cause of causes wasthe 

-Divine Providence ; thereby providing a .feast for many 
' npoor people^ who otherwise had been pinched > for pqo<* 
-: l^lttOQ*'^ \^hUe ber^> ^ every where lA^f he vae intijph 

112 FULLER. 

coiirlsed on aocbunt of bis inbtructive and pleasant coriver* 
sation, by persons of bigb rank, some of whom made hita 
very liberal offers ; but whether from a love of study, or a 
spirit of independence, he was always reluctant in accept* 
ing any offers tb^t might seem to confine bini to any oo^ 
family, or patron. It was at £xeter, where be is said to 
hav<e written hi» *^ Good Thoughts in Bad Times/' aud 
where the book was published ifi 1645, as what be calls 
*^ the first fruits of Exeter press.'' At length the garrLion 
being forced to surrender, he came to London, and me< 
but a cold reception among his former parishioners, and 
f^nnd bis lecturer's place filled by anotber. However, it 
was not long before be was cboten lecturer at St. ClemeutX 
near Lombard-street ; and sbortly after removed to St; 
Bride\ in Fleet-sttieet* In 164*7 he published, in 4tp, 
'^ A Sermon of Assurance, fourteen years agoe preached 
hib Cambridge, since in otber places ; now, by the impor* 
tvnity of his friends, exposed to public view.^ He dedi- 
cated it to sir John Danvers, wbo bad been a royalist, was 
tben an Oiiverian, and next year one of the king's jud^s; 
and in the dedication he says, that *Vit bad been the plea- 
s^iveof the present authority to make bim mute; forbid- 
ding bim till further order tfa^ exercise of bia public 
preaebing.'* Notwithstanding bis being Ibus silenced, be 
wa% about 164B, presented i» the rectory of Waltbam, in 
Essex^ by the earl of Cs^rKsIe, whose cliaplain be vsas jus^ 
before made* He spent that an^l the following year betwixl 
London and Waltfaam, employing some engravers to adorii 
bis cppious prospect or view of the Holy Land, as froni 
mount Pisgab ; therefore called bif ^* Pii»gah*sight of Pa^ 
lestine and the confines thereof, witb tbe bistory of tliet 
Old and N^w Test^qsent ^ct^d tbereon," which he pofrr 
lished in 16J(X It is an handsome folio, embellished wi^h 
a frontispiece and ipany other copper* plates, aiid dividefl 
into five books. As for his ** Worthies of j^ngtaud,*' on 
wbiefa be had been labonring so long, the death of the 
king for a time disheartened him from tbe co|Uinuance of 
that work : ^ For what sball I wrile,^^ says be, ^ of the' ' 
Worthies of England, when this horrid act will bring siich 
an h^my upon die whole natioii as will ever clivud and 
dSMtken ail iu flMrmery and suppress its ftitnre ftsing ghN^ 
ri^sT* He Was, tb^refore^ bqsy till the year lastineii*' 
tieo^, in preparjnfT that book and olhem; qad.sbc neplt 
ymc'h^ rather employed l^fauelf in pnfaUshing^6Qle'|Mur;>, 

r u L L I ft m 

Ucolir Ktes of retigidiu refbraier8> anartytv^ KsMl^sMri^ 
bisfatopt^ doctors, Md odmr leained divinds, foreign aiid 
dom^tic, tban in augttieatitig his said book iX ^ Engliih 
Woftbiei'^ in gerievai. To this collection^ which w«b tze- 
cdted by sereial hands, as he tdls os in the p^fiscey^He 
gave the title of f' Abel Redivivus,'^ and ptiblishiieda^in^tb, 
1651. In. the two or three following j^ara be ^nwtdd 
sereral Sermons dad tracts upon religioos subjects* Abovt 
1654 he married a sibter of the vkscotot Baltioglasse ; and 
the next year she bhUiigfat 'hin a son, ivbo, esweUaBthte 
c«bec' b^fore-m^ntwliedy Mrtiired bis father. In 1>^$1, 
tiotwiihstahdiiig Ci*oiii[wieiPs prohibition of all persona fron 
preachioe, or teaching schooli wbp had been «dberedMa tt> 
-the late Kinc^y be 'contoviied preaching, and bxerdng his 
bbarUable disposiiidR towards. those AHttisieta who wepo 
ejected by td^ usurping powers^ and not oaly relievitd 
'Such fro^ what 'he (Couid spare out of his own slender 
estaiey Smk procured tmaay contributions for them from bis 
auditories. Nor was bis charity confined to the clergy ; 
fend among the laity H^hom be befriended, there i^ ah 
iWsbhce upon recofd of a ^^ptkiti of the army wh6 Ws 
quite destitute, and whom he entirely snalnlkiheduntit he 
died. In 1656 be published in.folio, "The Cjiurcb His- 
tory 6f BritiiiV, ' from the birth of Jesus 'ChHst to the year 
1648;**; ip* which are subjoined, "The Wstory of the 
Uhiv^rsity of Caihbridge sinc6 the conquest/' and ** The 
Histoty ofWaltharh Alitjey in Essex,* founded by king 
Hai-oT(V*  ilis Cliurch Sistory was anirtiadverted tipoti 
by Dr.' Hey 1 in in his ** Examen lflistoi*icum ;'* and this 
di'efw frbfh bur Author a jfeply : after which they had 
no further controversy, but were very well reconciled*^ 
Abo^t this time he was irtvited^ according to his biogra- 
pher, to ^bother :IiVihg in Iftssex, irt which he continued 
"his ministerial 'la1)ouTs until his siettlement at London. 
G6orge,,lord Berkeley, one of his noble patron^, having 
in 165^8 made faita his fchaplaih,' h^ took leave of E*ssex, 
and was Jjfesented by bis lordship to the rectiory of Cran- 
ford ih Middlesex. It is said also that lord Berkeley tdok 

^^ Iiv tikft liiitcrft 4iia s))|}eiitfhi» tyy<ii»eri|)fnmi whtth •w atM iMa i J *t» 

jrbHAi rteke bit (M^ vpkimt i it i« obr> bis {^articular friends »ud beBe£actor«.** 

lenrabje tbst he has/ with a4ihiral/ie This swells the bulk of it to at least 

«i»iintrtfDoe, teftro^idecl *4wHv^ title- the airnotlnt of fhHy sheet*. -H^y^tn; 

|nf«9 btuMct «k8 ftterfti ooti t»d Wbo t«ICcB notice of ^haiKs mattei*^ -«q« 

** at maoy particidar dedkations* and tures him forValking io this uQtro^ 

n* 7 U L L £ K. 

.ham dvertalli^ Higue, and iftttodiiced him to Charles li. 
Itis'cefCiiiiy however, that a short time before the resto- 
'ratioDy Fuller was Te*admitted to his ieottire in the Savoy^ 
and on that event restored to hit fvabend of SaHriMiiy. 
lie viVB chosen ehapiaui vxtraorcBnary to the king ; crested 
.dficlDr of divinity at Cambridge by a mandamos, dated 
AogttstS^ lesoi and, had he uv^ a twelvemonth longer^ 
would probably have been ratted to a bishopric. But upo^i 
his retoni &om Salisbury in Augnst i6ai he was attacked 
by a fidveiv of which he di^ the 15th of that month, liii 
fnneral was attended by at least two handled of his bredb^ 
rea; and^a sermon was preached by Dr. Hardy, dean -of 
Rodiesteiv ^^ which a great and noble character was given 
of him.^ Hei was baried^ in hit chnreh at Cranferd, on the 
BOrthwyipf'theehanceUof which is his monument, with 
ihefoliowidg inscription : 

' "v ]ft<y>6btTlloxitts fVjdler/^ coll^ S^dnekuBK) in scsdendf 
€antsbrigieiiS0>! S6. T. D. higm ecdesi^ rector $ ingwyf aeittidiia> 
mimKinmMUiitBXe, moruminelatate»omiagenft.dpmni (kiitorift 
H^seaeitfQ^} uti varia ^i|s suminii swyianimitiSte composita testantur, 
^elebenriniiu^ Qui dum viros Jktf^sR illustrea opere postjiumo ini« 
mortaliti conaecrare meditatvis est^ ipse immortalitem est cobsecu- 
tua, Aog. 15, 1661.** 

. In 1662 was published in folio, with an engraying of 
him prefixed^ his ^' History of the Worthies of £ng1fiQd.\[ 
This work, part of which was printed before i^he authj[)r 
died, seems not so finished as it would probably have he^ 
if he had lived to see it co«npIetely published : yet it ';C^r- 
tainly did not deserve the heavy censures of Nicolson.. 
Whatever errors, may be found in it, as errors undo^bte^^ 
may be found in all works of that nature, the charac^rs of 
memorials there assembled of so many great men,, will 
always make it a book necessq^ to be consulted. 

Besides the works already mentioned in the course ,^.o£ 
this memoir, Fuller was the author of several others ;ofi^ 
s;naUer nature; as, I .^^ Good Thoughts in bad 'time$.V;, 
2. " Good Thoughts in worse times.^' These two pifcpV 
printed separately, the former in 1645, the Utter in 164T,, 
were published together in 16^, and have very recently, 
been reprinted by the rev. Mr. Hintoh, of Oxford. ! Be 
afterwards jpublished, in 1660, 3. ^* Mixt ContemplationV. 
in better times.*' 4. "The Triple Reconciler; stating'* 
three controversies, viz. whether ministers have an exclu^. 
sive power of barring communicants ffom theiacrament; 

f tr X L E It Its 

1i4ieti»r any person uocH>dmiied -may lawifoHy preaeb'; siAl 
wbeiher tlie Lord^s Pirayev ought not lo be uaed by all 
,Cbnitiaii% 16M^'' 4vo. $• ^* The tpeeoh of birds, alio 
ef Aowens, partiy mora)^ partly mjtsttcai, 1660/^ 8vo. A 
wofk eiitided ^^ T. FifUer^a^T-rtaiia; or tbree-fold RomaDaia 
jof;^Mariaoa,- Paduana^ aadrSabimf/* MM^ \2tno, is attrh- 
jbuted to faim i& some catalogues, .lie published also m 
fM»t many MKfDOtw, sepavately ia«d:in ^umefc r 
' Dff.iFuUJeriies ifthis penM'^aU adid«ii^ll**iiisidei biitfiD 
wny iDoKniog te c»r|mlanoy ; 'bie eakofdcoNoe wa» florid'; 
'>m§A bis bitir <dE a. ligihit colour «rtd ceiliii^, iHe laas . a- kind 
Imtbguiid to taoth fafft wtvtSi 'a tendeiy Esther tor both >bia cliH* 
dioiiv a^good ftbtid>aiui uetgU^emv aod 4k <#eH<?briiav0i 
eiwIiBed penon^io eTery*xeapoet.>f Be ma ibiaost agrees 
abk eompaatoD, bavisig a^ great '•^eat'^^il, )idiieb'lHa 
cottid not suppress in bis most seriona ceaspoMtons, hut It 
.suited^ the age heiived in^ aad^boweyer introduiced^ waa 
always. iwdo! subservient to soase gopd porpeee* All Ma 
fmUs^i tewaaeF^^'ntnaiaotiseaefenred'to the a^eof Jamea 
£-d«d CbfaErtesi FMler 1ias left ^eiioagb* to doni^ittee tia 
tbat he \^oald haVe been adinitied a legitimate tidt in anV 
ag^.' He had all the rich itnfagery of bishop Hall, but witE 
more familiarity and less elegance* 
; ' Of the' poiArers of iiis memory, such wonders are related 
as'^ not qttit^ credible/ He could- repeat iW^' hundred 
sMLH^ Words aftelr tVi^ice bearing, and coufd make use of a 
^dnoton verbatim, if Kebntte heard it. Hedndercook,in pass« 
ii^^rcim Temple-bsir to the farthest part of Cfaeapside, to 
tironf bis return every Mgn as it stood in' order on both sidea 
^ the way, r^pe&tihg tbem either backwards or forwards : 
atid te 'did it exactly. His mainner of writihg is also re^ 
ported to bave- been strange. HeWVote, it is said, near 
the margin the first words of everyline down to the foot df 
.die paper ; then, by beginning at tbe head agun, would 
^ perfectly fill up every one of these lines, and without 

3 places, interlineatiof^s, or contractions, would so connect 
je ends and beginnings, that the sense wbtfld appear as 
Cdmj^lete, as if he bad written it in a continued series after 
<dkid ordinary maoTier. Thi% however, he tnight sometimes 
dtfHo amuse his friends; it never could have been hia 
}fraiiifcice. ^ •- 

^ It^yas' sufficiently known how steady he was in the in- 
tieT^sts of the church of England, against the innovationa 
of the presby terians and independents^ but his z^al against 

176 JT U L L fi ft. 

'Ibese WW mixed n^ith -greater eomptuion tbm it ihitH*- 

wavds tbe;p«piatf : and tlm caited bim up many ftdver* 

ca^ieSt who charged him with purilEatkitftt. He uted to 

^call the cootroversm concernkig eptseopacy, and the iiew- 

;&^led argumentft agauisi the cEunch ef Enghmd^ <^ inaects 

. of ft day ;'' and t:afetuUy aroidad pdemteal dispntes^ ^^ 

.iftltoipetber of sir Henry Wetton'a epiaion^ ^ diaputandi 

pruritus, ecclesiM scabies/' Tbeiactwas, ihat he lored 

« yioua' and good men of all deoofloinationty and it is this 

Qaliid^ar. which has given a vidue to his works Mtperiorte 

:thoBe:of his oppo<»Mtii.> Fwr the many enrors wMGh/occttr 

iok his historiea^ it is auf«ly ea^. to find an apology io this 

:§iagle circumsttooey.that the w^die of 4hem were compilidd 

.wd pehlisbed within aboat twenty yean, dmting which he 

;.«ia4 obliged <toi remote ^fmm place to plaee in quest: of 

rliieiliry k^iswre^ and freedom Irom the cruel seDeriliefl of 

> the times^ His <^ Church History'' is the most ineecreet 

»-0f all bi» worhsf and Strype has pointed oat a great many 

^errof3fkitbe transcription of historical docmneniai to whit^ 

ipei^aps Fuller had nottbe eatiest access. Htti ^ Wordbte^' 

• was a posthumous publication, by hi» Son, tod although 

<}es» perfect than he could haire made it, bad bis life been 

spared a few years longer, with the oppoctAinitie^ which 

tbeYeturn of peace might haire afforded, yet it contains 

^any intocestiog memorials ; and he was the second (see 

Samuel GiiARkE) nvho pubUsbed what may be called Ehg^ 

lish biography. This work has for many years been riBtttg 

in. price and estimation, and the pnbKc has lately been 

;grati&ed by a new edition, in 2.vols«4to, edited by Mr. 

:Nichals, with many improvements and additbns, from the 

communications 'of his literary friends. ' 

FULLER (Thomas), an English {Aysician, but peiixapB 
lietter known for a very useful work on morals^ was born 
^une 2^ 1654, and was educated at Queen's coHege, 
Cambridge, where be took hb degrees in medicine, that 
«f M. B. in 1676, and that of M. D. in 16ai. He does 
4iot appear to have been a meinber of the college' of phyj* 
aieiaus of London, but settled at Sevenosk in Kent, where 
he waa greatly esteemed. He was a great- benefactor to 
the ^poor, and a zealous assertpr of their rights, hafing, 
not long before his death, prosecuted the managers' n[ % 

• Life of T. Fuller, l«mp.— Biof . Br,iti--Pcck*8 Desiderata, ^1. II.— L». 
*i EoTuons.— -Hutchins's BoHetsbirfr, 2d edit.— Ce&sura Lit. vol. I and UH 

IrttttBi. iTf 

}»jr sir: WiUiaoiiSe^Qke .(ftnfouaciHng .ef . the plscie, • and m 
l4kt>lor,ii iiiiifj<>r of I^^on) lad obiigcxi tkew ta produce 
tl)6i|s wi«gao«0b»)\iii ehwmr^Md. to '.he. subject fo# the 
future, to AH whuilV eksoli0n. Here 'Dr. Ktillet died; Sepc 
ijfcy^l^^ nTbie imoml ifi^nki: which he pob^shed ms^en<< 
ti.tted ^^lyliKid^liprad piyitf^ntieiiy; ordimrctionft, eouoaels 
ap4 oautioiifi^' tendiogi to prudent miuiageoieiltof ^air»of 
W^W0»liO^\jmf lUcioift QQmpi\^ for the. u^of bitf 
9P»# ;<Te tliiiifi.bejiddedt what imy;bejreckoned a. second 
"^(K^^W)! }9^:lbe iitle of *f Jniroduoiiio, itc.;; or tbie aft of 
Tig^tfitbiakingt Mfit«ted and improsred by sueh- notions as 
9<^rQfl9eoi^ apdL<^perieiice bai^e left:!|s. .in their writings 
i«iPi^*^.|0:erii4ic8^i» error, .and plain. knowledget'' i7ai-2^ 
i;^fl^^.liisjraei^fml: works were^ l. ^^ Phtrmacopiefa extem^ 
pqraQ^' .170Sf^od ai7l4» jSrOv 2. << Pbamiacoptseia Bate* 
Bp^'':}.l 1^4 i9aH>«: 3^ ^' PliariDlLCopG&iavDoaaeatica/' 1 723^ 
^^y». *• '^Offtriipitiv^^ fevers, measles, aiKl:sm«lk-po»*'* 1780, 
^o, TbejE§ i^/ W4>iher work eotitled ^ Meditina Gyoii>as-* 
ticV^^iWbi^b* bM been.vSQnietiBies attributed to biro, but 
»vas jmiitJ^n by ^ Fraqpis Fuller, M. A^ of St. John's college, 
Ca«mbri4g^>»^Qd publitbed ie 1704.^ 

:^ULLO.{(P£T^nK ao called from the trade of a fuller^ 
vf)gi/ij^r b^' esiptcisfid in bis monaatio state, intruded bim^ 
self iii<^>^.'tbe .$ee;of Antiocl^ in the fifth century, and 
aftf;r jhfiviDg- b^en. aevfyal times deposed ^nd condemned 
oii,4^c9gpt(pf tj3^bJltt^Ae#s of bia opposition to the coun« 
c\\ .9$ ^haife4on, vjr#a .atjladt fi;Ked in it, in the year 482, 
by ifaj^ au^l^irity of ! the emperor Zeno, and tbf9 favour of ^ 
A^c^is, ,bis^p. of ConstaiM^inople. Among the* innov4- - 
.tiqoq w,bidi he introduced to exciita discord .in the- church, - 
vf^ afi, :«Llt^a^pn in the. | famous bynm wbich jtbe Greeks 
ca^ed Tfis-^iQik After khe words -^ O God most holy,- 
AfiJlh^ ord^4. the. foUqwiog. phrase added in the • 
^a^tern cb^r^esft ^^ who /has suffered for us upon tlie 
crp^.'': fUis design inj this was. to raise a new sect, and' 
al>o itQ fix more dffply in the. minds of the people^ the 
.dopt;;i|ie^of ojn€ nature in Christ, to .which be was zealously * 
atf^cbed. . Hi^ adversaries, and especially Fceiix, the >Ro- ' 
tpaifi pontiff^ interpreted this addition in a quke different -'' 
mj^nner,. and- charged him with, maintaining, that all the 
three persons of the Godhead were crucified ; and benca^ 

) NfcboUS B«wy«r. . , - .-.• 

Vol. XV. N 

t78 M }S L to. 

UtMtoiri^rl^fiiiWMllttd'Th^oilawUtef. to pot m enA 
to the coi Ki bre r sy, - the emperor Zeno puUtdied iYi the 
jedt 462 the << HeDotieoii," or decree of /ettioti^ ^U\k 
we« designed «5 recbnelile the ^eftiei, iLiid FuUe signed it f 
blit the elfeeti ^of the ccmtest diitutbed th&dmroh for k 
long^'tiitie iduk his deaths wfaioii lieppeoed iiMthe yUkV t86/ 
FULMAN CWiuJAM)v en ^fingi^sh aiili^af^; wits th^ 
son of A tmtefermen at Pembtirit^ <ia/Keiit^ where he w«i# 
born in'N^vv 1639^ And his earif ea^aSity beiog^ Ittttaum t<y 
the celebrated Dr. flammohd, who #es itiii^ter of thM 
pkcey he took him with biib to Oxfonl durieg^l^e uaorpa- 
tien. There he procured him the pltM ef ' oborifttet in 
Magdalen college, and at isber^ame timefiad him edbcitted 
at die school belonging to that college. In tee? he foe^ 
eame a candidate for a soludandiip 4n Corpus Ctiristi^i^olo 
lege, and succeeded bj^ his skill inr cUssieallearning.'- Tbit 
next year he was* ejected by the 'parli^onckitary 'iAsit6rs^ 
along wiUi his eaity patron, Dtv Hammond^ to ivbem, 
howeirer, he faitUbily adhered, and was seirviceable to him 
as an amanuensis. Dr. Hatfitnond afkerwardii proeufeS llim 
a Uitor'i; place in a lamily) wh^re he reiUdMedun^Hiftl!^ 
restoration, and then resiidhittg hffik soholaJfsMp at ^ollege^ 
wai dreated M. A. abd obtiH^ned A fdlbWsbip. tie Was^ 
several years aft^ fif^sented by bin coUe^^ to ttMS r^itfb&rf 
of JVieysey Hamptto,= ^^^ f^irf<^<i, in Gleueest^t^bire; 
on which ijte l*esided during hilB ttfe, etilplo5tiAg4iis thine 
that was not oeeupied in piiof^^en^ duties> ih the s<^dy 
€^* hrstory hikd antiquittef^ partiteterly vi4mt regarded his 
own country. He died June t9y IBS9^ iMoiHding to 
Wood>^ but Atkins mentions Ir» successor, Dr. ^ei^, with 
the date 1^97. Wood informs m that Mr. ^Fnlmitn AMde 
iaT^e c^ottections of Iristory, h^ p«Misfeed Mle. Wb hkfire, 
bdwev^, of^his, i; ^ Academic Oxonienii* Holitia,*^ 'Ox^ 
ih0d, i^WSy 4to, re^nted at London in IVTS, with lul- 
dkiotis .tfnd >cdtrecktons from Wood's Lathi history, the 
sheets of which he comtntintcated to Mr. Falinan as they 
«atoe from the pnes^. 2. ^« Appendiic to the Life of Ed- 
tSinud Stanton, D. D. whierein sonie passages are further 
cleared-, *#hieh were not ftitly held forth by the former 
authors,'* LoAd. 1673. This is a cehWre of some pteiti^ 
culars i^ Mayow*s Life ^f Dr. Stanton. 3. ** Correctrbn^ 
fti^d Observations oh the first part of Burnet's History of 

• F U LM A Ni ' 179^ 

tlie Refonnfttion,'^ bot a ctistinct publication, btkt cotfl-^ 
mmicated by the antfaor to Barnet, who published them 
at the eqd of bis second volume,' and, according to Wood, 
not completely. Fulman abo collected what are called 
the '< Work» of Charles I,- ' but happening to be taken ill 
about the intended time of publication (1662), the book-r> 
seller employed Dr. Petinchief as editor. It contains, 
however, Fulman^s notes. Many of his MS collections 
are in the Hbrary of Corpus Ghristi college* He will occur, 
%0t be noticed hereafter as editor of Dr. Hammond^s works. ' 

FUMANI, w FUMANUS (Adam), an accomplisl/ed 
scholar and Latin poet, was -born at Verona, and not at 
Venice^ as Fusearini asserts. He studied Greek and La« 
tin with astioniibing progress, under Romulus Amaseus, 
and the extensive learning he afterwards acquired made 
kirn known -arid- respected by all the eminent scholars of 
bis time. On the death of one of his particular friends. 
John Matthew Oiberti, bishop of Verona, which happened 
in 1544, he composed a funeral oration, which is said tor 
have been very eloquent, but which he was not able to 
deliver ndthoutsucfa continual interruption from the tears 
tad sobs of his audience, as prevented its being beard with 
any other effect. At this time be enjoyed a canonry at 
Venice, which he kept all his life. Navagero add Valerio, 
the two successive bishbps of Verona, and both cardinals^ 
had the highest esteem for Fumafii; by the interest of thd 
former he was appointed setretary to the council of Trent.' 
He died advanced in age in 1587. He published " D* 
Basilii Moralia, et Ascetica," translated by him, Leyden, 
1540, fol. but is best known by his Latin poems, the chief 
of which is a system of logic, in Latin verse, on which, 
notwithstanding the unpromisdtl^ nature of the attempt, 
Tiraboschi bestbiVs very high praises. This carious work 
remained in mknuscript until 1730, when it was published 
in the Padua edition of th6 works of Fracastorius, 2 v^ls. 
4to. There ard bther poems by Fumaili ih the same coU 
leC:tibn, both in Greek aitd Latin, and some in Italian ; 
but in the latter he is not thought so successful.* * 

FUNCCIUS, or FUNCK (John Nicolas)^ a native of 
Marpurg, and a celebrated critic in the Latin language, 
was born in 1693. He was educated at the urtiversity of 
Rintlenirt Westphalia, and was a writer of several philo- 

^ Atb. Ox. vol. II.  Tiraboschi— Morer^.—Nrceron, vul. XIT, 


logical tracts in Latin* - But the^most celebrated part of 
ht$ works consists ajF several treatises which he pi^lished 
successively on the history of the Latin language, begins 
ning with its original fonsattoOi and pursuing it through 
the several ages, from youth to extreme old age. Hia 
treatises *' De Origine Latin» Linguss," and ** De Pueri« 
tia Latinte LingusB,^ were published in 1720. He died ilk 

lebrated Lutheran divine, was born in 1513, at Werden^ 
near Nuremberg. He adopted the doctrine of Osiander, 
whose daughter he married, and particularly becaoie a 
strenuous advocate for Osiander^s opinions. on the subject 
of justification. He was a minister in Prussia, and wrot^ 
a ^^ Chronology,^' from Adam to 1560, publidied at sepa- 
rate times, but completely at Wittemberg, 1570, fol. witb 
various other tracts. At length being oooviQted of giving 
Albert, duke of Prussia, to whom he was ebaplaiu^ advice 
disadvantageous to Poland, he was condemned, wi^ sw^ 
others, as a disturber of the public peace, and beheaded 
at Konigsberg, October 28, 1566. He is said to b«(v^ 
composed the foUowitig distich a little before his execution ; 

*^ Disce meo exemplo^ mandato munere fiingi, 
£t fuge^ seu pestem^ rif tirokuv^myfioavitnf^* 


That b, ^^ Learn from my esiample, . to mind nothing but 
the employment allotted you ; and avoid, as you would tb0 

f>Iague, all desire of meddling in too many things.'- He 
eft a Commentary on '< Danid's 70 Weeks," in German, 
fol. and one on the ^^ Revelations,*' 4to.* 

FURETIERE (Antony), aa ingenious and learned law- 
yer, was born at Paris in 1620^ and, after a liberal edu- 
cation, became eminent in the civil and canon law* He 
was first an advocate in the. parliament; and afterwaids, 
taking orders, was presented to the abbey of Cbaiivoy, 
an& the priory of Chuines. Many works of literature rj^* 
commended him to the .public; but he is cbieAy Jcnown 
and valued for his *^ Universal Dictionary of the French 
Tongue," in which he explains the terms of art in all 
sciences. He died in 16 86. He. was of the French aca- 
demy, but, though a very useful member, was excluded 
iu 16^85, on the accusation of having composed, hb j die- 

^ Prrcedinff edit, of thii Dictiooarf . 

^ Mclchior Adam de yitis GeriDaooniin Theolo^.^-Moreru^-Qen. DtoL 

F U RE T I E R E. ISl 

ti.otiary, by taking advutage of that of the academy, which 
was then going ott. He justified bimself by statements, 
in which he was very severe against the academy; but 
mshed, a little before his death, to. be re-admitted ; and 
he offered to give any satisfaction, which couUi reasonably 
be expected from a man,- who owned he had been carried 
too far by the beat of di^j^utation. His dictionary was not 
printed till after his death, in 2 vols. foL Basnage de 
Beauval published an edition at Amsterdam, 1725, 4 vols. 
foL This dictionary wi^ the foundation of that known by 
the name of Trevoux, the last edition of which is, Paris, 
2771, 8 vols. fol. Hi,s other works are: "Facta// and 
other pieces, against his brother academicians. *^ Relation 
des Troubles arrives an- Ro'iaume d^Eloquence;** a tolera-^ 
bly g<>od critical allegory. ** Le Roman Bourgeois,'* 1 2mo 
or 8vo ; a book esteemed in its time. Five " Satires'* m 
verse, 12mo> which are not valued* ^^ Paraboles Evan- 
geliques/' inverse, 1672, 12mo. Therein also a "Fure- 
tteriana,*' in which there are some amusing anecdotes. ' 

FURIETTI (Joseph Alexander), an Italian cardinal 
and antiquary, the descendant of a noble family of Ber- 
gamo, was born there in 1685. He studied at Milan 
find Pavia, and made considerable progress in the know- 
ledge of the civil iand canon law. He went afterwards 
to Rome, where he held several ecclesiastical preferments, 
and in each was admired as much for his integrity as know- 
ledge. Benedict XIV. who well knew, his merit, was yet 
averse to raising him to the purple, on areouut of some 
disputes between them which took place in 17#0. Yet it 
is said that Furietti might have received this high honour at 
that time, if he would have parted with his. two superb 
centaurs, of Egyptian marble, which he found in 1736 
junong the ruins of the ancient town of Adrian in Tivoli, 
and which the pope very m^ch wanted to place in the mu- 
seum Capitoliuum. ' Furietti, however, did not elrase to 
give them up, and assigned as a reason : ** I can, if I pl^^ise, 
be honoured with the purple, but I know the court of 
Rome, and I do D6t wish to be called cardinal Centaur P* 
In 1759, however, Clement XIII. a year after bis acces- 
sion to the papal dignity, sent the cardinal^s hat to him^ 
< which he did not long enjoy, dying in 1764. 

Furietti collected and published at Rome the works of the 
celebrated Caspar Barsiza of Bergamo, and of bis son 


» Diet. Hist. — Moreri, 

1^2 F U R I E T T I. 

Guintforte, inoit of Which were never before printed, in a 
bandsome 4to vol. 1723, with a learned preface ind life. 
He published, likewise, at Bergamo in 1712, a fine edition 
of the poems of Fonuua ; but what obtained him most re- 
putation among scholars and antiquaries, was his treatise 
dn the Mosaic art of painting, entitled ** De Musivis, vel 
pictoris MosaicsB artis origine, prpgressu, jcc/* Rome, 1752,' 
4to. In this he describes a rare specimen of Mosaic which 
be discovered in 1737 in the ruins of Adrian, and which, 
according to hihi, is mentioned by Pliny, as being the 
work of the celebrated artist Sosius. This exquisite spe- 
cimen, with the centaurs belonging to Furietti, was pur- 
chased after hh death by pope Clement XIIL for 14^000 
Roman crowns, and deposited in the museum. ' 

FURIUS, called Bibacctlus, perhaps from his excessive 
drinking, an ancient Latin poet, was born at Crerqona 
about the year of Rome 650, or 100 before Christ. H* 
wrote annals, of which Macrobius has preserved sotpe frag<» 
mehts. They are inserted in Maittaire^s ** Corpus Poeta* 
rum.'' Quintiiian says, that he wrote iambics also in a 
very satirical strain, and therefore is censijr^ by Crenau* 
tins Cordus, in I'acitus, as a slandering ar)d abusive writer. 
Horace is thought to have ridiculed tl^e false sublime of 
his taste; yet, eccprding to Macrobius, Virgil is said to 
have imitated him in many places. But some are of opi- 
nion that the " Annals" may be attributed to Furius An- 
fias, or Anthius^ s^ contemporary poet, whose fragment's 
are likewise in Maittaire's collection. ^ 

FURIUS (Frederick), s\;rnaraed Coeriolanu^. was a 
native of Valentia in Spain, and flourished in the sixteenth 
pentury. He studied at Paris under Talseus, Tiirriebus, 
Md Ramus, and afterwards came to Louvaih, where he 
published a treatise *^ On Rhetoric,*' and another In which 
he asserted that the scriptures ought to be translfited into 
the vulgar tongue* ft was entitled " Bononia,'' sive dc 
Jibris sacris in vernaculam linguam convertendis, Jfcc." 
Basil, .15^6, Svo. It was written, however, upon too libe- 
ral principles for the council of Trent, and was accordingly 
inserted in their " Index Expurgatorius." It otherwise 
would have brought him into trouble if he had not foubd a 
protector in the emperor Charles V. who was informed df 
his learning, piety, and candour. This monarch sent hina 

^ Diet. UUt, s Vossius de Poet. Lat. — Satii Onom, 

in(^ ii}iQ.Netii9rUinds,, iwd p1ma4 him wi^hia aoft Philip, 
wbQ^ made biija bi^.bi^tpr^ap.. Fqrius repaioed . with tj^s 
.priiipi^ during l\is lifej^und bftviog aQCOinfMatiied bim.toi.the 
stat,ea . of Arff9gon, di^d M V^IladoUd in 159^. H^^ ap-- 
pears tq b^ye ^fn[;4py6d ^ia u^mpst endeavoura iu ardoRlo 
paqify th^ troul;>)e$ io tb^ Netbi^rbnda^ He wrote anokhtr 
work ^^ Del C^oseio y Conseiero^^' which was. muoh 
ey^eepii^d} and twice tra(i»)ated iato Latin, 1613 aad 1669, 
Syo. * 

FURNEAUX (PHiyp), a learned dissentiog clecgyniaii, 
was bjqrp at Totiiess iiv Deyonsbire in Dec 1726, aad n^as 
educated in the free-scbool of that to.wn ^ the. same tinie 
with £>r. Kennicott, who was a few years biw senior^ knd 
between: tbem a friendship commenced v\duch contkitted 
through life. From Totnasj Dr. Furueajnx came to Loq- 
doQ for academical studies among the dissenters, which he 
xopoplejted i.o 1749. He was aoon ;»fter qrdaiiied, sad 
chosen assistant to the rev. Henry Read, at the meetings 
hpuse in St. ThoQULs^Sy Soutbwark, and joint Sanday even- 
ing lecturer s^t Salters'-ball meeting. In I753hesuceeeded 
ibe rey. Moses Lowm^^n^ as pastor of the congregation .«t 
^Clapbam, which he raised to one of the most opulent .anil 
considerable among the protestant dissenters. . He vet* 
pained their favourite preacher, and highly esteemed by 
all classes, for upwards of tweiHy*three years, but was 
deprived of his usefulness in 1777, by the loss of his men^ 
tal powers, under which deplorable malady (which was 
hereditary) he continued to the day of hia deatb^ Nov, 2S\, 
1793. His flock and friends raised a liberal subscription tm 
support him during his illness, tQwhicb^ from s^itioients 
<^ personal reject, as. well as from the principle of bene- 
volence, the late lord JVIan^field^ chief justice of the king^s 
bench, generously jcontributed. Dr. FurneauK (which title 
he had received f^om some northern uniyerfnty) united te 
strong judgment, a v^ry tenacious memory ; of wbicdi fa« 
gave a remarkable proof, when the cuse of the dissenters 
against the corporation of London, on the exemption they 
claimed from scrying the office of sheriff, was heard in tfa« 
house of Iprds. He was then present, and oarried aw^ 
and committad to paper, by the strength of his memory^ 
without notes, %he very able speech of lord Mansfield; 
with samuch accuracy, that hi» lordship, when the copy Wa» 

1 Qen. I>ictf-?iMor«ri. 




iubmitted le^ his ezanination, : could discover but ^o or* 
three trivial -errors in it. This circumsUDce iiitrodviced 
him to the acquaintance of that great man, who <:oooeii^d 
ft high regard for him. Dr. Fameoux pubKs bed but little^ 
except a feir occasional serntons; the most considerable of 
his works was that entitled ** Letters to tbef horn Mr. Jus^ 
tipe Blaokstooe, concerning his exposition of the act« o£^ 
rtoleratiiMi, and some positions relative to religious liberty, 
in bis Commentaries on the Laws of England/* illQ, 8vo. 
This is said to have induced the learned commentator toi 
aker some positions in the- subsequent edition of his valo* 
4ible work. - To the second edition of Dr. Furneaux^ 
^' Letters'' wns added the before-mentioned speech of lord 
Mansfield, la 1773 he published also << An Essay on 
Toleration,'' with a view to an application mi^de hy dis-* 
senting ministers to parliament for relief in the matter of 
subscription,, which, although uosucces^ul then, was afHsr^ 
Ifards granted. * • - : 

FUR$T£M&£RG (Ferdikakd D£), an eminent prelate^ 
the descendant of a noble family in Weatpbalis, was bom 
at Bilstein in 1686. He studied at Cologne, where he 
contracted an iutimat^ friendship with Cbigi, who was 
then nuncio, and afterwards pope. During the cardinal* 
ate of Cbigi, be invited Furstemberg to reside with him, 
whom he raised to the bishopric of Paderbom in 1661^ 
when he himself was seated in the papal chair, under the 
title of Alexander VII. The high repatation of tlie bis»bop 
attracted the notice of Van Galen, who appointed him bis 
coadjutor, and whom he succeeded in 1676, when he was 
declared by the pope apostolical vicar, of all the north of^ 
£urope« He was ^ sealous catholic, and anxious for the 
couYersion of those who were not already within the pale 
of the church; but at the same time he did not neglect 
the cultivation of the belles lettres, either by his own 
cflForts or those of many learned men whom he patroniaed. 
He died in 1683. As an author he collected a number of 
MSS. and monuments of antiquity, and gave to the world 
a valuable work relative to those subjects^ entitled ^ Mo-* 
numenta Paderbornensia." He also printed at Rome a 
collection of Latin poems, entitled ** Septem Virorum 
4llustrium Poemala." In this work there were many poema 
9f hia own, written with much purity. A magnificent edi« 

I ^rot. DuyentertMasasiae^ fok V.— Gent. Hag. toIs. LL and I4II11 

F U R S T E M B E R G. 1* 

tion bf tta«ie' p<)6ms wtt published in the satiie^ yMt hi 
which be died, atibe LxMivre^ at the expenee of the king 
of France.* 

FURHTENAU (JoHN^HmMAN), an eminent pbysician> 
^as born at Herfordenv In Westphalia, in the month of 
May, 1 S8S; He began the 4»tudy of medicine at the age 
of ergbteen, and attended with diligence the schools of 
Wittemberg, Jena, and Halle, and became a licemiate ia 
medicine in the last^mentioned university. About 1709 he 
returned to Herforden, and immediately obtained a con*, 
siderable share of practice ; but having conceived the de- 
sign of visiting the Low Countries^ he commenced hit 
joirney in 171 1> in order to hear those great masters of 
his^ art, who at that time flourished so numerously in jhe 
cities of Amsterdam, Leyden^ Utrecht, the Hague, Detft, 
and Port. Having profited inuch by their insuuetions^ 
whether in the chair, in hospitals, or in private communi-t- 
cation, he returned to his native place at the end of a yiear^ 
aiKl recommenced the practice of his profession with the 
same: ardour as when he quitted Halle, but with mom 
knowledge and greater-resources. Nevertheless he again 
interrupted hid practice by another journey in 1716. He 
married in 1717, with the intention of seuling at Herfor-* 
den; but became a professor. in 1720, at Rintlen, where 
lie died April 7, 1756. He left several works : the first of 
these was frequently ^re-printed, and bears the title of 
" JDesiderata Medica.'* It includes also " Desiderata Ana- 
tomico- Physiologica ; Desiderata circa mbrbos et e5mm 
^igna; Quae desiderantur in Praxi Medica; D^sidi^rata 
Chirurgica.*' 2. •* De Fatis Medicoruni, Oratio Inaugu- 
ralis," 1720. 3. " De morbis Juriscohsultofum Epistola,'^ 
1721. 4. ^' De Dysenteria alba in puerpera Dissertatio,^^ 
1723. 5. << Programmata nonnullay tempore Magistrate^ ' 
Academic! impressa,'' 1724 and 1725." 


FUST, or FAUST (John), a goldsmith of Menta, wa«* 
one of the three artists considered as the inventors of print* 
ing, the two others berng Guttemberg and Scha&fFer. It is * 
not, however, certain, that he did more than supply money ' 
to Guttemberg, who hacl made attempts with moveable 
inetal types at Strasburg, before he removed to Mentz, in 
}444. But it has been strongly argued, that Laurence* 

* Moreri.— Diet Hist. * Oict, Hirit--*Itees'f Cydopadiit 

lee .FUST. 

Koflfter, at Hariaeliii bad flnt conoeivod the art. of: cutting 
wooden blocks for tbU purpose in 1490, which he imme* 
d lately iroprovedy by substituting separate wooden types* 
Scbsetfer undoubtedly invented the method of casting the 
metal types, in 1452. The first printed book with a date, 
is said to bare baea a Psaltei^ publiibed at M ents in 1457 ; 
tbe next, perhaps, is '^ Durandi. Rationale divinorum Offi* 
cioruro," by Fust and Schse^ffer in 1459. Tbe <^ Catboli- 
COR*' followed in 1 460. There are, however, some boohs 
wiihout dates, which are supposed to be still older. Ftast 
was at Paris in 1466, and it is imagined that he died there 
of the plague^ which then raged in that capital. ^ 

FUZ£LI£R (Lftwis), a native cvf Paris, where be was 
born in 1672, denoted himself early to poetry, an^ wrote 
for tbe Freuoh and Italian theatres, the royal muaicai 
academy, and the comic opera. He obtaiiied the pxivilege 
of conducting toe <^ Mercury," jointly with M. deBruere, 
)n 1744, and died at Paris, September 19, 1752, .le;tving a 
i^oosiderable number of theatrical pieces, which have not 
been collected. , His comedy of one. act, entitled '^ Mooms 
Fabuliste»" and his operas of ^^ Les Ages,'' ** Les Amourt 
des Dieux,'' *^ Les Indes Galantes,'* and '^ Le Carnava} 
du Parnasse,'' are particularly admired. He wrote much 
for the Italian theatre and comic opera; but La Harpe^ 
who has kitely dictated in French criticism, speaks, with 
great contempt of bis talents. .' 

" Diet. Hilt.— S«€ Art. Pjuktikc in Cyclopedia. * Diet Hi«t, 

i, '•' ) 

i I 


CtABBIANI (Antony Dombnick), an haliaR artist, born 
at Florence in I6i2y wvs successively the papil of Sobtisr- 
pians and Vincenzo Dandini, and studied under Giro Ferii 
at Rome, and after the best coioufrists at Venice. He was 
a ready and correct designer His colour, though some^ 
times languid j is generally true, juicy, and well united in 
(he ilesh-dnts. The greatest flaw of bis «tyle lies in the 
ichoice, the hues, and the execution of his draperies. He 
lexcels in ^^ pretty** subjects; his Gambols of Genii and 
Children in the palace Pitti, and elsewhere, are little in* 
tferior to those of Biiciccio. His greatest and most famed 
work in fresco, is the vast cupola of Cestdio, which wais 
■not wholly terminated. His altar-pieces are unequal: the 
l>est is that of S. Filippo in the church of the fathers Dell' 
Oratorio. In easel-pictures he holds bis place even in 
princely galleries. He died in 1726, in consequence of a 
}'all from the scaffold on which he was painting the cupola 
of Cestdlo, * 

GABIA (John Baptist), one of those 'scholars who pro- 
moted the revival of literature, was a native of Verona, 
«nd a professor of Greek at Rome in the sixteenth century, 
j[>ut vire have no dated particulars of his life. It is said he 
was eminent for his knowledge of the learned languages, 
and of philosophy and mathematics, and h^d even studied 
theology. He translated from Greek into Latin, the Cofl»* 
mentaries of Theodoret bishop of Cyarus, on Daniel and 
Szekiel, which translatrion was printed at Hoane, 1563, fol. 
and was afterwards adopted by father Sirmond in his edi- 
tion of Theodoret He translated also the history of 
Scylitzes Curc^alates, printed in 1570, along, with the 
original, which is thought to be more complete than the 
Paris edition of 1648. About 1543 he published the first 
Iraitin translation of Sophocles, with scholia. Maffei says 

^ PilkingtoD, by Fuseli. 

US G A B I A. 

that be also translated Zozimus, and the Hebrew Psa1in9, 
and translated into Greek the Gregorian Kalendar, with 
Santi^s tables, and an introductory epistle in Greek by him* 
•elf. This was published at Rome in 1583.' 

GABRIEL (James), an eminent royal architect of 
Trance, built the palace at Choisy, and undertook the 
royal bridge at Paris, but died in 1686, before he had 
completed this work, which was finished by his son James 
and Frere Romain. James was born at Parts 1667, became 
a pupil of the celebrated Mansart, and acquired so great 
a reputation as to be appointed overseer-general of build- 
ings, gardens, arts and manufactures; fint architect and 
engineer of bridges and banks through the kingdom, and 
knight of St. Michael. He planned the common sewer, 
and many public buildings, among which, are the hotel de 
Ville, and the presidial court of Paris, &c; He died in 
that city 1742, leaving a son, first architect to the king, 
who long supported the reputation of bis ancestors, and 
died in 1782. • 

GABRIEL SIONITA, a learned Maronite, who died in 
1648, was professor of oriental languages at Rome, from 
whence he was invited to Paris, to assist in M. le Jay's 
Polyglott, and carried with him some Syriac and Arabic 
bibles, which he had transcribed with his own hand firotfi 
MS copies at Rome; these bibles were first printed in 
Jay's Polyglott, ^ith vowel points, and a Latin versiorf; 
and afterwards in the English Polyglott. Gabriel Sionita 
translated also the Arabian Geography, entitled ^' Geo- 
graphia Nubiensis," 1619, 4to, and some other works. 
He had some disagreement with M. le Jay, who sent to 
Rome for Abraham Ecchellensts to supply bis place. ^ 


GABRINI (Thomas Maria), of the order of the clerks 
minor, was born at Rome in 1726, and boasted of being 
the descendant of Nicolas Gabrini, better known by the 
name Rienzi. Having been appointed Greek professor at 
j^esaro, be acquired great reputation for his critical know- 
ledge of that language. He afterwards was invited to be 
philosophy professor at Rome, and had a cure of souls 
which he held for twenty-seven years, with the character 
of an excellent pastor. After other preferments in the 
ecclesiastical order to which he belonged, he was at ia&t 

1 Moreri.-*Maffei Verona lllvitiata. ^ Pict Hist. » If 9reri.«*2>ict. Hmt, 


i^ade Moerali and while in tbit station was frequently con- 
aultea by congregations, bisbops, and popes, who had a 
very high esteem for bis judgment. He died very advan- 
ced, on Nov. 16, 1807. Besides some tracts published in 
defence of his ancestor Rienzi^ he published <* A Disser- 
tation on the 20th proposition of the first book of Euclid,** 
Pesaro, 1752, 8vo, which went through several ed:itions^ 
and many disserutions, memoirs, and letters in the literary 
journals, on the origin of mountains, petrifactions, and 
other objects of natural history ; medals, obelisks, inscrip* 
tions, and classical and ecclesiastical antiquities. He left 
abo some valuable manuscriptis on similar subjects. ' 

GACON (Faancjs), a French poet, well known by his 
satirical pieces against Boasuet, Rousseaui La Motte, and 
others, was the son of a merchant, and born at Lyons in 
1667, He became a ftttber of the Oratory ; obtained the 
poetical prize at the French academy in 1717; and died 
m bis priory of BaiUan Nov. 15, 1785. Among his works 
are, '^ Le Poete sans fard," a satirical piece, which cost 
him some months of imprisonment ; a French translation 
of '* Anacreon/* witli notes, which was the best of his 
works; ** L* Anti-Rousseau,'' an attack against J. Baptiste 
Rousseau, the poet; ** L' Homer e veng6,'* against La 
Mott^, Gacoo dso attacked La Motte, and turned bim 
into ridicule, in a. small piece entitled <* Les Fables. d( 
M. de la Motte^ traduites en. vera Fmucois, parP.^* F. 
aa.Caff(6 du Mont Parnasse, &Ci" TIms poet^s natural 
propensiiy to satire and criticism, led him to attack all 
sorts of writers, and involved him in all the litemry quar« 
rels of his times. The French academy acted with great 
Impartiality, when they adjudged him the prize ; for be 
had written in some shape or other against ahnoatall the 
oiembers of that illustrious body; and on this acoount it 
y^as,. that he was not suffered to make his speech of thanks, 
^ is usual on such occasions, the .prize having been -re- 
mitted'to bim by the bands of the abb^ de Choisy. ' A« Ga- 
cojo,'' aays Voltaire, *^ is placed by father Micevon in tbe 
catalogue of illustrious men, though he has been famous 
only for bad satires,<^— Suchautbprs cannot, be cited but aa 
es^amples to be detested.'* In fact, though he wrote with 
care, his style wais heavy and diffuse in prose, and low in 

« Diet. Hitt. 
' • M*>r«ri.— DL't H'lil.— Niccron, ▼ol. XXXVlIl.— Stiii Onom. 



GADBURY (Josh), one of 4liQ asitrologidtl impotioffi: 
of tbe seveoteenth century, was bo^n at Wbeatly. near Ox** 
ford, Dec. 31^ 1637. His father^ WiUiaro, waa a farmer 
of that place, and his mother was a daughter of sir Jdhiv 
CurzoQ of Waterperry, knt. Our conjuror was first put 
apprentice to Thomas Ntcols, a taylor, in Oxfordi but 
leaving his roaster in 1644, he went up to London, and 
beoame a pupil of tbe noted William Lilly^ under whom, 
he profited so for as to 1>e soon enabled ^^ to set up the 
trade of almanack -making and fortune-teUing for himself." . 
His pen was employed for many years on nativities, alma-' 
nacks, and prodigies. There is> we beUeve^ a eomplete^ 
collection of bi& printed works in tha new catalogue of the 
British: Museum, and we hope we shall be excuse^ for not 
transcribing the list. Dodd, who has given an aceonnt of 
him, as a Rbman catholic, says thai; some of his almanacka^ 
refiectaii^ upon the management of state affairs. dfirli^. the' 
time of. Oates^i^ plot, .brought him into trouble. While 
Qither astrologers were content to exercise their' art for the' 
benefit of their own country only, Gadbury extended .bia 
to a remote part of the globe, as^ in 1674, he published 
hia ^ West India, or Jamaica Almanack", for that^ yeai^ 
He QoUected and published the wo^ks q{ his fiirad sir 
Gees:ge Wharton in l.fiSS, 8vo. His old master Lillyy who 
quarrelled with him, and against whom he wrote a^ book 
called .'^ Anti-lferliou5 Anglicus," saya be was a *^. monster 
of ingmtitude," .and ^' a graceless fellow ;'' which is* true,: 
if, ai3oording to his account, he had two wives liviog at 
^me time, and one of them two husbands. Lilly adds, tlwt 
be went to sto with intention for Barbadoes, but died by 
the way in hifr voyage. When thia happened we are not 
told. Lilly died in 16il, and according to Wood, Gadu 
bury was living in 1 690. '^ The Black Life of John Gad« 
bury*' was written and published by Partridge in 1 QMf 
which might be about the time of his death, but his name^ 
as was usual, appeared long after this in an almanack, simi- 
lar to that published in his life-*time. There was another 
astrologer, a Job Gadburv, who waa taught his art by John^ 
and probably succeeded him in the ^manack, and who 
died in 1715.1 

GADD£SPEN (John op), an English physician, who 
lived in the early part of the fourteentb century, of very 

1 Dodd*i Cb. Hist. vol. TIT.— Gran(»r.— Tatler, Sto edit. 1806, vilh notet, 
vol, II. p. 61, III. 537, IV, 257.— Lilly's Life «nd Times, edit. 1774, p. 52, 55. 

G A D D E S D E N. 191 

exlennTe and 'lucrative practice, was die fifat EngUsbman 
who was. employed as a pbyridan at court, being ap« 
pointed to that office by Kdward II.: before his time the 
King's physicians bad - been exelasively foreigners; The 
ignorance, superstition, and low quackery, which appear 
tbroughoiit bis practice, are painted with much life and 
humour by Dr. Freind. He came forward as an uniyeraaL 
genius, was a philosopher, pbitc^ogist^ aud poet, and un-> 
dertook every thing that lay within the circle of phystc 
and sui^ry, was skilled hi manual operations, very expert- 
in bone-setting, and a great oculist. He also aoqoaiots ua> 
widi his gnent diill in' pbysiognomy ; and designed to write 
a treatise of chiromancy. He was a great dealer in secrets, 
and some be bad which were the most secret of' secrets, 
and did miracles. But his chief strength lay iii receipted 
and without giving himself much trouble in forming a 
judgiAent respecting the nature of the case, he seemed to 
tUnk that, if he eould muaier up a good number of these, 
be should be able to encounter any distemper. He seems 
to have neglected no stratagems, by which he laight suiv 
pnse and impose on the credulity of mankind, and to have 
'been very artftil in laying baits for the delicate, the 
ladies, and tbe-rieb. When he was employed in attending 
the king^ssoii, in the smciH'-pox',' in order to diew his skill 
in inflamtaiatory distempers^ he, with a proper formality, 
aifd.axTOuntenonce of mydi iMiportanoe, ordered the patients 
tate wrapped up in scarlet, and eviery thing about the bed' 
to be of' the bame colour. This, he says, made him »e-^ 
cover without so much as leaving cue mark in his ftsef 
and he commends it for an excellent iM>de of cuniig^ 
Nevertheless this man was praised by Leland, Owrin^s^ 
and others, as a profound philosopher, a.' skilM physician, 
and the brightest man ef his agew 

His only wotit, whieb he produced while resident at 
Merton eisUege; Oxford, is the famous ^^Bosa Anglica," 
whiob ct^mprises the whole practice of physic ; collected 
ihdwd chiefly friDm the- Arabians, and the modems wba 
had written in Latin just before him, but enlarged and in<^ 
ter^ersed with additions froM bis own eaqperieifce. Its 
title is <« Rosa Anglica 41iatu(Mr Libris distinota, de morbis 
paniciilaffibufs,d^ Febrtbus, de€3iintrgia, dePkarmacopoNu** 
Dr. Freind observes, that John seems to have made a col* 
lection of all the receipts he had ever met with or heard 
of; and that this book affords us a complete history of , 

i§a 6 A D D £ S D £: N. 

what medicines were io use, not only zmottf^ the pbytl<< 
cians of that time, but amoog the coinmon people ia all 
parts of England, both in the empirical and superstitious 
way. Dn Aikin remarks that the method of producing 
fresh from salt water by simple distillation (^' in an ale!,mbtjC 
with a gentle heat^^) is familiarly mentioned by this author, 
even at so remote a period. 

Although devoted to the practice of his profession, he 
was prebendary of Sl Paufs, in the stall of Ealdiand. It 
seems probable from this and other instances, that the pro*. 
Gurement of a sinecure place in the church was a method 
in 'which the great sometimes paid the services of their 
physicians. Of his '^ Rosa Anglica*' there are two edi*: 
tions, one in fol. Venice, 1502^ and the other in 4to* Aug* 
Vind.« vols. 1595. > 

GiERTNER (Joseph), an em'ment botanist, was born 
atCalw, in the duchy of Wirtemberg, March 12, 1732« 
His father^ physician to the duke of Wirtemberg, and. 
his mother, both died in his ^urly youth. He first 
destined by his surviving^ relations for the church, and 
when he disliked that, the law was recommended ; but at- 
length, from an early bias towardn the study of natural ' 
history, he resorted to physic, as most congenial to his 
disposition, and removed to the university of Gottingen, • 
in the 19tb year of his age. Here the lectures of Haller^ 
and others instructed him in anatomy, physiology, and* 
botany, but he studied these rather for his own informatioa 
and amusement, than as a means of advancement in the 
practice of physic. After this he undertook a tour througfai 
Italy, France, and England, in the pursuit of knowledge 
in botany. On his return he took the degree of M. D. 
and published an inaugural dissertation on the urinary se- 
cretion, after which he devoted two years to the study of 
mathematics, optics, and mechanics^ constructing with 
bis own hands a tdescope, as well as a common and solar 
microscope. In the suounet of 1 759 he attended a course 
of botanical lectures at Leydeti, under the celebrated 
Adrian Van. Roy en. He had for some time acquired the. 
use of the pencil, in which he eminently excelled, and 
which subsequently proved of the greatest use to him m 
embUng him to draw the beautiful and accurate figures of 

> Aikifi*» biographical Memoirs of Medicine. — ^Rees's Cyclopedin; — Freind'i 
Hjsi of Physic. 

O iE R t N £ If . i9i 

the books lie published. Having bestowed ereat attentioti 
upon the obscurer tribes of marine atiimais and plants^ 
particularly with a view to the mode of propagation 6f the 
latter, as well as of other cryptogamic vegetables, he re- 
viisfited England, and spent some time here, as well in 
scrutinizing the productions of our extensive and varied 
coasts, as in conversing with those able naturalists Ellis, 
CoIIinsod, Baker, and others, who were assiduously en-* 
gaged in similar pursuits. He communicated a paper to 
the royal society on the polype called Urtica marina, and 
the Actinia^ 6f Ltnnseus, comprehending descriptions and 
figures of Several species, which is printed in the 52d vo* 
lume of the Philosophical Transactions ; and he prepared 
several e^ays on the anatomy of fishes, and other obscure 
matters of animal and vegetable physiology, part of which 
only has hitherto been made pablic. So'on afterwards Dr. 
Gttrtner became a member of the royal society of London,' 
ahd'of the ittiperial academy of sciences at Petersburg. In 
P76Sf be was' instituted professor of botafiy and natural* 
history at Petersburg, and about '^ year afterwards he be* 
gan to plan and prepare materials for the great work on 
wht6B his eminent reputation rests, the object of which 
was th^ illustration of fr-uits and seeds for the purposes 
above-mentioAed. His situiition at PeteVsburg, however,' 
seems not to have ^ited either his health or disposition. 
After having perfonried a journey ihto the Ukraine, in 
which he collected many new or obscure plants, he resigned 
bis professorship at the end of two years, steadily refusing 
the pension ordinarily attached to it, and retired in the 
aittumn of 1770 to his native town, where he niarried: At 
the end of eight years he found it necessary, for the per- 
fection of his intended work, to re-visit some of the seat^ 
of science in which he had formerly studied, in order to 
re-eifamine several botanical collections, and to converse 
again with persons devoted to similar inquiries with bis 
own. Above ^^iy he was anxious to profit by the disco- 
veries of the distinguished voyagers Banks and ' Solander,' 
who received him with open arms on bis arrival at London, 
in 1778, and, with the liberality which ever distinguished' 
their characters, freely laid before him all their acquisi- 
tions,- and assisted him with their own observations an<t[ 
discoveries. A new genus was dedicated to Gsertner by 
his illustrious friends in their manuscripts ; but this being 
ijiis own sphenoclea, has been superseded by another ana 
Vol. XV. O 

194 G iE R T N E R. 

» / • w r . J' 

a finer plant. He visited Thunl>erg in his return throog^ 
Amsterdam, that distinguished botanist and traveller being 
then lately arrived from Japan ; nor were the acquisitions 
of Gaertner less considerable from this quatten He fur- 
ther enriched himself from the treasures at Leyden, laid 
open to him by his old friend Van Boyen ; and arrived af. 
home laden with spoiU destined to enrich his intende4 
publication. Here, however, his labours and bis darling 
pursuits were interrupted by a severe disorder in bis eyeS)^ 
which for many months threatened total blindness; aor 
was it till after an intermission of four or five years that he 
was able to resume his studies. . 

At length he gave to the public the first volume of bis 
long-expected work, '^ De fructibus et seminibus plantjk- 
rum," printed at Stutgard in 1788, and containing the 
essential generic characters, with particular descriptions 
of the fruit of 500 genera, illustrated by figures of eacb^. 
admirably drawn by himself, and neatly engjraved in .79 
quarto plates ; a long anatomical and physiological. intfQ* 
duction is prefixed, in which he definei and explains the 
nature of the parts, of fructification, especis^lly of the. fruit 
and seed. In this essay he denies the existenpe of real 
flowers, and consequently of proper seeds, in fungi, and 
other cryptogamic vegetables, in which Hedwig and others 
Conceive they had detected the organs of impregivation as 
well as real seeds. Gaertner considers the latter as gemmae 
or buds, and not seeds produced by sexual impregna* 
tion. He even denies the celebrated Hedwigian theory 
•f mosses. He changes the name of germen, applied by 
Linnaeus to the rudiments of the fruit in old plants, to the. 
old and erroneous term ovarium. ..In the detail of his work, 
he often corrects the great Swedish naturalist, with more 
or less justice, but not always with candour, and changes 
his names frequently for the worse. In synonyms he'is 
not always exact, copying them, as it appears, from errors 
of the press occasionally transcribed from other authorsi 
without turning to the books quoted. 

tn the deBnition and anatomical elucidation of the parts 
of the seed, Gaertner is truly excellent j and, notwith- 
standing some slight defects, his work marks an ssra in 
botanical science, not only directing, but even forcing 
the attention of botanists to parts which the Linnaean school 
had too much neglected, but which cin never in future 
be overlooked. The second volume of this immortal work 

. G JE R T N E R.: 195 

appeared in 1791, illusti^ating 500 more igenera, on the 
same plan with the former, in 101 platep, in which the 
compound flowerg are treated with peculiar care and suc- 
cess. The preface of this volume is dated April 6, 1791, 
but little more than three months befote the death of the 
author, which happened on the 14th of July^ 1791, in the 
sixtieth year of his ftge. He is said, though struggling 
for some time preceding with debility and disease^ to have 
finished a description and drawing of the Halleria lucida 
but the evening before his departure. He left one son, 
to whom he gave an excellent education, and who has 
proved worthy of his distinguished father, in publishing 
his inedited works^ and continuing with success the .samq 


GAFFARELL (James), a learned Rabbinical writer, 
was the son of Dr. GafFarell) by Lucrece de Bermond, his 
wife; and was born at Mannes, in Provence, about 1601. 
He was educated at the university of Apt, in that county, 
where he prosecuted (iis studies with indefatigable in- 
dustry ; and applying himself particularly to the Hebrew 
language and Rabbinical learning, was wonderfully pleased 
with the mysterious doctrines of the Cabala, and com- 
menced author in their defence at the age of twenty-two. 
He printed a 4to volume at Paris in 1623, under the title 
of ^^ The secret mysteries of the divine Cabala, defended 
against the trifling objections of the Sophists,'^ or ^' Abdita 
divine Cabal® mysteria,*' &c. The following year he 
published a paraphrase upon that beautiful ode the I37th 
Psalm, ^^ By the waters of Babylon we sat down and wept, 
when we remembered thee, O Sion,** &c. He began 
early to be inflamed with an ardent desire of travelling for 
his improvement in literature, in which his curiosity was 

. This disposition, added to his uncommon talents, did 
not escape the notice of cardinal Richelieu, who appointed 
bim his library -keeper, and sent him into Italy to collect 
the best books printed or MS. that could be found. This 
employment extremely well suited Gaffarell*s taste, both 
as it gave him an opportunity of furnishing his own library 
with some curious pieces in oriental and aiher languages, 

1 3iinf and Kon'tg^» Aonals of BoUay, toI. f , p. 73.<— Rectus Cycfopsdia.— 

peleuze's Bia^. M«meJrof GaerlDeK 

O 2 


Mid of making inqmries into that bianch of litemtore whicll 
was bis chief ddight. With tfan view, while be was at 
Ronie, be went widi some others to visit Campanelkt, the 
famous pretender to magic ; his design in this visit wa^ 
to procure satisfactioD about a passage in that author^s 
book, ** De sensu rerum et m^a." Campanella was then 
in the inquisition, where he had been cruelly used, id 
order to force him to (xmfess the crimes laid to his charge: 
At their entrance into his chamber he begged they would 
have a little patience, till he had finished a small note 
which he was writing to cardinal Magaloti. As soon as 
they were seated, they observed him to make certain wry 
laces, which being supposed to proceed from pain, be was 
asked if he felt no pain ; to which, smiling, he answered,* 
No ! and guessing the cause of the question, he said he 
was fancying himself to be cardinal Magaloti, as- he had 
heard him described. This was the very thing Gaffarell 
wanted ; and convinced him, that in order to discover ano^ 
tfaer person's thoughts, it was not sufficient, as he had be« 
fore understood Campanella, barely to fancy yourself td 
be like the person, but you must actually assume his vei*y 
physiognomy. This anecdote will afford the reader a sitf-^ 
ficient idea of the value of the discoveries of Campanella 
and Gafiarell. 

In 1629, he published *^ Rabbi Elea, de fine mundi,' 
Latine versus, cum notis,'* Paris, 8vo, i. e. •* A Ldtirr 
version of Rabbi Elea*s treatise concerning the end of the 
world, with notes;" and the same year came out his ** Cu-> * 
liositez Inoiiez, &c. Unbeard-of Curiosities conceming* 
the talismanic sculpture of the Persians ; the horoscope of 
the Patriarchs, and the reading of the stars/' This cu-( 
rious piece went through three editions in the space of 
six months. In it the author undertakes to shew that ta-> 
lismans, or constellated figures, bad the virtue to make 2t 
man rich and fortunate, to free a house and even a whole 
country from certain insects and venomous creatures ; and 
from all the injuries of the air. He started many other 
bold assertions concerning the force of magic ; and having 
also made some reflections upon his own country, and 
mentbiied the decalogue according to the order of the 
Old Testament, and the protestant doctrine, he was cen-^' 
sured by the Sorbonne, and therefore retracted these and 
some^other things advanced as errors ;, submitting his faith 
in all points to the doctrine of the catholic and apostolic 

<> A F F A R ^ ). U ifil 

, Iq 1633. he was at Venicei where, among ^ther thingi^ 
lie took an exact measure of the vessels brought from Cy'» 
^rus and Constantinople, that were deposited in the triea- 
sujry of St. Mark, at the request of the learned Peiresc^ 
vitb whom he had been long acquaintedi and who had a 
great esteem for him. During his abode in tiiis city, he 
was iovited to live with M. de la Thuillerie, the French 
i^bassador, a^ a companion. He accepted the invitation^ 
l^ut was not coutent with, the fruitless office of merely dU 
wrting the an^bassador^s leisure hours by his learned CW'* 
tersation. He aimed to make himself of more importance^ 
and to do this friend some real service. He resolved there^ 
iore to acquaint himself with politics, and in that viewt 
wrote tA ^s friend Gabriel Naud^, to send him a list oC 
the authors upuHi political subjects; and this request i( 
was, ihat ;gave birth to I^aud^'s ^^ Bibliographia Politica*** 
Oaffarell at this time was doctor of divinity and canon law^ 
prothonotary of the apostolic sef , and commendatory priof 
9f St* Criles*f« After his return hom^, he was employed hf 
his patron eardtoal Richelieu, in his project for bringing 
back all the protestaots tp the Roman church, which he calls 
are^unioQ of religions; and to that end was autJ^orized te 
preach in Dauphin^ against the doctrine of purgatory. To 
the same purpose he also published a piece upon the pa-r 
cification pf Christians. 

. He survived the^cardinal niany years^ and wrote several 
books besides those already mentioned i among which are^ 
1. ^' Index codicum MStorum quibus ususest Joli. Picus 
Comes Mirandulanus,*' Paris, 1650. vid. Selden. de Sy* 
oedriis Heb. 1653, p« 6SI. 2. ** Un trait^ de la poudre 
de sympathie et de^ Talismans.^' 3. *^ Epistola pr^fat* 
in Rob. Leonis. Mutinensis libellum de ritibus Hebraicis." 
4. *^ Cribrumi CabaUsticum,'* vid. Quriosites InoUez, p. 
44, and ft6(^. 5. ''Avis aux Doctes toucbant la neces*-' 
siiDe des.langues orientales,'* ibid. p. 54 and $4. 6,/' The 
widow of Sarepta.^' 7. ^^ A treatise of good and evil 
Genii,^' vid. Meroure galant, p. 16i, for Jan. 168^, 8. 
V Ars nova & pejrquam faciUs legendi Rabbinos sine puncr 
tia.'' 9. ^' Pe. musica Hebr«(Mriim stup^nda libellus.-^ 
iO^ <^ In voei^s 4erelM^tas V, T- Cepturiae dose, nova cum 
Scaligero dci i^:^ Jnterprf^k difwrtatjiuncula." U. ** De 
stellis cadentibus opinio nova." 12. '' Quaestio Hebraico- 
pbilosophiea, mtriim & prjneipio mare salsum exli^erit.'* 
13. <' Lachrymae in obitum lani Csemi Frey. Medki^^ 

'19«' 6 A F r A REEL. 

1631 9 4tOy and some others, medtioned by Leo Allatius,. 
in Apibus. 

In the latter part of his life he was employed in writing' 
a history of the subterranean world ; containing an account 
of the caFCs, grottos, mines, vaults, and catacombs, which 
he bad met with in thirty years' travel ; and the work was: 
so nearly finished, that the plates were engraven, and if 
was just ready to go to the press, when be died at Sigonce, 
of which place he was then abbot, in his eightieth year, 
1681 ; being also dean of canon law in the university of 
Paris, prior of ie Revest de Broosse, in the diocese of 
Sisteron, and commandant of St. Omeil. His works shew 
him to have been a man of prodigious reading, and un- 
common sbbtilty of genius ; but he unfolrtunately hsid also' 
a superstitions credulity, as appears from the following 
passage iii his ♦« tlnheard^'of Guriosities,*' Treating (rf 
omens, he cites Camerarius, affirming that some people 
bav6 an apprehension and knowledge of the death of their 
friends and kindred, either before or afteir they are dead, 
by a certain strange and unusual restlessness within them- 
selves, though they are ^ thousand leagues off. To sup- 
port this idle notion, he tells us that his mother Luerece^ 
de Bermond, when she was living, had some such sign 
always given her ; for none of her children ever died, but 
a little before she dreamt either of hair, eggs, or teeth 
i^ingled with earth ; this sign, says he, was infallible. ^^ I 
myself, when I had beard her say she had any such dream,' 
observed the event always to follow." His *^Curiositres'' 
was traYislated ty Chilmead into English, Lond. 1650, 8vo.^ 

GAFFURIUS {FKANCriiNUis), an eminent musical writer, 
a native of Lodi, "bom Jan. 14, 1451, of obscure parents, 
was first intended for priest's orders, but after studying 
music for two years under John Goodenach, a carmeiite, 
he manifested so much genius for that Science, that it was 
thought expedient to make it his profession. After learn-^ 
ing the rudiments of music at Xodi, he went to Mantua, 
where he was patronized by the marquis Lodovico Gon- 
zago ; and where, during two years, he pursued bis studies 
with unwearied assiduity night and day, and acquired 
great reputation, both in • the speculative and ' practical 
part bf his profession. 'From this city he w^nt to Veronsi 

.1 Morerl:.44)#i>. Diet — Lto militant's (AlMf Urban»»*»*ColoaiJefiiGaUi|.Qf|l 

en^U$.*7:MorlioffFplyli^U-^]Mct) Uujt. 

G A F F U R I U S. 199 

where he read public lectures oh music for two years more, 
and published several works; after which he removed to 
Genoa, whither he was invited by the doge Prospered; 
there be entered into priest's orders. From Genoa he 
was invited to Milan by the duke and duchess Galeazzq, 
hat they being soon after expelled that city, he returned 
to Naples, where Philip of Bologna, professor- royal, re- 
cced him as his colleague; and he became so eminent 
in the theory of music, that he was thought superior to 
many celebrated and learned musicians, his contempo- 
raries, with wiiom he now conversed and disputed. He 
4here published his profound " Treatise on the Theory 
of Harmony,'' 1480 ; which was afterwards enlarged 
and re- published at Milan, 1492; but the plague raging 
in Naples, and that kingdom being likewise much in* 
'commoded by a war with the Turks, he retreated to 
Otranto,- whence, after a short residence, he 'returned 
to Ledi, where he was protected and favoured by Pal- 
lartctno, the bishop, and opened a public school, in 
which, during three years, he formed many excellent 
scholars. He was offered great encouragement at Ber- 
gamo, if he would settle there ; but the war being over, 
-and the duke of Milan, his old patron, restored, he pre* 
ferred the residence of that city to any othen It was hece 
that he eomposed and polished most of his works ; that he 
was car^sed by the first persons of his time for rank and 
learning; and that he read lectures by public authority to 
crowded audiences, for which he had a faculty granted 
bim by the archbishop and chief magistrates of the city in 
1483, which exalted bim far above all his contemporaries; 
«nd how much be improved t}ie science by his instructions, 
his lectures, fnd b'^ writings, was testified by the appro- 
bation of the whole city ; to which may be added the many 
disciples he formed, and the almost infinite number of 
volumes he wrote, among which several will live as long 
as music and the Latin tongue are understood. He like- 
wise first collected, revised, o^ommented, and translated 
into Latin the ancient Greek writers on music, Bacchiu^ 
senior, Aristides, Quintilianus, Ptolemy^s Harmonics, and 
Manuel Briennius. The wQrks wbjch he published are,; 
J. **rTheoricnm Opus Harmonicse Disciplinse,'' mentioned 
above, Neapolis; 148Q, Milan, 1492., This was the fir^t. 
bocfc on the subject of music that issued from the prestf 
,, after the invention of printing, if we except the " Defi- 

^M C A F F'U HI U & 

nitipnes Tenn. Musics/' of Joho Tinctor. 2. 'f Piacticft 
|Music8B utriusque Cantus/* Milan, 1496 ; Brescia, 1497^ 
^502; and Venice, 1512. 3. ^< Angelicnm ac Divinuoi 
'Opus MusicK Materna Lingua Scrip." Milan, 1508. 4. 
'' De Harmonica Musicor. Instrumentorum/^ Milan, 1518. 
^This work, we are told by Pantaleone Melegulo, his coui^- 
^ryman and biographer, was written when Gaffurius vndfi 
forty years of age ; and though the subject is dark and 
difficult, it was absolutely necessary for understanding tb^ 
ancient authors. With these abilities, however, Qaffuriua 
did not escape the superstitions of his time. He was not 
only addicted to astrology, but taught that art at Padua, 
;io 1 522. He was then seventy-one years of age, and is 
supposed to have died soon after, although Pn Burpey 
fixes his death two years before.* 

GAGE (Thomas), an English clei^yman and traveller, 
was descended from Robert Gage of Haling, in Surrey, 
third son of sir John Gage, of Firle, in Sussex, who died 
in 1557. He was the son of John Gage, of Haling, and 
ibis brother was sir Henry Gage, governor of Oxford, who 
was killed in battle at Culham-bridge,^Jan. 11, 1644. Of 
his early history we are only told tbat be studied in Spain,^ 
and became a Dominican monk. From thence he departed 
with a design to go to the Philippine islands, as a mis<- 
^ionary, in 1625; but on his arrival at Mexico, he heard 
$o bad an account of those islands, and became so de- 
lighted with New Spain, that he abandoned his original 
design, and contented him with a less dangerous mission. 
At length, being tired of this mode of life, and his req^res^ 
to return to England and preach the gospel among his 
countrymen being refused, he . effected his escape, an4 
af Kyetf in London in l637, after an absence of twenty- 
four years, in which he had quite lost the use of his naUve 
language. On examining into his domestic affairs, he 
fsund himself unnoticed in his father's will, forgQtte.n by 
some of bis relations, and with difficulty acknowlec^^d by 
others. After a little time, not being satisfied with, re- 
spect to some teligious doubts which had entered his mind 
while abroad, 'and disgusted with the great power of the 
pa^nsts, he resolyed to take another journey to Italy, to . 
^^ try what better satisfaction he could find for his eon« 

' 1 3f Dr.Burney, in bis Hut of Mo8|c> and in Rees^ Pycloj^di».— Tim* 
ImmIu.— Ginguene i^ist Lit d'ltalie. 

<j ^ Q E. COi 

science at Rome in that religion.^* At Loretto his confer-* 
«ion from popeiy was fixed by proving the fallacy of the 
miracles attributed to the picture of our Lady there ; on 
;which he immediately returned home once more» and 
preached his recantation sermon at St Paul's, by order of 
the bishop of London. He continued above a year ia 
London, and when he saw that papists were entertained 
fit Oxford and other parts of the kingdom attached to th^ 
royal cause, he adopted that of the parliament, and re- 
ceived a living from them, probably that of Deal, in Keot^ 
in the register of which church is an entry of the burials 
pf Mary daughter, and Mary the wife of <' Thomas Gage^ 
parson of Deale, March 21, 1652 ;" and in the title of his 
.work he is styled " Preacher of the word of God at Deal.*^ 
We have not been able to discover when he died. Hif 
;work is entitled ^^ A new Survey of tiie West-Indies; or 
ihe English. American his Travail by sea and land, con- 
taining a journal of 3300 miles within the main land of 
America. Wherein is set forth his voyage from Spain to 
3t. John de Ulhua ; and from thence to Xalappa, to Fiaxr 
calia, the city of Angels, and forward to Mexico, &c, &c> 
j^c." The second edition, Lond. 1655, tbiu folio, with 
maps. The first edition, which we have not seen, bean 
fiUte 1648. Mr. Southey, who has quoted much from this 
work in the notes on his poem of '^ Madoc/^ says that 
Gage^s account of Mexico is copied verbatim from Ni« 
cholas^s *^ Conqueast of West-*India," which itself in % 
translation from Gomara. There is an Amsterdam edition 
of Gage, 1695, 2 vols. 12mo, in French, made by cpsa^ 
mand of the French minister Colbert, by mons. de Beau* 
lieu Hues O'Neil, which, however, was first published in 
167^, at Paris. There are some retrenchments in this 
edition. Gage appears to be a faithful and accurate relator, 
but often credulous and superstitious. His recaptation 
$ermon was published at Londop, 1642, 4to; and in 165L 
he published ** A duel between a Jesiiite and a Domini- 
can, begun at Paris, fought at Madrid, and ended at LoO'* 
don," 4to.* 

GAGEH {Wli44AH)f a Latin poet of considerable noto 
in the sixteenth century^ was educated at Westminster- 
school, from which be was elected to Oxford, in 1574^ 
tpd took afterw^yrds hijs degrees in arts at ChVist-churcb^ 

I Ccainra literaria^ toI, V.— MoreH. 

20i^ G A G E R. 

but in a few years preferring the study of the law, he took 
the degrees in that faculty also, in 15B9. About this time 
his reputation bad recommended him to Dr. Martin Hetotr, 
bish(^ of Ely, by whose interest, most probably, he was 
made chancellor of that diocese. Wood professes that he 
knows no more of htm, unless that he was liring in 1610; 
but by the assistance of the Ely registers, we are enabled 
to pursue him a little farther. By them it appears that in 
1601, being then LL. D. he acted as surrogate to Dr. 
•Swale, vicar-general of Ely, and in 1608 he was delegate 
and commissary to archbishop Bancroft, in the diocese of 
Ely ; and in 1609 he was custos of the spiritualitiefs in the 
Tacancy oi^the see. In the years 1613, 161<S, and 1618^ 
be was vicar-general and official principal to Lancelot An- 
drews, bishop of Ely; and in 1619 he acted as deputy for 
the archdeacon of Canterbury, at the installation of bishof^ 
Felton, in the cathedral of Ely. When he died we have 
i>ot been able to discover. 

• ,Wood says, <* he' was an excellent poet, especially in 
the Latin tongue, and reputed the best comedian (i.e. dra- 
matic writer) of his time." He had a controversy with Dr. 
John Rainolds, on the lawfulness of stage-plays, which 
appears to have been carried on in manuscript letters, until 
Rainolds published his " Overthrow of Stage-plays,** con- 
taining his answer to Gager and a rejoinder. He had a 
more singular controversy with Mr. Heale, of Exeter-col- 
tege, in consequence of his (Gager' s) asserting at the Ox- 
ford Act in 1608, "That it was lawful for husbands to 
beat their wives." This Mr. Heale answered in " An 
Apology for Women," &c. Oxon. 1609, 4to. In the " Exe- 
4|ui9& D. Philippi Sidnasi," Gager has a copy of verses in 
honour of that celebrated character, who, when living, had 
a great respect for his learning and virtues* His Latin 
plays are, 1. " Meleager," a tragedy. 2. *♦ Rivales," a 
comedy; and S. *' Uij'sses redux," a tragfcdy. Theses 
were all acted, and we are told, with great applause^ in 
Christ church bail. The first only was printed in 1592; 
4to, and occasioned the controversy between the author 
and Dr. Rainolds. Gager*s letter in defence of this and 
his other plays, is in the library of University -college.* 
r GAGNIER (John), an eminent orientalist, was a native^ 
of Paris, where he was educated ; and, applying himself 

1 AUu Ox. vol. I.->-Wai*oa's Hist, of l^wUjf vol, Ih d&S.—JdUS Regis(ert 
♦f Ely. 

, G A G N IE R.' aos . 

to study the eastern languages, became a great master in- 
tbe Hebrew anti Arabic. He was trained up in the Roman 
CatboKc religion; and taking orders, was made a canon 
riegular of tbe abbey of St* Genevieve, biit becoming dis*' 
fialifified. wit^vhis religion, and marrying, after he had left 
bbconvent, be was upon that account obliged to quit bis 
native country, came to England, and embraced the faith 
and doctrine of that church in the beginning of the eigh- 
teenth century. He was well received here, and met with 
many friends, who gave him handsome encouragement, 
particularly ' archbishop Sharp, and the lord chancellor 
Macolesiield, to, which, last he dedicated his edition of 
Abulfeda. He had a master of afts degree conferred upon 
bim at Cambridge; and goings thence to Oxford, for the- 
s^ake of prosecuting his studies in the Bodleian library, be 
was admitted to the same degree in that university, where 
be supported himself by teaching Hebrew. He had pre- 
viously been made chaplain to Dr, William Lloyd, bishop 
pf Worcester, whom he accompanied to Oxfoi^d. . * 

In 17b6, he published, an edition of Joseph Ben Go- 
Fion's *' History of the Jews,V' in the original Hebrew, witb' 
a, Latin translation, and notes, in 4to. InlTlO,' at the 
appointment of Sharp, abp. of York, he assisted Grabe in 
the perusal of .the Arabic manuscr^ipts in the Bodleian li- 
brary, relating to the Clementine constitutions ; on which* 
the archbishop had engaged Grabe to write a treatise 
against Whiston. Qagnier accordingly read and inter-* 
preted diligently to Grabe all that might be serviceable to 
bis purpose in any of them. 

In 1717 he was appointed to read the Arabic lecture at' 
Oxford, in the absence of the professor Wallia. In 1718' 
appeared his <^ Vindicise Kircherianar, sen defensio con-* 
cordantiarum Grsecarum Conradi Kircheri, ad versus Abr. 
Trommii animadversiones ;''• and in 1723, he published 
Abulfeda^s ** Life of Mohammed,'^ in Arabic, with a Latin' 
translation and notes, at Oxford, in folio. He also pre-' 
pared for the press the same Arabic autbor^s Geography, ' 
9nd printed proposals ios vl subscription, but the attempt 
proved abortive, for want of encouragement. Eighteen- 
sheets were printed, and theremaiader, .which was imper- 
fect, was purchased of his widow by Dr. Hunt. It is s^id/ 
that he wrote a life of Mahommed, in French,^ published 
at Amsterdam, in J 730, in B vols. 12mo. But this was 
probably a translation of the former life. Gagnier had 

ao* G A G N I £. K. 

bc^fore this inserted Graves's Li^tin translntton of Abulfeda*« 
description of Arabia, together with the original, in the 
third volume of Hiidson^s ^^ Geographtse veteris scriptores 
Gr^eci minores/' in 1712, 8vo, and bad translated from 
the Arabic, Rhases on the SmalUpos;, at the re<)uest of 
Br. Mead. He died March 2, 1740. . By his wife he left 
a' son, Thomas, or as in the Oxford graduates, Joba 
Gagnier, who was educated at Wadham- college, Oxfords 
a^d commenced M. A. July 2, 1743. Entering iiuo, holy, 
o/ders, be was preferred by bishop Clavering to the imc-^^ 
tory of Marsh-Gibbon, in Buckinghamshire, and after- 
wards obtained that of Strantoo, near Hartlepool, in thc^ 
bishopric of Durham, where he was living in 1766, but 
the historian of Durham having concluded his list of vicarn 
with Mr. Gagnier at the year of his induction, in.i745y 
we are not able to ascertain the time of bis death*. Pre-> 
ceding accounts of his father mention bis beiog chosen. 
Arabic professor in room of Dr. Wallis, which never waft 
the case. Dr. Hunt was successor to Wallis.* 
. GAGUIN (Robert), a French historian, was born at 
Colin^ near Amiens; and Guicciardini, as Vossius ob^ 
serves, is mistaken in fixing his birth elsewhere. He had 
bis education at Paris, whiere he took a doctor of laws xie- 
gree ; and the reputation of his abilities and learning be^ 
came so great, that it advanced him to the favour of Charles 
VIII. and Louis XII. by whom he was employed in se- 
veral embassies to England, Germany, and Italy. He n^. 
keeper of the royal library, and general of the order of the. 
Trinitarians. He died in 1501, certainly not young; but 
we are not able to ascertain his age. He was the .author 
of several works ; the principal of which is, a History in 
eleven books, '^ De gestis Francorum^^' in folio, from» 
J.200 to 1500. He has been accused of great partiality to 
his country ;, and Paul Jovius s^s, that be has not been 
very exact in relating the affairs of Italy. Erasmus, how* 
ever, had a great value for him, as may be seen from one 
of his letters. Gaguin also translated the Chronicle of 
abp. Turpin, wrote a bad Roman History, and Epi^tlea 
and Poems, some of which last are very indelicate.* . 

GAHAGAN (Usher), a very estraordinary character, , 
of great talents, and great vices, was a Roma^ catholic^ 

, > Biog. Brit art. Grabe. 
* Moreii^Foppan BibU Be1|;.-i-Nlceron, ?ol, X1I(I. 

G A H A 6 A N. 205 

6t a good family in Ireland. He was a very bonaiderablo 
Latin scholar^ and editor of Brindley's beautiful edition of 
the Classics. He translated Pope's ** Essay on Criticism** 
hito Latin verse, and after his confinement iii Newgate, 
to which be was sent for filing gold| he translated into the 
same language the ** Temple of Fame,'* and the " Mes- 
^ah/' which he dedicated to the duke of Newcastle, in 
bbpes of a pardon ; he also wrote verses in English on 
prince George (our present sovereign), and on Mr. Adams, 
the recorder; which were published in the ordinary's ac- 
count ; with a poetical address to the duchess of Queens* 
Cury, by one Conner, who was then in prison for the same 
crime. Gahagan was executed at Tyburn, Feb. 1749,* 

GAIGNY, or GAGNY (John), a French divine of the 
sixteenth century, was educated at Paris, where in 152^ 
he bad taken the degree of bachelor, and held the appoint- 
ment of attorney for the French nation in the university. 
He was afterwards lecturer in theology at the college of 
Navarre, and rector of the university. In 1531 he took 
his degree of D. D. and was chat^cellor of the unii^ersity 
from 1546 till his death, in 1549. Gaigny was deeply 
read in the ancient languages, and highly esteemed as a 
Latin poet, and his sovereign Francis I. frequently con- 
sulted him on subjects of literature, and made him his first 
almoner. He was author of many works on subjects of 
theology, the most important of which are " Commenta- 
ries*' upon the different books of the New Testament, in 
which be explains the literal sense by a kind of paraphrase. 
Dnpin says, ** his notes will be found of admirable use to 
those who desire to read the text of the New Testameat, 
and to cotnprehend the sense of it without stopping at any 
difficult places, and without having recourise to larger 
commentaries. His Stholia on the four evangelists, and 
on the Acts of the Apostles, are inserted in the ^' Biblia 
Magna" of father John de la Haye.* 

GAILLARD (De Lonjumeau John), bishop of Apt 
from 1673 to 1695, in which year he died, is chiefly me- 
morable for having first projected a great and universal 
- ** Historical Dictionary,*' in the execution of which work' 
he employed and patronized Moreri, who was his almoner* 
Towards the perfecting of this undertaking, he had re- 
searches made iu all the principal libraries of Europe, but* 

1 GcDt. iAatf, for 1749. • Moreri. 

206 0: A I L L A R D. 


particularly in tha^ Vatican. Moreri^ in dedicating his (iiHi 
edition to his patron, pays him the highest eneomiqinsy 
which he is said to have very thoroughly deserved, by h}9 
love for the arts, and still more: by his virtues.* 
. GAILLARD (Garriel Henry), an elegant French his* 
torian, member of the old French academy, of that of in* 
scriptions and belles-lettres, and of the third class of the 
institute, was born at Ostel, near Soissons, March 26 f 
1728. On his education or early pursuits, the only work 
in which we find any notice of him is totally silent, and 
we are obliged for the present to content ourselves with a 
list of his works, all of which, however, have been emi- 
nently successfvil in France, and procured to the author, 
an^ extensive reputation and many literary honours. He 
wrote, 1. " Rhetorique Fran^aise,' a I'usage des jeunes 
demoiselles,"' Paris, 1746, 12mo, which has gone throMgh, 
six editions. 2. ** Poetique Fran^oise," ibid. 1749,. 2 vols, 
S. " Parallele des quatre Electee, de Sophocle, d'Euripide,' 
de Crebijlon, et de.Voltaire," ibid. 1750, 8yo. 4. ^« Me- 
langes litteraires en prose et en vers,** ibid. 1757, l'2mo. 
5. " Hi$toire de Marie de Bqurgogne," ibid. 1757, 12mo.: 
is. " Histoire de Francois I." 1769, 7 vols. i2mo; of this 
there have been several editions, and it is not without 
reason thought to be . Gaillard's principal work ; but Vol- 
taire is of opinion that he softens certain obnoxious parts 
of Francis's conduct rather too much, but in general hi& 
sentiments are highly liberal, and more free from the pre- 
judices of his country and his religion than could have 
been expected. Indeed, it may be questioned whether 
he was much attached to the latter. 7. " Histoire des ri- 
valit^s de la France et de PAngleterre,** 1771 — 1802, U. 
vols. l2mo, a work in which the author, not altogether 
unsuccessfully, struggles to be impart.ial. 8. " Histoire 
de Charlemagne," 4 vols. 12mo. Gibbon, our historian, 
who availed himself much of this history, says that " it is 
laboured with industry and elegance.'' 9. '' Observations 
sur I'Histoire de France de Messieurs Velly, Villaret, et 
Garnier," 1807, 4 vols. 12mo, a posthumous work. Be- 
sides these he was the author of various eloges, discourses, 
poems, odes, epistles, &c. which were honoured with aca- 
demical prizes; and several learned papers in the memoirs 
of the academy of inscriptions. He wrote also in the/^ JoQr- . 

» Moreri.  , i 

' G A I L L A R D. ^20T 

• > • . .■....■ 

&al des Savans" from 1752 to 1792, and in the ** Mercure" 
from 1780 to 178$^, and in the new Encyciopedie he wrote 
three fourth^ of the historical articles. His last perform* 
ance, whifch bore no mark of age, or decay of faculties, 
.was an ^^ Eloge historiqqe** on M. de Malesherbe^i, with 
whom he had been so long intimate, that perhaps yo man 
was more fit to appreciate his character. This writer, the 
last of the old school of French literati, died at St. Firminp 
near Chantilly, in 1806.^ 

GAINSBOROUGH (Thomas), an admirable English 
artist, was born in 1727, at Sudbury, in Suffolk, where 
his father was a clothier. He very early discovered a pro- 
pensity to painting. Nature was his teacher, and the 
woods of Suffolk his academy, where be would pass in sur 
litude his mornings, in making a sketch of an antiquated 
tree, a marshy brook, a few cattle, a shepherd, and his 
flock, or any other accidental objects that were presented,. 
From delineation he got to colouring; and after painting 
several landscapes from the age of ten to twelve, be quitted 
Sudbury, and came to London. Here he received his 
first instructions from Gravelot, and was then placed under 
the tuition of Mr. Hay man, with whom he staid but a 
short time. After quitting this master, he for a short time 
resided in Hatton-garden, and practised painting of por-* 
traits of a small size, and also pursued his favourite sub- 
ject, landscape. During this residence in London, he 
married a young lady, who possessed an annuity.of 200/. ; 
and then retired to Ipswich, and from thence to Bath^ 
where be settled about 1758. He now began painting 
portraits at the low price of five guineas*, for a three- 
quarter canvas, and wa,s soon so successful as to be en- 
couraged to raise his price to eight guineas. In 1761, foe 
the first time, he sent some of his works to the exhibition 
in London. In 1774, he quitted Bath, and settled in 
London in a part of the duke of Schomberg^s house iu 
PalUMall. In this situation, possessed of ample fahfie, 
and in the acquisition of a plentiful fortune, he was dis- 
turbed by a complaint in his neck, which was not much 
noticed upon the first attack, nor was it apprehended to 
be more than a swelling in the glands of the throat, which 
.it was expected would subside in a short time, but it was 

* Hn last prices in LondoD, were forty f uineas for a half, and one lmaiii)?d 
ior % luU length. 

"^ Diet. Hbt. 


2<» G A 1 N S B OR O G H. 

soon discovered to be a cancer, which bafHed the skiif rf 
the first medical professors. Finding the danger of hi§ 
situation, be settled his affairs, and composed himself t6 
meet the fatal moment, and expired Aug. 2, 17^8. He 
was buried, according to his own request, in Kew Church- 

Mr. Gainsborough was a man of great generosity. Jf he 
selected for the exercise of his pencil, an infant from a 
cottage, all the tenants of the humble roof generally par^ 
ticipated in the profits of the picture ; and some of them 
frequently found in his habitation a permanent abode; 
His liberality was not confined to this alone : needy fela-. 
fives and unfortunate friends were further incumbrancek 
on a spirit that could not deny; and owing to thh gene- 
iposity of temper, that afBuence was not left to his family 
which so much merit might promise^ and such real worth 
deserve. There were other traits in his personal character 
less amiable. He was very capricious in his manners^ 'and 
ratbeir fickle and unsteady in his social connections*. This 
was sufficiently evinced by his general conduct tawardk 
the royal academy, and by his whimsical behaviour to sit 
Joshua Reynolds. Soon after he settled in London, dit 
Jfoshua thought himself bound in civility to pay him a vrsit^ 
Gainsborough, however, took not the least notice of him 
for several years, but at length called lipon him, and re-" 
quested him to sit for his picture. Sir Joshua complied', 
and sat once, but being soon after taken ill, was obliged 
to go to Bath for his health. On his return to London;* 
perfectly restored, he sent Gainsborough word that he wa4 
returned; Gainsborough only replied, that he was glad to 
hear that sir Joshua Reynolds was well, but never after- 
wards desired him to sit, nor had any other interciourscf 
with him, until he himself was dying, when he sent' td' 
request to see sir Joshua, and thanked him for the' Very 

'* Mr. Jackson, hereafter memioiMdy bot itnnMt be remembered, that my: 

concludes bis character of biia in these wish was not to make it perfe(;ty bu( 

words: '* Uiscouver:$ation wasspright- just. The same princfple obliges me 

)y, but liceationa— hia favourite sub- to add— that as to* his commoo ae^' 

je^ts were music and patntiag, which quaintancebewa^sprjghl^y aQ(ia^^« 

be treated in a manner peculiarly his able, so to his intimate friends he was 

own. The common topics, or any of sincere and honest, and that bis heart 

a superior cast, be thorovgWy hated, was always alive to erery fedUng of: 

and always interrupted by some stroke honour and generosity. 

of wit ov humour. ** He died with this expression : * W^' 

*' The indiscrittiinate' admirers of my are all going to heaven, and Vandyke 

late friend will consider this. sketeh of. ip.of the |>arty,V* . . -^ 
bis character as far beneath hit merit f 

^ A I » s:b Q r o u g ji. :zo9 

4ibQill;md fairourftble mtener in wlikh be bad always 
spokea of bis works. Sir Joshua bad indeed proved bis 
^niOfi of bis uleiita, by (paying an hundred guineas for 
bis «iu]uisiie picture of the ^' Girl attending pigs/* for 
which Oaiosborough asked but sixty. 
, When the royal acadeny was founded^ Gainsborough 
,^;is chosen aooong the first members^ but beine tbeii fesi- 
d^Ht s^ Batb> be was too &r distant to be employed in the 
biisiness qI the institution^ Wfaen be came to London^ 
bis Mndoct was so far disrespectful to the members of 
thatbody» that he never complied with their invitations^ 

• whether official or convivial. In 1784, be sent to the ex- 
bjbiiiiiii a wboleJengCb portrait, which be ordered 
piftpfid aioiost as low as the floor ; but as this would bavp 
beep a violation of the byof^laws of the academy, the g^ii'- 
tlen^enof the council ventured taremons^iiate with him upon 
the impropriety of such e. disposition. Gainsborough returned 

. for ans^ver^ .that if they did not chuse to hang the picture 
as he wiahedt they might seod it, which they did imme- 
diately. H<t soon . after made an exhibition of. his works 
at his own house, which^did not, however, affosd' the ex- 
pected gratification ; and after tbis circumstance^ he never 
f^ip e:diibil^* 

* Amtrnf^ bisamugcanents, mnsic was i(Iraost td much bis 
€lX0ttrlte as paintiog« This passion led him to cultivate 
-tb^ iotimftoy of all the. great musitai professors of bis tim0, 
(one of wfaojn^ Fischer, married hb daughter), atid th^y, 
hf their abiltitfis,/>btained ^n ascendancy overbim, greater 
thap wa4 peibaps. consistent ;witb atiict pvudenoe. Of hfB 
powers IP (he scieada^' no better description' can be given, 
than^hat by! Mr. Jaokson of Exeter, in his ^< Four Ages,^^ 
40 wbitfli entei'taining miaceliaoy we may refer our readers. 
Spipe bave.spoken highly of Gainsboroizgh^s musical per* . 
/oftnance. , Mr. Jackson says, that tbougb pcMtsessed of 
j&af». taitet and. genius, he sever bad application ^pongb 
li> lmiii:Ua)fiP^»» : He fii0or»ed to itake.the f^rai.step ; the 
jiibQond .was OK coMrfb out.of his reaobi; and) sheiaummic 
bepanaetuliaiifaia^ble. . * ' 

However M^ng in ^eae< awuaeiiMmts, he.wtas )»leady 
jaPd maoly iti tbe pro^le^Ufeioa iif . excMlence in 'his art, 
JBfcoufgb uottW4;^oMiiSOiiMi degree iof ^batxafprice peculiar 
ito. bi3 cbaracftev: i After Iwsideaitb maiiyopintoi9a^rer8rpub> 
jiabed i» the ilit^rary journals of bis merit; ,, f iroip tiaesie 
wre, shall ntlMttbe foliQwii^g^ cbie^y fioia ji^ Josbua^Reyi* 

Vol. XV. P - 


G A I X^ B.OvH a U G H. 

noUs's lecttnres, which appean to approach nearett W the 

: sobriety of just criticisoi. i 

'. His style of execution, as well as choice of snbjecCs, 
'^lis original) although considerably 'resembtiog tliat df 
Watteauy more particularly in his tandscapea; Hts picf- 
litres are generaHy wrought iu a kxMe and slight foamier, 
With goeat freedom of hand, and using very little cidikirf, 
with a great body of vehicle ; which gives to bis worbs 
.great lig^htoess md looseness of effect; i^toperties ei^ 
tremely valuable in a picture, and too eanly lost ift tbe 
.endeavour to give more strict and positive resemblan^Se of 
substance. 8ir Joshua Reynolds in his fourteenth lecturts 
•aays of this hatching tnatiner of Gainsboroagb, that his 
-portraits- were often little more than what generally atteocb 
•a dead colour as to finishing or determinnig the form of 
the features ;> but, '* as he. was. always attentive to the ge* 
jieral effect, or whole together, I have often imaginod 
'(says be) that this unBnishied manner coutxiboted even to 
that striking resemblance for which his portraits are sa re^ 
•markable. At the same time it must > be acknowledged 
that tfaefce hi. one evil* attending this -mode ; that if- the 
portrait were seen previously to any knowledge of the ori- 
ginal, different persons would form different ideas ^ aod 
:all would be disappointed atnot findings the original cor* 
-respond with, their own conceptions, under tlie^greait iatw 
.tude which indistinctness gives to the imagination, to as- 
sume almost what character or form it plehses,*' * 

In tlie same lecture, which principally treats of the ao* 
rquirements of Gainsborough, .and whieh was delivered at 
.the ro}'»l academy soon after bis deathy by its tmiiy exetied 
'president,' it is said of.him, ^< that if ever this nation shotitd 
.produce genius sufficient to acquire to us thehonoorabt^ 
<listiactioci.of^£, the name of Gtainsborough 
.will be transmitted, to posterity in the history of the art 
iamong the.iirst of that rising name.V-^^^ Whether be most 
•excelted in portraiu, landscapes, or- fancy piosores^ it 'is 
jdiifficult :.ta deteroiine:: whether bis portraits were m04^ 
admirable for exact truth of resemblance, or bis landaoapes 
for apoctrait'like represematiitn iyf natpire,: sucttas we see 
,in the works of Rubens, .Ryadael, or odhers of these scfaoohs. 
In his fancy pictures^ ivheniheibad^ fixed apon^hia object 
•of imitaliony whether it wks* the wean and vulgar fqma«^>a 
iivQod-cuttelr,. or axhild d£> a^^interesting^ charactar, as b^ 
<bd iiot attemi^ te.!:ai^;tbe oas^: *saiiehber did he isse any 

Y 4\ 

G A I N S B O R O a G H. ail 

"i^f ibe nalAfid grace . and elegance of the other ; such a 
grace and tnch an elegance as are more frequently foi^nd 
in 6ottai^*es than in oourts. This excellence was bis own, 
U^e.pef^uU 0t bis particular observation and taste. For this 
he was certainly not indebted to any school ; for his^ grace 
was not academical, or antique, but selected by himself 

^ratm-tbe great school of nature; where thiere are yet a 
ihpusand modes uf grace unselected, but which lie open ^k 
Jib^ multiplied scenes and figures of life, to be brought out 
by ^ilfailaod faithful observers. 

. .^ Upon iibe whole we may justly say, that whatever he 
^iieq»|>ced he carried to a high degree of excellence. It is 
to tbe credit of bis good sense and judgment that he never 

'^Ud attempt that style. of historical painting for which his 
previoes istodies had made no preparation.'' 

.J4o|faingeould have. enabled Gainsborough to reach so 
elevated a point in the art of painting without the most 
ardent love for it Indeed his whole mind appears to have 
been deivoted to it, even to his dying day; and then bis 

:principal regret seemed to be, that he was leaving his art, 
•when, as he said, ^' be saw bis deficiencies, and had en- 
d:!^avQiired to remedy them in his last works.'* Various 
A^ircumstaoces. in liis life exhibited him as referring every 

-thing to it. <^ He; was continually remarking to those who 
jbaf^Med to h6 about him, whatever pecuharity of coun- 

-tenaace, %diatever accidental combination of figures, or 
happy effects of light ai)d shadow occurred in prospects, 
in tbeisky, .in walking tlie. streets, or in company. If in 

'hiSivralks be found a character that be liked, and whose 
attendance was to be obtained, he ordered him to his 

choose : .and from the fields he brought into his painting- 
eoomstttfiipft of trees, weeds, and animals of various kinds; 
and designed them not from memory, but immediately 
fxom' the objects.. He even framed a kind of model of land- 

. scapes on bis table coqa posed of broken stones, dried herbs, 

.and pieces of looking^^glass ; which be magnified, and im- 
proved into rocks, trees, and water: all which exhibit the 

.salicicude and extreme activity that he had about every 
thing relative to his art ; chat be wished to have his oblacts 
^oibodied as it ^re, and distinctly before him,' neglecting 

rnetbiog that contributed to keep his faculties alive; and 

-^^leriving hints from every sort of combination." lie was 

.also in the constant habit of painting by night, a practice^ 

\Tery ^advantageous and improving t^ an artist, for, by this 

P 2' 

m & A 1 N « B OR o tr o n. 

tnfeans he may acquire a neur and a Uglier pefcdpli^ Vlf 
what is great and beautiful in nature. His prlrctice incite 
progress of his pictures was to paint Dli the whole together^; 
wherein he differed from some, who finish each part sefrnf- 
rately^ and by that means are freqtiently Iteble to prodiit^ 
Inharmonious combinations of forms and features. 

Gaih^borongh was one of the feW artistn of eminilWet 
this eouhtry has produced who never was indebted 10 16^ 
I'eign travel for his improvement and adrainceme'in in fnUnU 
ing. Some use, indeed, he appears to hare wtade tiffb«> 
wign productions ; and he did not ifegkfet to tepfxj^c Kfm- 
«feli in the language of the art, the art of itnitatfbtt^ bUl 
aided bis progress by closely observing trrd imttatitlg aditii 
^f the masters of the Flemish school ; who are dndonbtedf)^ 
the greatest in that particular and necestTafy branMl cf 'itf« 
He frequently made copies of Rubens, Tettiert, and Van* 
tlyke, which it wbuld be no disgrace to the tnost aetehM 
ieonnoisseurs to mistake for original pictiites fet (int'^rigiit; 
What he thus learned, he did not, however^ gervflety trs#y 
but applied it to imitate nature in a manner Entirely liSi 
own, ^ " " * . ■■'"" 

The subjects he chose for representation wefe ^en^Hlll^ 

rery simple, to which his own excellent taste kiiew li^?Wt^ 

^ive expression and Taltre, fti bis la»dst;'ape6 H HM)tlg 

mound and a few figures seated upon, c^ near it 5 wMi^a 

cow or feoine sheep grazing, and a slight iliArtttng'oP^IWr* 

stance, sufficed fot the objedcs ; their ehairni 'w** il»e 

purity of tone in the colour; the (Veedom and clearness of 

the touch ; together with an agreeable combination of ^^ 

forms ; and with these simple matterifals, which Uppeat^tf 

easy as to be within every one's grasp, but which etttM 

stanily eltide the designer who1s not gife«?d with hisfti^Ato^ 

and taste, does he always produce a pleasing-pieture. *^l 

his fancy pictures the same taste prevailed. A cottage ^tit 

a shepherd's boy ; a woodman ; with vehr alig** tti^tW^U 

in the back-grbundj were treated by huh with 90 ttHek 

eharacter, yet so much elegante, that they n^^v^r j(«i4^iv 

delight. ''-'"'''' 

' In the spring following GainsbOrbngb*^ dleaflb^ Ml 0iM^ 

hitidn was made at his botise in Pall Mall, df h4^ {»^«^ttt 

and drawings. Ctf the former there were fifty-aiK ; of tto 

latter one Wndred and forty-eight; wtthseVerarpictfiirMl^ 

6f\he Fiemisfa at>d otiier masters, which he bad coM«oi«d 

during bift life*time% They wene aunounced fat aate^ imd 


^(Sir prices nuurkjed jn the jcatalogne, and several were 
sold. Some time after, tbe whole remaining collectiori 
WM sold by AuctbOt and brought good prices. Among his. 
aU^fnpis were the portraits ofGarrick and Fopte, but be 
4}^:^ot s4iGceed. according to.h|$ wish, which he used. to 
excuse by saying that *' they had every body's faces but 
their . cKvo,'' a ver^ pertinent remark, as applied to the 

^ poicit'aiis of dri^aiaiic personages. 

' JVj[r« £4wards meotioos three etchings by t;he hand of 
Gaitpi^b^rqiigh. The 6rst. is spiiall, and. was done as a de« 
comiop (a<tbe firsi ** Treatise on Perspective,*' which was 
pubHsbiM. . by bis frieod Mr. Kirby; but it i^ curious to 
observe^ that what little of perspective is introduced, is 
Iptajly faise ; .but from the date of th|it work Gainsborough 
ibilfit have been a^ that time very young. The second is 

^ an, pak tree, with gypsies, sitting under it boiling their 
keu}^i the size X^ iaiches by 1 7, Both these were 6nished 
bytiiegraver^ though not improved, by Mr. Wood. The 
tbird„ aiQore extensive view, represents a man ploughing 
oil tixe side of a rising ground, upon which there is a wind* 
mill ; the sea terminates the distance. This he called the 
^aiblk Plougb* It is extremely scarce, for he spoiled the 
plate by imp^ently attempting to apply the aquafortis^ 
liefore bis friend, Mr. Griguion, could assist him, as was 
§gro4ui« Its . size , l $ iochf^ by 1 4. He also attempted 
%wo. or three small plates in aqua tinta, but was not very 
Bttocestful mth them, as he knew little of the process. 

TbiA^emineut artist bad a nephew, Gainsborough Du* 
WQSH^Tf a modeat and ingenious man, who painted portraits 
i^itb. considerable success, but died at the eaifly age of ' 
tlurty, in January 1797. His principal work is a large 
l^iptore (for which he received 500/.) of all the Trinity 
masters, riybich. is in the court-room of the Trinity -house 
iijKNi Toiver-'bill. * . 

; .<jALAT£0 (Antony), or Galat£Us Lici'ensis, an emi* 
gent rllf^ian writer, whose proper name was Ferrari, i$ 
genej^lly known by that of Galateo, from bii^ native place, 
Galatina, in Otranto, where he was born in 1444* His 
iitber dying in bis infancy^ be was taken into the protec-. 
tlM of Us grandfather, who iiad him educated at Nardow 

'i,Edward«*s Supplement to Walpole's Anecdotes. — Mtlope's Life and Worka 
^^irJothna Reynolds.— Northoote*8 Life of fir Joshua.-— Rees*s Cyalopadia.— « 
Octit. Iffar- ▼ol- LVIIL— Sketrh of the Life of Gainiborougb, by Thicknesse, 
lta|^« ItSS.*rJMluoa'a F««r Ages, 179S, Svo. 

214^ G A L A T E O. 

He afterwards studied medicine^ which, after :t«ktog*hitf 
degrees at Ferrara, be practised at Naples wkh greatre* 
putation, and was appointed physician to the king, in con- 
sequence of the recommendation of SaniiMarivs and Pon- 
tanus. The air of Naples, however, not agreeing with 
bim, he removed to Gatlipoli, near Galatiiw, ^faere be 
resumed his practice. He died Nov. 112, 1517. He was 
not only eminent as a physician, but his natural atid'm<Mml 
philosophy is said to have risen beyond the level of the age 
in which he lived. He is also said to have indicated the 
possibility of the navigation tx> the East by ike Capebf 
Good Hope,, in his treatise ^^ De situ Elementorumj^* pub* 
lisbed in 1501, but written some years prior* to that pariod. 
He also illustrated the topography of bis native country 
with accurate maps and descriptions ; and was reputed a 
poet of considerable merit. His works are, berides What 
we have mentioned, 1. ^' De situ lapygi®,*' Ba^l,,155^, 
but the best edition is that of 1727, with tbe-notesof Tas- 
tieri, and some lesser pieces by Galatco. 2. ** A Descrip- 
tion of Gallipoli." 3. " Sucoessi dell* armata Turches- 
canella citta d'Otranto del T anno 1480,'* 4to, 1480. He 
had accompanied the son of the king of Naples on tMs- 
expedition. He published also some poems in Latin and 
Italian. * , . .. !. 

GALE (John), a learned divine, and an ejninent preacher 
among the baptists, was bort|fMay26, 1^80, at Loifidnn. 
His father was a citizen of good repute ; and. observing 
the natural turn of his son to be from his infancy grave and 
composed, he resolved to br-eed him for th,e ministry. He 
spared no cost in his education, and the boy*s diiigeiTce 
Mas such, that, both in school and out of school, be ap- 
plied attentively to his learning, and became not only 
master of the Latin and Greek, but of the Hebrew Ian* 
j):uage, at the age of seventeen; when he was sent":o 
Leyden, to finish what he had so happily begun. Sdon 
after his arrival there he received the news of his mother's 
death, and, being sensible that this would hasten bia iie<- 
turn home, he made it a spur to his industry ; and so 
surprising was his. progress in academical learning, tha^Jie 
was thought worthy of the degrees of master •<)€ aria end 
doctor of philosophy in his nineteenth year, and accofd« 

ingly received those honours in I>S99y having performed 

# - • - . 

* Morcrl^VicU Hist.— Nlccrgn, rol. 11,— Rosct)e'« Leo X.-^^-Saxil Op6jn»it» 

G ALE. ai5 

ijie iisuil exemses with urn versal applause *. This' extra* 
ordtqary tetihinmiy of bis son's merit coald not fail to Be 
/very acoepitable to the father ; and the rector of the uiu* 
ver^i^ comluunicated it, in, a strong letter of commeoda- 

' ,lian. Upon tbia occasion our author pqblished his ^< Thes- 
i^isy^'* afid dedicated it to bis father and bis two uncles, sir 
Joha and sir Joseph. Wolf; and a noble attestation of bin 
mmcit was lubjoinied by Adrian Reland in a Latin panegyric. 
1 . Thus boBcmred^^at Leyden, be weqt to Amsterdam. 
:where he cootioiied his studies under professor Limborcb. 
•:Ai the same time be contracted^an acquaintance with John 
XieClerCy took all opportunities of visiting bitn, settled a 
iCOi*respoQ4^al!ce "with him, and became afterwards a zealous 
^a^well as able def^pnder of his character f* Upon his re^ 
.turn home be continued bis stgdies with equal ardour; 
and, impreiviag himself particularly in the Oriental Ian* 

, gmgea, obtained oritical skill ini the books of the Old and 
vNew Testament. He bad not been above four years thus 

' employed, when the university of Leydea sent him an o£Fer 
of a doctor's degree in divinity, provided he would assent 
.|e the articles^ of Dort-; but be refused that boitour, oil 
^he principle of preserving a freedom of judgment 

This was about 1703; and Wall's defence of Infant 
Baptism coming out in less than two years after, proved an 

- pooasien for Gale to exert bis talents in controversy. Soon 
aCter the publication of that book, he undertook to answer 

• it» and pursued the subject in several letters wi;itten in 
i 470$. iind Ir706 ; which were handed about in manuscript 
. if^^reral years^ till be consented to make tbem public in 

• 1711, under the title of <^ Reflections on Mr. Wairs His» 
^ry of Io£ant Ba^isio/* , The extraordinary merit of this 
piece raised him to the first pjace among the baptists ; 
yet^he did not think B^ to take upon binuelf the preacber^s 

. office immediately. . He was five and thirty years, of age 
before he began to preach constantly and ^t«»(edly % ; when 

, W was chosen one of <be niiuisters of the baptist congre*- 
•tgatifOnia-PaMl's ailey^ near Barbican. 

• . < 

 The professor's fpc*ch on the oc- Le Clffc, which, be says, render it 

frtstdn was printed 'afterwards hy-Bder- very evidetit that he ackno»ledc:ed the 

iHiave,.'- AiBOilf' oilier 'thu^Si he job- divipii|( of Chuuit as plainly and es- 

l^er^y tliat Dur^tudeuw had obiaioed pres&ly taught in ihe scriptures. 

" «uch a readiness in the Greek Tangua^e, ;jHe*had, ho^wever, preached bt- 

- ^ tAW^IIIelott4&t)aln»irr ife t^aMidy; fore, on the BimWersary tf the goij* 

Btbl. Ckovhe, \am. XV l^* p- 3i^- . poiid«r«ptot; an<) he published bi«^|%. 

. . f See our author's tirf^t let M^r upon course with i^ie t\t^e- of a Tbankfgiv'iqf 

Vfr. WaU»s History of Infant Baptisin. Scimon/ preached KrtV. 5, 1113, 'U 

wUtfre be cites tereral passages irotu P»alm cv. ver. l,and 15, 


- As be was teolouk to tmatitehi and ftofmg/itm tiMiielMi% 
tioDi which fad diought authorized by pnontive antiquity 
he became cfaairinaii to a society for pvomottiig wfa«t tbey 
called prioiitive Christianity; frooi July 9, illS^to FehL 
the lOtb following. This society met e%'ery week* attMt. 
Whiscon's bouse in Cross-street, HatlcMi^gaiidleii^ • which 
fhey named the *' Primitive Library.'* B«ut though Dr. 
Gale testified a strong desire to ettingimh aU dupiiMr 
among Christians^ he was by no means wiUi^g to give up 
his own peculiar opinions. Hence it was that wheiVcMsu 
Wall consented to hpid a icooference with inm opon ite 
subject of infant baptisoi, the dispute ended, as usual^ 
without any good issue ; and Wall was so filr Irom being 
satisfied with the arguments of his antagonist^ thi»'he4rew« 
up an answer to the Reflectiona, and pobKshed it under 
^e title of «^ A Defence of the History of lefant Baptism," 
in* 171^. This book, as well as the History, was so oifiehL 
approved by the university of Oxford^ that Wall was bq*- 
noured with the degree of D. D. upon die oceaaion. Dn. 
Calebs Reflections were not without ci^siderable «dvo» 
«ates ; and it is supposed, that he meditated im answer to* 
Dr. Wairs reply, but a premature dea^ pnevented ilie 
lixecatioti of tbis and several designs which he bad formed^L 
for the promotioR of Oriental iearning and his own no^oaa 
of scriptural knowledge, as he was seized mth afever^* 
Dec. 1721, of which, after an illness of about Uvreewesb^' 
be died, iu his forty*second year. • ^ « / 

In his per:K)n, Dr. Gale was rather taUer thaix the eo|to«: r 
anon size, and of an open pleasan^l couateiiafice; in hm^ 
-temper, of an easy and affable behaviour, serious- wicboat; 
any tincture of moroseness. lo his mi^niiers and i»onik» i 
cbearful without levity> having a most perfect comMitidr> 
iQver.his passions. He was gneatly esteemed by, and Itred . 
in frie4)dship with, Bradford bishop of Roobesier^ Hoadiy: 
i>ishop of Bangor, and the lord cbanoalior King» After. 
Ills dea^h a collection of his sermons we^ priated by sub*: 
sgription; the second edition whereof was published I7M# 
iq 4 vols. 8vo, to vvbich is prefixed an account of his life. : 
It pppears from some passages in his funeral sermonn that 
he was married, and had a family, left in great want .A, 
contribution, however, was raised, which e|)abled bis widow 
to set up a coffee-house in Findi-lane for the mainteimnce 
«f ^ber children. What became of them ifterWards we t^i , 
^t told. Of Dr. Gal6*s principal performaoce it m9>y\^. 

4r A L S. 217 

tbati M Wair» <* History of Tnfiint Baptism** is the 
inest f hidtcatton of this doctrine, so the answer of Gale 
ia^ the beat, defence of th^ baptists; which, as the subject 
bad. been bandied by tery great men before, is an ample 
commendatioil of both parties. ' 

;. GALS (TiCSOPHILOs), a learned divine among the tion« 
ccmformists, was born in 1628, at King's-Teignton iti De* 
WNKsbtre, where bis father, Dr. Theophilus Gale, was theil 
^oar, ^t€h which he likewise held a prebend iu the cfaurcli 
«f Exeter. Being descended of a rery good family in the 
West of'Engbifd, fais' education -was begun under a private 
ptaDccptor, in his father's house, and he was then sent to 
• 'ftcboot in the neighbourhood, where he 'made a great 
pmfierency in classical learning, and was removed to' Ox* 
ford in l ^47. He was entered a commoner in Magdalen 
eoUege, a little after that city, with the university, had 
been sarrendered to the parliament ; and their visitors in' 
the general reformation (as they called it) of the* university; , 
bad put Dr. Wilkinson into the presidentship of Magdaleit 
ooilege, who took particular notice of young Gale, and 
pmcvred him to be appointed a demy of his college in 
1^48« But the consent of kindness to him was far from 
stopping hei^ ; he was recommended to the degree of ba^ 
cfaeknr of arts Dec. 1G49, by the commissioners, long be-* 
fore the time appointed For taking that degree by the sta-^ 
tntet of the univenHty, viz. four years after admission. Of 
this departure from the nsuat term of granting a degree 
they^ we«te's&%etisible, tfa^tcare was taken by them to have 
a.^fNirrieular reMoli set f6rth, for conferring it so early upon 
Um; expyewing, that he was fully ripe for that honour, 
boali in reape^t of his age, and the excellence of his 
abilitiea/ It was probably owing to the countenance of the 
same patrorts that he was chosen fellow of his college m 
ieso, in pveferefice 'to ^many of his seniors, who were set . 
jmA'to rnnke room for hhn. It is acknowledged, how- 
every that he deserved these distinctions. He took the 
degree of M* A. Juii)^ 18, 1652^ and being encouraged to 
takefNipilsy sbon b^a<ne an eminent tutor, and had, among 
otbcar pupils, Eaekiel Hopkins, afterwards bishop of Ra-* 
l^e, in- IrekMd. 
*I» the mean titiae he continued to prosecute his own 

J' I 

oT tW BaptistSj fol. IV. p. 366,— NicUQls*s AlUr^ury's Corr«sp)0(ieaGe^ v«i». 

21S GALE. 

studies with vigour; aod efaoostfig dmnity for bis. priifcA^ 
sion, applied himself particularly to that study*' On 
reading Grotius, on the '< Truth of the CbriAiaii Bieli* 
gion»'Vbe b^gan to think it. possible to make lA'^appear^ 
that the wisest of the pagao philosopbers borrowed their 
more sublioie contemplations, as well natural, and moral, 
as dirine, from the Scriptures; and that, how diffuretit 
soever they might be iu tb^r appearance, not only their 
theology, but their philosophy aud philology, were de^^ 
rived from the sacred oracles. Upon this principle heti»»' 
dertook the arduous work, which froni this tinie beoame 
the principal object of his theological researches for meny 
years. He did not, l>owever, neglect the 'dudes of the 
priesthood, and his discourses from the pulpit were, con* 
sptcuous proofs of his distinguished piety and learning. 
He was invited to Winchester, and became a stated preachier 
there in 1657 ; in this station he continued for some years, 
generally admired and esteemed, both for his excel ieat 
sermons and his exemplary life and conversaiion. But, 
being bred up in puritanical principles, he was uiMilterably 
devoted to them ; so that upon^tablishmentof the 
church by Charles II. he could not prevail with himself to 
comply with the act of uniformity in 1661, and, rather 
than violate bis conscience, chose to suffer all the peuaiiies 
of the law« 

Thus e3(cluded from the public service of his functioa, 
and deprived of his fellowship at Oxford, he found friends 
among his own party, and was taken into the fisniily of 
Philip lord Wharton, in quality of tutor to his two sons. 
The state of the universities at hoqie being now very dis* 
pordant to the principles of lord Wharton, he seiH i^s aon^ 
with their tutor, in 1662, to Caen, in Normandy, a se^* 
miliary which flourished at that time under'tbe direction 
of the most distinguished professors of the reformed. reli* 
gion in France; among whom was the celebrated Bochart. 
With. this learned divine and several other persons of cUs^ 
ting(uished erudition Gale became acquainted, and by this 
intercourse, as well as by travel, greatly improved himself 
Vvithqut neglecting his charge.  . , 

In 1665 he returned to England with hispupik, and-at** 
Ending, them home to their father's seat at Quaintpn».in 
Buckinghamshire, continued in the family till 1666 ; when, 
being released from this employ/ fae set out thence ^.r 
Loiitlon, and w^as struck on the road with the dreadful sijj;h| 

GAL E; iil§ 

of ibe e\ty in flAtnem The lirst shock being over, he re« 
edllected bid own papers^ his greatest treasure, whiobv 
whan he left England, be had committed to th^ care of a 
paiticular friend in London. He soon learnt that the 
hoitseof this friend was burnt, and gave up his papers as 
lost, and with them all hopes of completing his great work* 
They had, howet^er, by a fortunate accident, been pre- 
•aerved, and the *' Court of the Gentiles*' was destined to 
Mc^ve* its completion. At this period he became assist- 
*at to >Mr. John Rowe, his countryman, who had then a 
fwivate congregation inHoiborn; and continued in that 
station till 'the death of his principal, Oct 12, 1677, when 
Mr. Gale was chosen to succeed him, together with Mr. 
Samuel Lee, his assistant. 

In the mean time the publication of his ^^ Court of the 
Gentiles" had proceeded gradually, in consequence of 
the great care he took to complete and digest his collec* 
tions, and to make the work in all respects a masterly 
|>rodu€tion. The ^rst part was published at Oxford iii 
1659, and, being received with gi-eat applause, was fol« 
lowed by the other three, the 'last of which came out iji 
1677, the year when he succeeded Mr. Howe, ButthU 
work, large 'and laborious as it was, did not prove suf-* 
fi<^ent to employ his spare hours: he wrote also, within 
the same period, several other works ; namely, 2. ^^ Th^ 
true Idea of Jansenism,** 1669, 4to; with a large preface 
fey I>r. John Owen. 3. ** Theopbilus, or a Discourse of 
'^he- Saints* amity with God in Christ,'' 1671, 8vo. 4. 
♦^ The 'Anatomy of Infidelity, &c.'* 1672, 8vo. 5. « A 
IMscOurse of Christ's coming, &c," 1673, 8vo. 6. "Idea 
. Tbeologiee tam contemplativse quam activse, ad formam 
8. S. delineata," I67S, 12mo. 7. " A Sermon, entitled. 
Wherein the Love of the World is inconsistent with the 
-Love of God,'^ 1674 ; printed also in the supplement to 
the morning exercise at Cripplegate. 8. *• Philosnphia 
g<eneralis in duas partes disterminata, ,&c." 1676, 8yo. 9. 
•*'A Sommary of the two Covenants,** prefixed to a piece 
published by him, entitled " A Discourse of the two Co- 
Tenants,** written by WiHiatn Strong, sometime preacher 
at the Abbey church kt Westminster. ** The Life and 
death of Thomas Tregosse, minister of the gospel at Milar 
and Mabe in Cornwal, With hiis Character,*' was also writ* 
ten by him, and published in 1671, though he seems ttt 
Itave- jponeeated the drcumstance as much as possible* ' • 

12* O A t n 

Such were tbe fi^ts of our ail thorns «li](dies;^for;itto 
9ake of pro«ecutmg wbitb, with kbe priv^y reqiii»ite> bo 
rhose Newington for his retreat ; wber^ be instrcicUMl d 
few young persoos umler his own roof. But he wait faty* 
qnently visited by persons of disttnctlon, aod saQio.a£ a 
different opinion from bim in religious nfiaiters, out of 'li 
desire to testify their esteem for unafiected piety and exw 
tensive learning* In i 67 If be published proposalsfor pri«t« 
ing by subscription, ^^ Lexicon Grssei Teslattiefiti £^<<f 
aaologicon, Synonymum, aive Gldssarium Homonymuos/^ 
This, as ti^ title imports, was intended by bim for a lai^M 
con and concordaoce together : he Snisbed it aa far as tkm 
letter Iota, and the most eonsideiHWe words were atid 
placed under other letters. But be was prevented fron^ 
eairryrng-tt further by tus death ; which happened in March 
that year, when he ^'as not quite fifty. As to his obasac<» 
ter, besides what has been already mentioned, be waa^ 
most ie«olons non^ponformist, stedfast in those opinioosr 
and warm in the dafenoe of tbem. His zeai this way 
extended iuelf beyond the grave; be wished, he resolved^ 
to perpetuate tbem as fkr as he was able. In that spicti 
be beipieatbed all his estate to young students of his ;qwi» 
fUrincipIes, and appointed trustees to manage it for ihmr; 
a^pport He bequeathed also his welUcbosen library tiiinatd> 
jplromoting useful learning in New England, where those 
prinetples universally prevailed. But, notwithstanding ^biis 
warm eoocern for supporting and propagating his. owa^ 
Communion, be was not without chartty< fet those who 
.differed from him, whom he would labour to convince^ bnt- 
Bot to compel ; being as much an enemy to sedition aa 
fce was to persecution. Hence we find even Wood giving 
hifll all his ju»t commendations without those abaliametita 
find rertrictions which are usual in his eharaciers. It waa 
allowed alto, that, in his << Court of the GMit}le8,'*:and> 
ether works, he shewed extensive learning, and eonai^. 
deraMe abilities. 

/ In this work, partly, as we have ^ready mntiotdv ibttt' 
chiefly in hts *^ Philosophia gen^ralis,*' be iras indwedi'' 
aays Bruoker, to become a zi^ous advocate for Platonima 
ibrough a violent antipathy to the Cartesiaa svstem, which 
h» thought unfriendly to morals^ and CQntj3aai<:(^ry to tbV 
doctrine of revelation. He undertook ^to trace back fitw-, 
losophy to its origin, and maintained, (hat there waiii «' 
woxiderltil agreement betjveen tbeiiincientbiirJteio-pbil0r 

GALE* ftl 

9ophf^ Mid tlie Jcwidi mmI Cbrisliaii tkdoUlff. He bvovf^t 
•rery pUlMdi^hscal tenet to tbe lett of tb« scripture^ An4 
tboughiijttmt it woukl iiot be a difficult undertakings to 
«epBiate Ifftm tbe pagan pbiloaopky those doctrio^s wbioli 
ertgiiuMd in ^Uyiiie. revelatioo^ and bad been transmitted 
by Onditioii from tbe Hebrews to the gentiles. Having 
pemiiitfhed himself that these doetirines had passed in a 
direet luwy iznd without loaterkd corrnption, from tbe Ho* 
blew fountain to Plato, he recommended his philosophical 
yirriiii^ aSy iiext to the scriptures^ the most valuable re* 
masnsiof'MncUeotwbdoin. The chief point which he la* 
bcMirsi:tojmiotain in his ^ Philosopbia geoeralis*' is, that 
Plafto moMved Us kno«4edge oi theology from the Hebrewssi 
and that Abe docftrtoe on this subiect taught by hiia ao4 
hb.tiillawer^ Ibr tbe aiost part, agrees with that of the 
bolytsoiiptorea. Tbis i^inioo be implicitly adopts from 
the «oeiefit. fotber^ whose authority^ with respect to this 
matter, >Sni€kQr . thinks tfaece is veason to Cisll in ijoestioik 
HiaaccDwlt of other philofliopb^rs ia given» wiitboul mudi 
appeatanoe of accurate discftmimrtioo, obiefiy.from L^fsufn 
uitsw He divides the Aristotelian , pbilosqpby . io^ pui^ 
and tmpiti«) and.aupposes^ grakuitmisly eobOugbr^tbat tfa^ 
fimaer pasaed £rom Moses to the Stagy rite through tbg 
cirtnoeL ofntato's* instrufstion* ^ . > :: 

. OALfi:(TH0iiiiA9)^ teolehra^-for bis k^iowl^d^of d)# 
Gmafc (laugaaige aiad aodqukies^ aad desci^ed from a 
familyf ooosidvabl^iQ the North ^aadEa^t.Hidiag pf Xo^kn 
slma^ycitasilora'inr 1^6, tut SciotpiKio Yorkshire*. H^ 
was' sent to Wesontaitert^ohool, aild, being admitl^ 
kifMgVtebolar thens^ «as eleoted to Tnnij^y i^ollege^ (3am<^ 
bridge# and fbeeame. ieUaw of'lhat soi^iei^' .Hf^to^kbis 
degmoof B. A. in 1^36; of M* A^'m liwSl^ In ibepfo* 
secation ^.hiaatitdiesi ho appUed hi«osel£,to classioal an4 
polite' tilORatiire, and. Im- eatraordinary proBeiepcy .pfsohy 
eoMbhias oaily afseot kt tbe temple of fame. His. ki^^pFt 
ledge of tbe Greek tongue recofximeoded hiuii .in-tj^^ U^ 
ikm Qtbsemt ^eigitm pHrofiassor of that langua^ in the oni* 
y0mtfp,iwi»A he rosigQed in.l^lQi md bis m^9Hfs 

cboaeo was appiM»ed % the accwrato edition wbiob hi| 

••'■.. • . . >  f - . • • 1 

a i««|^6a1e, with whom the pedl- North Riding, ir-23; his eldeft grnlt* 

Imi iotfe^ ** Relltqtilse Ofileftnie** be^ grandson Rohsrt, or Francift, «t hi»* 

^m, tm tmmi at Thifmoft otsr flira* ha«i Oraost^ m t^e %«ii4red of 4lmi^. 

Uni» 4«|,the hmdred of Bsit Oilltng aal m the Eaii Eidipf , 1590. 

% Alkiea*nnl1.2l.«-«C«lanr*-*^U«a-M^^Brack^^^ , 

iglKfexif tfii aneient inytbologic wnteri,' ts'^l pbyritalras 
tnorsij in Greek and Latin, pubtished at Canibridge ill 
a67i, 8vo. This brought his merit into pi^lie view; 'and 
the following year be was ap]3oint«d bead master of Sli 
Paulas school in London ; soon after which, by bis n«agtesty*-s 
liirection, he drew up those inscriptions virbicfa ai«' to b# 
aeen upon the Monument, in memory of tbedve^Uilifl oMV'^ 
fiagratton in 1-666, and was honoured with a .presMt of 
plate made to him by the city. His excelient conduct and 
commendable industry in the school abundaiuly appear, 
from the great number of persons, emineotly learned, wiio 
were educated by him : aiid, notwitfa^anding tbelatigci« 
of^tat laborious office, he found time to publiAnew land 
Mcfutftte editions of several ancient Greek authors. 
• He at^umuiated the degrees of B. and D.-D. hi 1875 ; 
and June 7, 1676, was coUaied to the prebend 'Gonmifiipt. 
per aiafe in the cathedral of St Paul. He wta also ekcted 
m 1677 iuto tbe r<>yal society^ of which he became a «n^ 
odnsiaM aiid useful member, was frequently of tbecoisneiF^ 
mnd presented them with many curiosities, paitioiiiafly A 
lioinan um with tbe ashes, found near Peckbam kt Surmy 
(part of these burnt bones be gare to Mr. Tboretby) ;^ and 
in 1695^ the seciiKy hating resolired to haine honomry 
aecretaries, who would act without'ai^ view of reward, i)r« 
<}ale iras ehoBen whb sir Jobn Hoi^yns into tbdt oflitje, 
when they appointed tbe celebrated Haliey fcnr their ekdr«* 
assistant, or under*secretary, who had been adistinguiiihed 
iehular of our author's at St. Paul's school. Dr. Gale ctAi- 
tiaued at the head of this school with the greatest r«|>Qta^ 
-tion for 2S years, till 1697, when be was promoitBd to she 
id^aiirjr of York; and b^g admitted into that dignity 
Sept. 16, that year, be remot^d thitber. ^ lliis prcffeN 
M^nt was no more than a juat reward of Msmerit, b«ete^ 
.^id not live to enjoy it many years. On bia admis^on^ 
fi4lding the dean's right to be a eanon^rasutamiary dalied 
ill question, he was at the expence of procuring^ letters 
^tent in 1699, to annex it to the deanry, which put Akf 
itnatter out of all dispute. • On his removal from London/ 
^e presented to the mw library, tben lately linifcb^d at Ms 
college in Cambridge, a curious coilecticm of Alrabic ma- 
.nuscripts. During tbe remainder of bis lif/e, which^ was, 
,iqpentat York, he preserved an hospital i^ .Suitable to hia 
etation ; and bis good governnrent'of tbat church isnriefr- 
tioned Mih honour. Nor has the eare. ^hioli^-be took^v lb 

£^ A L E. S2S 

repair iiwl sHorn tbftt stately edifice, passed without a jost 
tribute of praise. 

- Having pbssessed this digni^ little more than four years 
and a half, he died April 8, 1702; in his 67th year, in the 
deaneryt-bouse, and was interred- with a suitable epitaph ; 
io the middle iof tbe choir of his cathedral. There is a 
-fifie penratt of him in tlie library of Trinity-college, 
CambiMf^e, the gift of his son ; and there is another at 

« From the list of his publicaiionfi, it is eirident, that dean 
^Osle.waii a learned divine, and well versed in historical 
^oowledgei This, gained him the eiteem of- most of the 
learned- oien his contemporaries, both at. home 'and abroad. 
With some « of them he held a particular comespondeoM, 
.as MabilloB, from whom he received the MS. of Alcuin de 
Pontificsbus.Eboracensibus, published in his ^* Hiftt. Btit, 
'Seripiores," Bakize, Ailix, Cappel, Rudolph, Wetsleio of 
Amsterdam,. Grtevius, Huetius, &c. This iast.had a singula 
)br. respect for him, and declares it his opinion, that our 
ftoilior exceeded all men he ever knew, both for modesfcy* 
«nd learning. > 

In PhtL Trans. No. .231, is a* letter from Thoresby to 
Jbister, ti6d7, concerning two^Roman altars found at Gob 
lertonand Blenkinsop-castle in the oouoty of Nordutmfaer^ 
land,*, with not«fe ^by Dr. Gale. This was- the' Greek' in^ 
^isription .to Hercatesv. ' See Horaley, p. 245. . : r 

! DcL^ale married .Barbara daughter of Thomas Pq>yi^ 
^sqt of Impington, in theioounty of Cambridge, who died 
.1^9,.ai)d)by whenl:he had three aoas and u daoghter. To 
-bis eldest 'son ibeleft his nMe library of choice and' vaiua^ 
.fale beoks, besides a omrious collection of many esteemed 
-manuac^pcs^ a o^talogue of wUch is printed in the /^ Ciita(« 
Jogas JMSStorum An'gUae^ & {iiberniaB,'': HI. p. I'SS. f 

J The works of this laborious, scholar, were, 1. *^ Opuscnla 
^thidogtct J^ihica etiPhysica, Gr. & Lat.'' Cantab. 1691; 
^Ko, . r^fMrlAted at Amsterdam, 1688, 8vo, with great im^ 
i|»OTemet|ts. This odlection consists of Palsephatus, H^ 
jraclitiis^'&< Anonymus de Jncredibilibus ; Pburhiitus de 
Miturat degifom ; Salluslius de diis ; Ocellus Lucanus; T^ 
^ttnaiis' Lolor^s de anima mundi; Demophili, Democratic 
-^.^Secundi phifosopborum sentential; Joanim-Pediasiini 
4esideriam .de muliere bona et mala ^ Sexti Pythagorei 
MBietitiai ; Theophrasti characteres ;, Pythagoreorum frag^ 
l^toti^ i^i it.lieliodbci Darissasi capita opticorum. 94 *^ His* 

esA G A LJSk 

itonvt Poeticfls' Scnptoiet aafttqm, Gtmec k, IjimL Ai?^ 
cessere breves note, & indices necessarH^'* Paris, 167S, 
8to.^ These are, Apollodoras Aibeniensis, Conon Gnun- 
maticus, Ptolomaeiis H^pbsestion, Pleiitbeniiis Nicuensia, 
,Sl Antoninus Liberalis. 3. ^ Rbetores Selecti, Gr« & Lat. 
.viz. Demetrias Pbaiereas de Elocutione ; Tiberias Rbetor 
^e scbematibus Demostlienis ; Anonymos Sophistatle Rbe- 
.torica; Seven Alexandrini Etbopoeie. Demetrimn emeti-- 
davit, reliquos e MSS. edidit & Latine vertit, omnes notis 
illnstravit Tbo. Gale/' Oxon. 1676, 8vb. 4. << Jamblichas 
Cbaloidensis de Mysteriis. Epistobi Porpbyrii de eodem 
argmnento, Gr. & Lat ex versione T. G.'* Oxon. 1678, 
.8vo. 5. *' Psalterium juxia exemplar AlesaDdritram,** 
,OxoD. 1678, 8vo. 6. ^ Herodoti Halicaraasiensis Histo- 
riamm libri X. efasdem narratio de vita Honaeri ; excerpta 
^ Ctesia, & H. Stepbani Apol(^;ia pro Herodoto : aceedant 
cbrbnologia, tabula geognpbica, variantes lectiones^ &«.'* 
•Lond. 1679, fol. a most excellent edition^ 7. An edittoa 
t>f <* Cicero's Works'* was revised by hira, Lond. 1681, 
1684, 2 vols. fol. 8. *^ HistorisB Anglicanss Seriptores 
quinque, &c." Oxon. J 687, foL This volume oontains 
tAnnales de Margan, from 1066 to ISSd. Chronicoo Tho* 
mm Wifces from 1066 to 1334. Annates Waverleianseb 
irom 1066 to 1291. G. Vinisaof Itiocrarinm regis RicardI 
in. temm Hieroscdymitanam. Cbroniea Waited de He- 
mingford, from 1066 to 1273* He raservod the remainder 
^f Ats last Cheonicle for namhex velome, wbicb to intended 
to publisb, but did not live to execute. Conceniing tbis^ 
see Heame's Preface to his editiiMi of ttamingford^ p. xxiit. 
9. ** A Diseoorse concerning the Original of flnman Lite- 
tatnre frith Philology uid PbiloKypby," Phit Ti^u»« voL 
•VL p."223l. 10. << UistorisB Britamiies, Saxonkv, Angb*- 
Danictt:, Seriptores quindedin^ 8cc«" Oxon. 169ft, foVuu 
'This volnme coouins ^ Gildas de excidio Britatmi^, Eddii 
idfa Wilfridi, Nenoii bisttoria, Asserii annales, H^dtoiiPoV 
lycibronicon, G. Idalmesburiensis deantiqnita^ Gaaatonien'* 
ais ecclesiee, &, libri V. cle poorificibus Anglioe, Historil^ 
Hanesiensis, Historia Eiiensis, ChrdnbaJoh. WalUngfiudf 
-Kistoria Rad. Diceto, Forduni Seotiobropieony Akttiaiui 
4le pontificibus Eboracensibus.'' This isu:allied Uy Gste 
the first volume ; and that which contaSaa tbe iGUddqiife 
Seriptores (Ingulpl^ns, Peter Biesensis, Cbron. de Midlros^ 
Annales finrtonenses, and tbe Historia Croy)andeaaii| 
«h^gh4»ubiisbed in 168f (by Mxi WiUiaoi FolmM 4indtr 

Q A' L B. 22^» 

tfab patraoa^e ^of Bp. 9eR) is called the second, as ifae 
author^ are t^fa oiore modern dbte. 11. A. collection of 
*\ Latifi' Prayevs^*! by diaatr Gale, . in MS; was in the pos<« 
sieasion of Br. Ducatel. He left in MSk •* Origenis Philo- 
calii^ tariis nianuscriptis cpilata, emendata, & nova rer- 
sipne dbnata ;'' " Jamrbiicbus dfe vita Pythagoroe ;" and 
^ Aatonini Itineravium Btits^niae : -* the latter publibbei<t 
afterwa*ds by his son, as were' his Sermons preached' cnr 
public eccasions in 1704^ • ^ 

;^Fdbrieius, in his " BiWiothefca Graeca,*' XIIL 640^ has; 
T^y: properly distinguished our author from Theophilui^ 
Gale ; but iviih this inaccuracy, that Theophilus is Qiadel 
tdtbe thefetber of Thoma$.' 

GALE (RoQEa), esq. F. Rv and A. SS. eldest son t)f th^ 
pneusedHig, was born in 1672, and was educated under his 
fttber. at St. Paul's school, whence he was' admitted df . 
Tnniiy^cpHege, Cfkmbridge, 1601, made scholar of that 
hcuwe 1693, amll afterwards fellow (being then B. A.y ia 
1697. 'He was possessed of a considerable estate at Scru-^^ 
t^ji^.in Yorbsbirej noiv: in the possession of bis grandson 
n^ury Gale, ^q, and represented North Allerton, in that 
county, in 1705, 1707, .1708, and 1710, His name was 
added to the cpmmjssioners of stamp duties, Dec. 20, 1714'| » 
Ati^ was continued in . a subsequent commission. May 4^ 
171^^ and lie' was appointed a commissioner of ex^isd 
Decv 24 of the.sama ye^r. In this he continued until 
17pi^ when he wa^ wantpnly displaced by sir Robert Wal« 
P^^ : f^^ which no otb/ek* reason w^is assigned' tha|i thst sir 
Robert wan|ed to provide for one of his friends, an act of 
arbitrary. tyranny which cannot be too severely condemned; 
Mh.Gale was the first vice-president of the society of an- 
tiqu«frie»; ^nd wfaep that learned' body, in 1721, proposed , 
to collect accodnts.of all the ancient coins relative to Great ^ 
Btitain'ahd'ib dominions, Mr. Gale undertook the Roman 
8eiies,'and his brother Samuel the Danish. Though he Wais 
considered as one o|[ the most learned men of hiis age, b|^ 
only published the following bpoks : 

1.' << Antonini Iter Britaahiarum Commeutariis i)lustra«* 
tum^Thom^ GaIe,.S,T. P. puper Decani £;bor. Opus post- 
liuN9Mm revisit, auxic, edidit R. G. Accessit Anonymi Ri^ 
vennatis Britanniee Chorog^aphia, cun^ autographo R^gis 
GalU^.M^v^ codice yaticff^DO coUata : adjiciuntur con- 

1 Siog. Brit.— KBi|ht's Life of Colct, p. 334.— HidioU't Bovyer. 

Vol. XV. CI 

^6 <?_ A L BL 

jectune plurtintt, cum nomioibus loconim AQglici% !C|ao|r' 
quot iis assignari potuerint/' Lond. 170^9 4to. In tb.0:. 
preface to this book, Mr. Gale very properly points out what* 
parts of it were bis £atber*s and wbat his own. Mr. Gough 
hady among the books which he bequeatlied to the Bod-, 
leian library, three copies of this edition, enriched with- 
many valuable MS notes by Mr. Roger Gale, NichQlas^ 
Man^ esq. and Dr. Abcabam Francke, fellow of Trinty*) 
college, Cambridge, and rector of West Dene in WMtr 
shire,. 1728 ; and a fourth with MS various readings frpoi 
the twoMSS, whence H. Stephens first printed this.ItincK 
rary *, 2. *^ The Knowledge^ of Medals» pit Instructioat 
for those who apply themselves to the study of Med^lfi: 
both apcient and modern, by F. Jobect," translated from 
the French, of which two editions were published without 
his name; one of them in 1697, the other in 1715, Bvf^ 
3. '^ Registrum Honoris de Richmond,^' Lond. 1722, IWo^ 
His discourse on th^ four Roman Ways in Biiuin,. i» 
printed in the sixth volume of Leland's Itinerary. . Hii 
^' Remarks on a Roman Inscription found at Lanchester,'* i|^ 
the Philosophical Trjansactions, vol. XXX. p* 823 ; 9ia^ v\ 
vol XLill. p. 265, extracts of two of his lettcirs to Mr.* 
Peter CoUinson, "P. R. S. concerning ^ the vegetation p| 
HieloQ seeds 33 years old," and of *^ a fossil skeleton of i| 
inan found at Lathkill-dale near Bakewell, in the coun^ 
of Derby," dated in 1 743 and 1744 f. '< Explanation of a 
Roman altar found at. Castl^ Steeds in Cuidiierland," m 
iGent. Mag. vol. XIL p. 135. In Horsley's /< Britanptfi 
Romana," p. 332, &c* is published, *< An Account of.n 
Roman Inscription found at Chichester. By Roger G^leti 
esq." '^ Observations on an Inscription at Spellp, by^Fr^d« 
Passarini and Roger Gale, esq." are printed |n the AiiC|uec|r 
Jlogia^ vol. II. p. 25., He presented to Mr. Drake's History 
of York a plate of; a beautiful little bronze female h^st. 
Which he supposed to be a Lucretia, found at York, and 
^n bis possession, engraved by Vertue. To him also Mr. 
Driike acknoWledges himself obUged for a discovery tbl^ 
fixes. the building of the Chapter-house at York to arch- 

' ' * Dn Siukeley» hit brother-in-faW| pjrr'ds ami Stylus of the ancients, ez« 
'ifliscribed to him tht ser^nth Iter of his * timeted in Bngiish froifa a ttrfet -iHi* 

Ifivn UinerariucD Curiosum, which he course in Latin, coinpofied by sir ^9^ 

entitles Iter Scptimum Aotoniai Aug. Clerk, bsron of the Exchequer in Scat. 

' f At a m<«tin^of the Royal Society, - land ; and at' the- same time 'bt px^' 

March 3, 1731, Mr. R. Gale read' a sented them with the orifiaal. 

learned' discou^e c^naerniBg the Pa^ ' ~ '• ' 

\AAop Grty, He died at Scrtitbn, Jud6 25, 1744, in 
bis 72d yeafi universally esteemed, and much lamented 
by all his acquaintance ; and left all bis MSS. by will to 
Trinity-college^ Caoibrtdge, of which he was once fellow, 
and iris cabinet of Roman coihs t6 the public library tbere^- 
with a complete catalogue of them drawn up by himself,- 
of which Mr. Nichols printed twenty copies in 1780,.: for 
tlie' use of particular friends. His correspondence included 
all the eminent atittquaries of his time ; and the late Mt* 
Greorge Allan of Darlington possessed, by the gift of'bist 
grandson, a large collection of- letters to and from him, 
the principal of which are printed in the ^^ Reliquiae Ga« 
leanae,'* as a valuable addition to antiquarian literature.- 
The originals are still in the possession of Henry Gale^ 
esq. The ^< Bibliotheca Topographica Britaonica,^ No.IL 
mi^tains mauy other fragments and notices of the labours 
of Mr. Gale. » 

GALE i(Samdel), brother of the pl'eceding, and young* 
est son of the dean, was born in the parish of St* Faith, 
aear St Paul's, London, Dec. 1 7, 1 6S2« was educated umier 
ftis father at St Paul's school, and intended for the univer- 
sity, buthb elder brother Roger being sent to Cambridge, 
and his father dying 1702, he was provided for in the cus- 
tom-house, London, and at the time of his death was one 
of the land ^^urveyorfir there. He was one of the revivers oE 
the society of antiquaries in 1717, and their first treasurer. 
On re^iffn^ng that Office Feb. 21, 1740, the society testified, 
their opinion of bia merit and services, by presenting ,him 
with a hfind^otne silvercup, value ten guineas, with a suit- 
able inscription. ^He was a man of great learning and 
uncommon abilities, and well versed in the antiquities of 
Stigland, ht wkfeh he left ipany valuable collections her 
t^nd bim; but printed nothing in his life-time, except 
^A H48tqi^ df Winchester Cathedral,'* London, 1715, 
b^i^ufl by Henry e^rl of Clarendon, and continued to that 
year, with' cuts. A few of his communications have been 
sincepfinted-in the <^ Ar^hsbrologia," and sofpe in the ^' Bibl. 
7opi Biritanmca." He died of a fever. Jan. 10, 1754, at 
his lodgings at Hampstead. His library and printa were 
sold .by auction in the same year, by Langford, bjat ^ia 
MSS. became the property of Dr. Stukeley, who married 
his sister, and some of them, afterwards descended to Dr. 

1 Nichols's Bow;fer.— RfliquitB Galeani^ ia the &ib]< Top* «b«Yf mentioBed. 

325 6 A L EL 


Duqarel, al whose sale they were purchased by Mr. Goiigb. 
A list of them, which may be seen in our authority, suffi- 
ciently attests his industry and knowledge as an antiquary. * 
: GALE (Thomas), an English surgeon, was born in 1507 ; 
and' educated under Richard. Ferris, afterwards serjeant- 
surgeon to queen Elizabeth. He was surgeon in the army 
of king Henry VIIL at Montruil, in 1544 ; and in that of 
king Philip at St. Quintin, in 1557, but afterwards settled 
ki London, and became very eminent in the practice of 
surgery. He was living in ^586. Tanner gives the fol- 
lowing list of his writings : ** The Institution of a Chirur- 
geon." ** An Enchiridion of Surgery,** in four books. 
*> On Gun-shot wounds.** ** Antidotarie,*- in two books. 
All these were printed together, London, 1563, 8vo. " A 
compendious method of curing praeternatural Tumbun^.*' 
*^ On the several kinds of Ulcers, and their cure.'* **A 
Commentary on Guido de Cauliaco.** ** Aii Herbal, for 
the use of surgeons.** •* A brief declaration of the wor- 
thy Art of Medicine, and the office of a Chirurgeon.** 
"An epitome of Galen de Natural Facultat.*' The two 
last were printed with a translation of ^ Galen de Methodo 
Medendi.** It cannot be supposed that any of these are 
now of much value, but some of them contain curious 
information respecting the state of the profession at that 
time. • 

GALEANO (Joseph), a physician of great repute at 
Palermo ; and not for skill and learning in his profession 
only, but for bis taste also, and knowledge of theology, 
mathematics, poetry, and polite literature in general, was 
bom hi 1605. There are several works of his in Italian, 
upon different maladies ; and some also in Latin, particu- 
larly " Hippocrates Redivivut paraphrasibus illustratus,** 
published in 1550. We owe to him also a coHection of 
little pieces of the Sicilian poets, entitled *^ The Sicilian 
Muse," in five volumes. He died in 1675, greatly regret- 
ted ; for he was a kind of oracle with his countrymen.' 

GA LEN (Claudius), after Hippocrates prince of the 
Greek physicians, was a native of Pergamus in the Lesser 
Asia, where he was born about A, D. 131, in the reign of 
the emperor Adrian. His father, whose name was Nicon, 
was an able architect, and spared neithei^ trouble nor ex- 

' Nichols's Bnwycr. ' Tanner's Bibl.— Atkin'f Bio!|f. Memoirs of 

Medicine, p. 9^. 3 Manget.— M^reri.— Dkjt. Hirti 


ff A L E FT. tSd 

pence in the edlucation of shi^ aoii. Galen sUsdied fWith 
success all the phibsopby of bis time, but finally applied 
himself to mecticine as fats.profession« Satyjroand Peiops^ 
two eminent physicians of his time, were his chief precep- 
tors in that science. But his application, to the works «rf 
Hippocrates contributed more than any other instruction 
to the eminence he attained. 

Having exha,u8ted all the sources of literature that 
could be found ^it home, he resolved to travel, in order 
to improve himself among :,the must able < pbyi^icians 
in all parts ; intending at the same time to take every 
opportunity, which his travels would give him, of in- 
specting on. the. spot the plants and drugs of the seveml 
c»)untries through which he passed. With this view he 
went first to Alexandria, where he continued some years; 
induced by the flourishing state of the arts and sciences in 
that city. From thence he passed into Cilicia ; and, tra- 
velling throup^h Palestine, visited the isles of Cr^te and 
Cyprus, and other places. Among the rest, he made two 
voyages to JLemnos, on purpose to view and examine the 
Lemnian earth, which was spoken of at this time as a con- 
siderable medicine. With the same spirit he went into 
the lower Tyria, to get a thorough insight into the true 
natupre of the Opobalsamum, or balm of Gilead. Having 
completed his design, he returned home by the way or 

He was now only twenty-eight years of age, and had 
made some considerable advances toward improving his 
art» He had acquired a particular skill in the wounds of 
the nerves, and was possessed of a method of treating 
them never known before ; for Galen, as well as all other 
ancient physicians, united surgery to medicine. The 
pontiff of Pergamus gave him an opportunity of try- 
ing his new method upon the gladiators, and he was so 
successful that not a single man perished by any wounds 
of this kind. He had been four years at Pergamus, exer- 
cising his faculty with unrivalled fame, when, being made 
uneasy by some seditious disturbances, he quittied his 
country and went to Rome, resolving to settle in that 
capital. But his views were' disappointed. The physi- 
cians there, sensible of the danger of such a competitor, 
found medns by degrees so coriipletely to undermine him, 
that he was obliged, after a few years, to leave the city. 
He had, however, in that time made several acquaintances^ 

28^ GALEN* ' 

both of coAftiderable. rank, atid the first character fbr 
leaf ning. Among others, he bad a particular connection 
ivith Endemus, a peripatetic philosopher of great repute. 
This person, he cured of a fever, which from a quartan, 
bad degenerated into a triple quartan, by the iil-judged 
fipplication which the patient had made of the theriacum ; 
a<id what is somewhat remarkable, Galen cured the maisxdy 
with the same medicine that had caused it ; and even pre- 
idicted, when the fits would first cease to return, and in 
wbat time the patient would entirely recover. Indeed, so 
great was his skill and sagacity in these fevers, that if we 
may believe his own words, he was able to predict from 
the first visity or from the first attack, what species of a 
fever would appear, a tertian, quartan, or quotidian. He 
>vas also greatly esteemed by Sergius Paulus, praetor of 
Rome ; as also by Barbarus, uncle to the emperor Lucius ; 
bySeverus, then consul, and afterwards emperor; and 
lastly,, by Boethus, a person of consular dignity, in whcwe 
presence he. bad an opportunity of iiiaki>ng dissections, 
und of she\ying, particularly, the organs of respiration and 
the voice. ^ His reputation, likewise, was much increased 
by. the success which he bad in recovering the wife: of 
Soethus, who on that occasion presented him with four 
bundred pieces of gold. But that on which he valued 
bimseif most, was the case of a lady, who was said to^ lie 
ixi a very dangerous condition ; whose disorder he disco- 
vered to be love, the object of. which was a rope-dancer; 
)thusi^ rivalling the discovery of the love of Antiochus' for 
StratonUe, which had given so much celebrity to Erja^s- 
tratus. /f 

After a residence of about four or five years at itbme, 
be return^ to Pergamus ^. But he bad not b^en there 
long, when the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius 
Verus, who had beard of bis fame, sent for him to Aquileia, 
wbere they .then resided. He bad no sooner arrived in this 
city, than the plague, which had shewn itself a little be- 
foreii broke out witb fresh and greater fury, so that ^he 
emperors were obliged to remove, attended by a very 
^mall retinue. Lucius died on the road, but his corpse 
was carried to Rome ; and Galen found means, though 
not without some trouble, to follow soon after* He bad 

* He telU U3 irii another place, that causes conspired in determining liiiD (• 
b« was forced from Rome at this time thAt measure. Galen de lib. propu 
by tbe pla|^e, and apparestiy both c. 1. 

G A JL EJJ. ^??l 

not been long returned, when Marcus acquainted him with , 
his intention to take him in his train to Germany ; but 
Galen excused hirAself, ailedging, that iEsculapius, for 
wh6m he had a particular devotion, ever since the Gpd 
cured him of a mortal imposihume, had advertised him In 
a dream never to leave Rome again. The emperor yield- 

^ ing to his solicitations/ he continued in the city; and it 
was during the absence of Marcus that he composed his 
celebrated treatise '* De usu partium/' and some others. 

All this w|iile the faculty persecuted him continuallyt 
insomuch that he was apprehensive of some design against 

' bis life. Under this suspicion, he retired very often to a 
country-house, where Gommodus the emperor's son re-» 
sided. That prince was then under the tuition of Pitho- 

. laus, to whom the emperor had given orders, if his son 
should be taken ill, to send for Galen. This order gave 
him an opportunity of attending the prince^ in a fever, 
which appeared very violent on the first access. He had 
., the good fortune to remove the disease, arid the following 
eulogium was made by Faustina the princess: ** Galen,'* 
says she, *^ shews his skill by the effects of it, while other 
physicians give us nothing but words." He aliJo cured 
Sextus, another son of Aurelius Marcus, and predicted the 
success, against the opinion of all his colleagues. Thus 
be raised his fame above the reach of envy ; and he con- 
tinued not only to preserve, but increase it. The empe- 
ror, after his return from the German expedition, was sud- 
denly seized in the night with violent pains in the bowels, 
which, being followed by a great flux, threw him into a 
fever. Next day, he took a dose of hiera picra, and ano- 
ther of the theriacum * ; after which, the physicians who 

* The em|ieror daring his abseoce qusfity. Ibid, de Antidotis, lib. i. I 
had sent to Galen to preparo ihe the^ it remarkable^ that Uiis medicine waft 
riacum in the manner he bad seen it so much esteemed by a succession of 
done by his first physician Demetrius, emperors after Nero, that in preparing 
The commission was executed entirely it» they ordinarily examined the drogt 
to the satisfaction of Marcus, as he themselres. To this purpose, we And 
signified after his return to Rome, our author observing in tlw same work 
Galen observes, that the emperor was (lib. xiii.) that he had mado the therb* 
a good judge of this medicine, being acum €»r the emperor Severva, but it 
liked to take it every day as a preser- was not so good ns this made for Mar* 
. vative against poison ; and he found cus ; because Commodus, who sue- 
that made by Galen so good, that he coaded this last prmce, had ngt taken 
resolved to make use of it soon ader it care to get good drags, the cinnamoo. 
was finished, contrary to the usual cus- especially, which was one of the prin* 
tom of letting it stand awhile, till the cipal^ being bad* 
•pium had lost some of its soporiferous 


G A L E N. . 

had attended bis penou in tbe amy, ordfered Kmi6 he 
kept quiet, giTing him nothing bat a little b^otb for the 
f{iace of nine boars. Galen, being called in soeo afti^',* 
attended with the rest, and thejf upon feeling ihe patient's 
pnlse, were of opinion tha;t he was going into an ague.' 
The emperor, obsevring that Galen stood still withoat ap-» 
proaching him, asked the reason : Galen pef4ied, that bis 
poise being touched twice by his .pbysici^iis^ be depended 
upon them, not doubting but they were better judges oC 
the pulse than be was. The emperor, little satisfied with 
this answer, immediately held out bis^arm. Galen having 
considered the pulse with great attention, '* I pronounce 
(says he) that we have nothing to do here with the access 
of anagne; but the stomach is . overcharged with some^ 
thing that remains undigested, which is the true cause of 
the fever." These words were no sooner uttered, than the 
prince cried out adoud, *' Thait is the very thing, yon have 
bit tbe case ^^actly ^^' and repeating the words three times, 
asked what must be done for his relief* ^^ If i% was the 
ease of any other person,*' replied Galen, '^ I should orde« 
a little pepper infused in wine, which I have often tried 
with success in this case; but as it is the custom to admi^ 
nister to sovereign princes only mild remedies, it offices 
%o apply hot to tbe stomach a piece of flannel dipped in 
the oil of spike." Marcus did not neglect to make use of 
both these remedies ; and in tbe issue said to Pitholaus, 
bis son's governor, " We have but one physician *. Galen 
is the only valuable man of the faculty." 

Thus distinguished above his contemporaries, did this 
prince of physicians continue to practise at Rome, the 
papital of the world, till his death, which happened A* D^ 
301, in bis 7pth year; He had usually enjoyed a 'perfect 
state of . health, the effect of observing k strict regimen 
both in diet and exercise : for, being subjected to frequent 
disorders in his younger daysf, he studied his own con- 

f It is sQoiewbat remarkable, that 
totwitbstanding bit frequent attend- 
ance) as «0ll af cores performed upon 
this emperor, he never acqciired the 
title of Arcbiater. I^e Cierc's Hist, 
Lib. xi. c. i. p. 3. Perhaps the titl^ 
was not coined at that time. 

f Before he was eight and twentf, 
ke hardly, passed a year without some 
disorder ; we have already mentloo.ed 
an imposthume> which was Qt^red by 

the assistance of iEsculapius. Of this 
lie gives the following account: *' Be- 
ing afflicted," says he, «* with a fixed 
pain in that part where the diaphragm 
is fastened \a tbe liver, I dreamt, tha( 
iEscubpius advised me to open that 
artery which ties between tbe thumb 
^nd second linger of my right hand. I 
did so, and immediately found my^ellT 

a A LtE N; as* 

Blitutioa, wd^Nviog )fif^d. tte i9)et.^Qds C|f> 
followed tbeia ^trictlV* Tbis wa;sx nothing more than tak- 
ing care to eat suclx meats-as werB of easy and' equal dige$« 
iiQUj abstainiog particularlj Imm summer /fruits, condoiug 
himself tio figs and rakias^ .'aod u&lng a constant and eqnal 
exercise. . By . following thes^ ri^lesy he never bad any 
disteoiper^ iBxcept once a fever of one day's continuancei 
occasioned by too mnob ptudy and over-fatigue* 

He Wks aiuan endowed wiijb excfellent parts, and, haviog 
the advantage of tb6 best education, be<^ame net only aa 
eminent physici|in» bnl also a great philosopher ; and was 
particulaa'ly happy in a facility of expression, and an u|i4> 
affected eloquence ; but the style of bis works is extremely 
diffuse, his sentedces are sometimes perplexed, and some- 
times absolutely obscure. The great number of bookf 
which we have of his composing, to pass over those we 
have lost ^, are a convincing proof how little pains it cos( 
him to write. Suidas tells us that h^. wrote not only oa 
physic at)d philosophy, but also on geometry and gram^ 
naar. There are reckoned above five hundred books of 
bis upon physic oaly, and about half that number upoa 
other sciences. He even composed two books^ containing 
a catalogue of his works; shewing the time and place in 
which'«ome of them wer^ composed, together with the 
occasion of writing them, and the proper order of reading 

Without entering into a long detail of all the particular 
treatises written by Galen^ a vast collection of which is in 
the British Museum, it may be aufScielit here to notice 
the different editions of the whole of his works that have 
been transmitted to us» The Greek editions are those of 
Aldus and And. Asulanus, printed at Venice, 1525, in 
5^ vols, folio, and of Hieron. Gemuseeus^ at Basil, 1538, ioi 
the same form. The Latin editions aire, that of Paris, 
1536, folio, printed by Simon Colineus; aud reprinted 
at Lyons, in 1554, with additions and corrections, by Joan. 
Freilonius; that of Basil, 1542, folio, printed by Frobe- 
Bius, and edited by Gem.usaeus ; those of Basil again in 
1549, 1550, and 1562; the last of which contains a pre- 

^ It is certain some of them were temple was one of the schools of the 

lost ID his life-time by a fire which de- physicians. LeClerc, " Hist, of Phy- 

stroyed the Temple of Peace at Rome, sic/' p. III. lib. ii. c. j. 
where they were deposited. That 

•f These stand at the head ef the list of Iiis works, by Charlie r. 

ftS4 GALE N.' 

&ce by CoQrad Geiiner, in which he ccmitnents with grent 
judgment on the merits of Gaien and bis \vorksy and of 
his different translators : the edition of Venice, 1562, with 
the corrections of John Baptist Rasario : ten editions pub- 
lisbed at Venice by the Juntas in different years between 
1541 and 1625; tbe ninth of which^ printed in 1609, and 
the last, are precisely the same, and are the best and most 
correct : lastly, an edition printed at Venice in 1541 — 45, 
by John Farre^s, in 7 vols. 8vo, with the notes of Ricct. 
An edition of Galenas works, both in Greek and Latin, in 
an elegant form^ was published at Paris, in 1 3 vols, folio, 
by R£n6 Cbartier, including also the works of Hippocrates; 
it is deemed a correct work. 

' As a physician, the ancients bad the highest esteem for 
faim. Atheneeus, his contemporary, shews the great opi- 
nion he had of his merit as a philosopher, by making him 
a guest at his feast of the philosophers ; where he not only 
compliments him upon the great number of his writings, 
but adds, that in elocution and perspicuity of style, he 
v^as inferior to none^. Eusebius^ who lived about an 
hundred years after him, observes, that the veneration. in 
which Galen, was held as a physician, was such, that many 
looked upoq him as a God, and even paid him divine wor- 
ship ; accordingly Traljian giv^s him the title of << most 
divine." Oribasius, who flourished soon after Eusebius, 
and was himself. Archi^ter to Julian, testified his esteem 
for Galen, by the extracts he made of his works, as lyell 
as by the j^raises which he bestows upon him. £tius and 
Paulus ^gineta have also copied G^en, especially the 
last, and his works were commented oil by Stephen the 
Atb^nistn.- Avicemnay Averroes, and the rest of the Ara- 
biaii physicians, who take the best of what they have from 
Galen, have not been wanting in their praises of him. 
After all, however, it is certain he had in his own time a 
considerable party Co contend with, and these latter ages 
have raised up some powerful adversaries to his name. The 
practice of Hippocrates, which be laboured to re-establish, 
did not triumph over the other sects, immediately upon 
Galen's declaring against them. The sect of the metho-* 
, dists (as it was called) supported its credit for some ages 

^ It is not, indeed Athensus, but author was very ancient. Casaubon'ft 
' the author of the arguments prefixed notes upon Atb^naeus. 
• to his koolu, that says this, bat that 

G A L E Nt 23S 

'ft6m that time/ and even furnished pliysicians to thd ent* 
.perors long. after. Yet it gradaalty mouldered away; and 
notwithstanding the efforts of the moderns^ the party of 
Gaien is very numerous at this day. 

Galen is the writer that contains by far the most anatomy 
ofall the ancients. He has given a itiuch more complete 
anatomical account of the human body than any of his pre- 
decessors^ or even successors for a thousand years after. 
There can be no' doubt that he dissected the bodies of the 
inferior animsds. But Vesalius, the first of the moderns 
who ventured to call in question his infallibility, affirmed 
that he had never diissecced a human subject; and this seems 
now the general opinion, particularly of Haller, and other 
learned historians of the art. 

Thus we have exhibited the bright side of this physi- 
'- cian's character, but we must not close this memoir with- 
out shewing the other side also : for the greatest geniuses 
have their blemishes and defects, which too are often in 
proportion greater, or at least are seen more conspicuously 
by being linked to so much splendour. The foible which 
stands foremost on this side of Galen's character, is his 
vanity, which was so excessive as to carry him beyond the 
bounds of prudence and decency. His writings are fuU 
somely filled with his own praises, and he magnifies him* 
self in the same degree as he debases other physicians who 
differed from him ; in refuting whom, he throws out the 
flowers of an acrimonious rhetoric with an unsparing hand. 
We have already given a convincing proof of the good 
opinion he entertained of himself, and how little scrubu- 
lous he was to make his own eulogium in his recital of M. 
Aureliu9*8 disorder. That whole book abounds with stories 
of the same cast, which also at the same time serve to im- 
peach him of pride, and a disdain and contempt of every 
body else. In this spirit we see him giving way to most 
injurious reproaches against th6 methodists, whom be calls 
^^the asses of Thessalus,'^ who was the principal founder 
of the secti He observed, indeed, more decency towards 
Erasistratus, Asclepiades, and others of 'the more ancient, 
physicians; but still, amojig the praises he bestows upon 
them, there escapes from him haughtiness enough. But 
he grows absolutely insupportable, in the ostentatious pa- 
rade which he makes of having done in physic Something 
like what Trajan had done in the Roman empire. <* No 

356 GALEN. 

pybrspQ wfafttfioevier before me. (sfrys -h^) hath *9hew:9 ^h^ 
true method of treating diseases^ Hippocrates, indeed, 
pointed out the fame road ; but as be was the first who 
discovered it, so he went not so far therein as was to be 

Galen is likewise reproached with being superstitious; 
and we have given an instance of his opening a veiui in 
consequence of a dream. He tells us also in the same . 
place, that be had two more dreams of the same kind ; 
and says in another place, that, being once con9i>lted in 
the case of a swellc^d tongue, he directed a purge, and 
somewhat cooling to be held upon the part ; the patienit 
took the purge, and had a dream the same night,^in which he 
was ordered to apply a gargle of lettuce juice, which suc- 
ceeded very well* But this superstition was the religibn 
of his country, of which ^sculapius, as he tells us, .was 
the pod, and was held to be that particular God ^hose 
province it was to assist the sick in dreams. 

He is also charged with bearing a particular enmity to 
the Christians ; it is true, that speaking of the methodists 
and other sects in physic, he says, ^^ That their several 
followers were as obstinately attached to their parties, as 
the disciples of Moses and Christ were to theirs.*' But 
this does net imply any particular ill will against the 
Christians, or that he thought worse of them than the 
pagans generally did* As to the story that is told, of 
Galenas hearing in bis old age of the miracles wrought itl 
judasa by the name of Jesus, and resolving to take a journey 
thither to see them, but that he died on the road, or upon 
the borders of the country, after lying ill ten days of a fe« 
ver ; it is merely a monkish forgery.* 

GALEOTI (Martio), or Galeotus Martius, was born 
at Narni, in the papal territory, and was for some time 
an instructor of youth at Bologna, but removed and kept 
a private school in Hungary. Being there distinguishied 
by Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, he was admitted 
into his family, made his privjate secretary, and, it is sup* 
posed, presided^ over the education of his son John Cor- 
vinus. He was also keeper of the library at Buda. In this 
situation his fame reached Louis the Xlth, king of France, 
who invited him into that kingdom. Galeoti went accord* 

• ' Life prefixed to his Works, by Chartier.— Mor«ri.— Haller Bibl. Med. 
Pract.— >Chaufepie. — Saxii Oaomast. — l^homsott'f Bist. of the Roya) Society. 

O A L E O.T'I. «« 

ingly to meet the kiog at Lyons, but Lcmtt hi^ppenihg to 
con^ out of the city» they iqet a litlile. without the gates, 
and Galeotiy attempting to descend hastily topay due bd- 
Boura to the king, fell, and being very fiit, was so much 
hurt, that he died very soon after. In. 1478^ Galeoti 
published a collection of the bon-mots of Mattbiaa Cor-4 
vioua, ^* De jocose dictts ac fsictis regis Matt. Comni/^ 
inserted in the folio collection of writers on the history of 
Hungary. There is also by him a treatise in 4tp, entitled 
'^ De homine interiore et de corpore ejus," aud others^ 
^^ De incognitis vulgo," never printed ; *< De doctrinir 
promiscua,*' Lyons, ]j[52, 8vo, which is a miscellany of 
physical, medical, and astronomical <][uestions. For some 
of bis sentiments the monks accused him of heresy, ^nd 
he had contentions with them, but he was protected by 
pope Sixtus IV. who had been his pupil.^ 

GALESINI or GALE3INIUS (Peter), of Milan, a 
learned ecclesiastical antiquary, and apostolical notary,' 
flourished in the sixteenth century^ under the pontificate 
qf Gregory XIII. aud Sixtus V* He* was an able scholar 
inttbe ancient languages^ and hptd devoted miuch of his- 
time to resiearch^s in eoolesiastioal history. He endea- 
vojired to correct and illustrate the ^' Roman Martyrology,'^- 
by uew-^modelling it, and adding a number of new facts^ 
respecting the saints. This he dedicated to pope Ore* 
gory XIII. and published it at Milan in 1577, but it never 
was approved by the Roman censors, who thought it too* 
Ipug to be recited it) the canonical office ; ^nd others have* 
apcused him of many inaccuracies^ He wrote also the* 
<* Lives of the Saints of Milan,'' printed there in 15182; 
some notes on the Greek Septuagint, Rome, 1567, and a' 
*' Commentary on the Pentateuch," ib< 1587. His other 
works, are : translations from Greek into Latin of some dis- 
courses of St. Gregory Nyssen and Theodoret ; new edi- 
tions of the histories of Sulpicius Severus and of Haymo' 
of Halberstadt, in folio ; the acts of Milan ; a tract con- 
cerning the obelisk which Sixtus V. raised in 1586; and* 
another on the tomb which the same pope erected in 
honour of Pius V.; a history of the popes, entitled 
'* Theatrum Pontificale ;" *< S. Didaci Coroplutendis Ca- 
nonizatio,,'V Rome, 15&8 ; << 11 perfetto Dittionaria/' Latiti 

1 Morerl— 'Diet. Hi«k« 

SS» O A L E 8 I N L 

and Italian, Venice, 1659, and I6S4. We have no fdr-* 
ther particalars of bis life, except that he died about 
the^year 1590** 

GALIANI (Ferdinand), an Italian wit,* was bom inr 
Naples, about 1720. He was descended of a noble fa- 
mily, bis father being a marquis, and his uncle archbishop 
Itpd great almoner to the king, who is celebrated 'in thef 
History of the two Sicilies, for baring been the chief au* 
thor and promoter of the famous concordaie of 1741, 
which hkppily terminated the jurisdictional disputes be* 
tween the court of Naples and the holy see. To thehiglf 
preferments. and care of this uncle, Galiani was indebted 
for a liberal education, and it is said that he displayed 
tery early an extraordinary genius in every study. At 
the age of sixteen, he bad mastered the Latin and 
Creek languages, and was equally acquainted with clas-i 
steal literature, the mathematics, philosophy, and with the 
civil and canon law. 

At the age of twenty, about 1740, he published a lu- 
dicrous work, which evinced the turn of his genius for wit 
and humour. It was a prevailing custom at that time in 
Naples (as well as in other cities of Italy), on the d^ceas^ 
of any great or eminent person, to make a large collectioti 
of songs, sonnets, epigrams, elegies, and inscriptions,^ iii 
praise of the real or reputed talents and virtues of the de- 
ceased. The abuse to which such a practice is liable, 
called loudly for reformation^ and GaUani catching the 
opportunity of the death of a famous public executioner, 
named Jannaccone, sported a droll funereal collection of 
prose and verse in his praise, in which the manner and 
style of the respective authors, accustomed to that sortdf 
compositions, were ingeniously personated and burlesqued. 
Much about the skme time, Galiani had an opportunity 
in another work, of producing another specimen of hi^ 
humour* Pope Benedict XIV. had applied to his uncle, 
the great almoner, to procure him a complete collection 
of the various materials which compose mount Vesuvius* 
Th&T prelate intrusted the commission to his nephew; who 
actually undertook to make the collection, aocompanyin^ 
each article with a short philosophical comment. Soon 
after, he addressed them in a box to the pontiff, with afi 
humorous inscription to the whole, ** Sr filius Dei es, fac 

' Dupin.*— Morerk— Baillet Jogemeni. 

G.Ath IAN l Ma 

tit LAPIDE9 isti FADES fiaiit;*— The turn of thU motto was 
easily apprehended by the pope» who was himself one o£. 
the wittiest men of his age, and it could not fail to pror. 
cure Galiani what he hinted at. He. accordingly received 
soon afterwards a rich abbey, worth four thousand ducat% 
(nearly seyen hundred pounds) per annum.. Galiani soon, 
afterwards displayed his abilities in philosophy, by pub* 
lishing about 1745, his well-known political tract *< Trat-? 
tato deUa ^Mooeta,'" (a Treatise on Money). This was 
unanimously pronounced in Italy an original and capital 
publication, which firmly established his reputation in the 
world. He was now appointed secretary to the Neapolitan^ 
ambassador in Paris, where he soon exhibited other spe-^ 
cimens of his philosophical abilities, by publishing aa. 
" Essay on the Commerce of Corn.'* This new work wa$ 
very favourably received in France, where some of their 
philosophers wer^ candidly wont to say, ** Le petit Italiea 
est en cela plus instruit que nous.** By the word petii^ 
they allude to the diminutive stature of the author* 

Being soon recalled to Naples, he was appointed a 
i^ounsellor in the tribunal, of commerce, an office of ma* 
gistracy not incompatible with the order of a clergyman^ 
He retained this place during the remainder of his life i 
lE^nd as it required much time and application to perfornx 
its, duties, M. Galiani after this was not so active in literary 
c^xertions as he had been heretofore. In 1779 he pub* 
Jished a work '^ on the Origin of the Neapolitan Dialect." 
This. per formi^nce, however, does not bear an accuratei 
correspondence to. the title, and was judged superficial 
and unsatisfjBctory. In 1780, he published a treatise oi^ 
the.Armed Neutrality, which he dedicated to the late em- 
press Catherine of Russia. This work, on a question en* 
.tirely pew and con\plicated in the system of public law of 
Europe, fell likewise considerably short of the expectation 
entertained by his admirers. He died in 1789, and since 
liis death it has been asserted that he was indebted to other 
writers for the substance of some of those volumes which 
he published under hi9 own name, and by which he a^^^ 
quired his reputation; but we know not upon what autho- 
rity this a.^sertion h^,s been made« , Galiani was. short in 
«tat\ir^, full of vivacity, wit, and humour, , ai^d a grea(t fa- 
yourite on thatiiccount in all companies,^ 

1 Du^t. lihit &c. 

MO G A L t L S L 


GALILEI (Gauleo), the celebrated astronotn^i^ atid 
itiEtbeinatieiany was the son of Vincenzo Galitei^ a n^ble* 
man of Florence^ not less distinguished by bis quality and' 
fortune) than conspicuous for his skill aud knowledge itk 
music ; about some points in which science he maintained 
a dispute with the famous Zarlinas. His wife brought him 
thi»$oO)' Feb, 19; 1564, either at Pisia, or^ which is more 
pl^babfe, at Florenqe; Galileo received an education 
Miliable to his birth, his taste, and his abilities. He wend 
through his studies early, and his father then wished tbaV 
lie should apply himself to medicine ; but ha<(^ing obtained 
at college some knowledge of mathematics, his genius de*« 
clared' itself decisively for that study. He needed no di- 
yeetions where to begin. Euclid's Elements were well 
known to be the best foundation in thi^ science. He 
therefore set out with studying that work, of which hd 
made himself master without assistance, and prqceeded 
thence to such authors as were in most esteem, ancient 
alnd mod<srn. His progress in these sciences was so extra- 
ordinary, that in * 1*5 8^, be was appointed professor of 
mathematics in the university of Pisa, but being tiierd 
continually harrassed by the scholastic professors-, for op-< 
posing some maxims of their favourite Aristotle^ he quitted 
that piftce at the latter end of 1592, foir Padua, whither 
hjb was invited' very handsomely to accept a similer profes* 
sorsbip ; soon after which; by the esteem arising ft'om his 
genius and erudition, he Was recommended to the friend* 
ship of Tycho Brache. He had already, even long' before 
1586, wgritten his ** Mechanics,*' or a treatise of the be«^ 
nefits derived from that science and from its instruments^ 
together with a fragment concerning percussion, the first 
published by Mersennus, at Paris, in 1634^ in ^^ Mersenni 
Opera,'^ vol. I. and both by Menoless, vol. I. ; a^ also bis 
<^ Balance,*' in which, after Archimedes's problem of the 
crown, he shewed how to find the proportion of alloy, oi* 
mixt metalsi and how to make the said instrument These 
he had read to his pupils doon after his arrival at Padua, in 

While he wa« professor at Padua, in 1609, visiting Ve^ 
nice, then famous for the art of making glass, he beard o( 
th<e invention of the telescope by James- Metius, in Hol^ 

• 'While he was lecturer at Padua, GustaTUi. Adolphus king of Sweden waf 
•ne of kis hearers. The lectures then ^veir by hioi still remain at MiUau 

C A L I L E L 241 

Iftnd, This notice was sufficient for Galileo ; his curiosity 
was raised ; and the result of bis inquiry was a telescope 
of his own, produced frona this hint, without having seen 
the Dutch glass. All the discoveries he made in astronomy 
were the easy and natural consequences of this invention, 
which opening a way, till then unknown, into the heavens, 
gave that science an entirely new face. Galileo, in one 
of his works, ridicules the unwillingness of the Aristote-^ 
lians to allow of any discoveries not known to their master, 
by introducing a speaker who attributes the telescope to 
him, on account of what he says of seeing the stars from 
the bottom of a deep well. " The well," says he, " is the 
tube of the telescope, the intervening vapours answer to 
the glasses.'* He began by observing the moon, and cal- 
culating the height of her mountains. He then discovered 
four of Jupiter^s satellites, which he called the Medicean' 
stars or planets, in honour of Cosmo II. grand duke of 
Tuscany, who was of that noble family. Cosmo now re- 
called him from Padua, re-estal^lished him at Pisa, with a 
very handsome stipend, in 1610; and the same year, , 
having lately invited him to Florence, gave him the post 
and title of his principal philosopher and mathematician. 

It was nbt long before Galileo discovered the phases of 
Venus, and other celestial phaenomena. He had been^^ 
however, but a few years at Florence, before he was con- 
vinced by sad experience, that Aristotle^s doctrine, how- 
ever ill-grounded, < was held too sacred to be called in 
question. Having observed some solar spots in 1612, he 
printed that discovery the following year at Rome; id 
which, and in some other publications, he ventured to 
assert the truth of the Copernican system, and brought 
several new arguments to confirm it*. This startled the 
jealousy of the Jesuits, who procured a citation for him to 
appear before the holy office at Rome, in 1615, where he 
was charged with heresy, for maintaining these two pro- 
positions; 1. That the sun is in the centre of the world, 
and immoveable by a local mptien ; and, 2. That the 
earth is not the centre of the world, nor immoveable,, but 
actually moves bv a diurnal motion. The first of these 
positions was' declared to be absurd, false in philosophy, 

« fla demosstrated a vtry •ensiblc a phraonetton of great coasei^timcf 
ehaay* m the o»«^aitudt of tb« ap- to prov« th« Cop^aieaa Uitory, 
|»arent diameters of Mars and Veous j 

Vol. XV. * R . 

S43 G A L I L £ i« 


and formaUy heretical^ being contrary- to the expisst 
.Mtord of God ; the second was also alleged to be pbik»^ 
sopbioally false,, and, in a tbe^logic^view, at least erro* 
neous in point of faith. He was detained in the inqui^ 
dtion till Feb. 1616, on the 25th of which month sentence 
was passed against him ; by which he was enjoined to re<» 
jiounce his heretical opinions^ and not to defend them 
either by word or writing, nor even to insinuate theoi into* 
the mind of any person whatsoever ; and he obtained hia 
'discharge only by a promise to oonform himself to this 
order. It is bard to say whether his sentence betrayed' 
greater weakness of understanding, or perversity of mlL 
Galiled clearly saw the poison of both in it; and tberefbre^ 
following the known maxim, that forced oaths and pito-* 
mises are not binding to the conscience, he went ony 
making further new discoveries in the planetary system^ 
and occasionally poblisbing them with socb tnfereticesaBd 
remarks as necessarily followed ^ooi them^ notwithstanding' 
they tended plainly to establish the truth of tlie above-men- 
tioned condemned propositions. • .',;/. 
He continued many years confidently in this course, na 
juridical notice being taken of it ; till he had the presump^ 
tion to publish at Florence bis '^ Dialog! della due massime" 
Systeme del Mondo, Tolemaico et Copemicauo;" dig* 
logues of the two greatest systems of the world, the Ptole- 
maic and Copernicfm, in 1632. Here, in examinitvg tba 
grounds upon which the two systems were built, be prqi*> 
duces the most specious as well as stroiigest argunventis for 
each of those opinions; and leaver, it is true, the ques-*' 
' tion undecided, as not to be demonstrated either way^ 
while niiany pfasBUomena remained insolvable; but all ihia 
is done in such a manner, that bis inclination to the Cp^* 
.pernican system might be easily perceived. -Nor had be 
forborne to enliven his production by several smart strokes 
of raillery against those who adhered so obstinately, . auid 
were such devotees to Aristotle^s opinions, as to think its 
crime to depart from them in the smallest, degree. This 
-excited the indignation of his former enemies, and be was 
agkin cited before the inquisition at Rome; the congre- 
gation was convened, and, in his presence, pronounced 
sentence against him and bis books. They obliged him to 
abjuVe bid errors in the most solemn manner^ committed 
him to the prison of their office during pleasure^ and en- 
joined him, as a saving penance, for three years^ to repeal - 

ine^ a week the seven penitential psatois; reserving^ how- 
ever^ to themselves the power of moderating) cbaogingy 
or taking away altogether, or in part, the abovamentioned 
paqisfameut and ' penance. Upon this sentence be wa» 
dfiuioed a prisoner till 1634, and bis ^^ Dialogues of the 
System of the World'' were burnt at Rome. We rar^ety 
meet with a more glaring instance of blindqesa and bigotry 
than this*, and it was treated with as much contempt by 
our author as consisted with his safety. 
( He lived ten yeara after it, seven of which were em«> 
ployed in making still further discoveries with his teles- 
cope; but, by continual application to that instrument^ 
, added to the damage be received in his sight from the noe- 
^ tucsal air> his eyes grew gradually weaker, till, in 163^9 
1^ became totally blind. He bore this great calamity with 
patienoe and resignation, worthy of a philosopher. Th« 
loss. neither broke his spirit, nor hindered the course of his. 
studies. He supplied the. defect by constant meditations^ , 
by whick he prepared a large- collection of materials; and 
began to dictate his own conceptions, > when, by a distem- 
per of three months continuance, ^wastipg away by degrees^ 
he expired at Arcetri near Flore.nciet, Jan* 8, 1642^, ia. 
the same year that Newton was born., In stature he was 
small, but in aspect venerable, and bis constitution vi- 
gorous ; in company be was aifable/ fr,ee, and full of plf a«« 
santry. He took greatdelight in architecture and paioU 
Ing, and designed extremely welK He played, exquisitely 
OJ1 the lute; and whenever^ be spent any time in .the, 
country,. Jbe took great pleasure in husbandry. Hii learner 
iiiigwas v«ry extensive; and be possessed in a high degree,. 
a clearness and acuteness of wit. From the time of Arqbi^ 
medes, nothing, had been done in, mechanical geometry 
till GaliJieo, who, being possessed of an excellent judg'> 
lueot^ and great skill in the most abstruse points of geo- 
meitry, first extended the bsouodartes of that science, and 
began to reduce the resistance of solid bodies to its laws. 
Besides applying geometry to the doctrine of motion, by 
which {^ilosopby became established oi; a sure foundation, 
be made surprising- discoveries in the heavens by means of 
' •  • ' 

* Tt will appear more extraordinary, f In the [nst eight years of his life 

wb^n it is considered that the prosecu- he livMi out of Florence, soiiietimtf in 

tion wtfhHpgun and carried, ou bgr the the aeighbourin^ towns, and some- 

Jesuits* aa order instituted to be a se- .tiroes at S^eitna, ViUorio Siri's ** II 

iblnary of leafntn^ in the view of pro- Mercurie/' d(c, 
dttclpg-chalspi^Qi-of'Uie papal «hair. 

R 2 

944 6 A L I L £ L 

bit telescope. He made the evidence of ttie Copernicaiv 
nys^em more sensible, when be shewed from the phases of ' 
Venus, like to those of the moon, that Venus actually re* 
Tolves about the sun. He proved the rotation of the sun 
dn his axis from his spots ; and thence the diurnal rotation 
of the earth became more credible. The satellites that 
attend Jupiter in his revolution «bout the sun, repre^^ 
sftnted, in Jupiter^s smaller system, a just image of tte 
great solar system ; and rendered it more easy to conceive 
bow the moon might attend the earth, as a satellite, in 
her annual revolution. By discovering bills and cavities 
in the moon, and spots in the sun constantly varying, he 
shewed that there was not so great a difference between the 
celestial bodies and the earth as had beeo vainly imagined* 

• He rendered no less service to ^ience bj treating, in 
a* clear and geometrical manner, the doctrine of motion, 
which has justly been called the key of nature. The ra- 
tional part of mechanics had been so much neglected, that 
hardly any improveoient was made in it for almost 2000 
years. But Galileo has given us fully the theory of equable 
motions, and . of such as are uniformly acceieil4.ed or re^ 
tarded, and of these two compounded together. He was 
the first who demonstrated that the spaces described by 
heavy bodies, from the^ beginning of their descent, are as 
the squares of the times; and that a body, proj^ted iq 
any direction not perpendicular to the hori2K)n, describes- 
a parabola. These were the beginningfi of the doctrine pf 
the nK)tion of heavy bodies, which has been since earned 
to so great a height hy Newton* In geometry, he in- 
vented the cycloid, or trochoid ; though the |iropertie9 of 
it were afterwards chiefly demonstrated by his pupil Tor- 
ricelli. He invented the simple pendulum, and made use 
of it in his astronomi*cal ex{!>erimepts : be bad also thoughts 
of aj^lying it to qlocks ; but did not execute that design : 
the glory of that invention was reserved for bis son Vip^n* 
2to, who made* the experiment at Venice in 1649; and 
Huygens afterward carried this invention to, perfection. 
Of Galileo's invention also, was the machine, wit^ which 
the Venetians render their Laguna fluid and navigable. He 
abo discovered the gravity of the air^ and endeavoured, to 
compare it .with that of water, besides opening up several 
other inquiries in natural philosophy. In short, he-rwas 
not esteemed and followed by philosophers only, but was 

honoured by persons of the greatest dlstinctiqa o^ .aUL 

GALILEI. ft43 

^ Oaliteo had scholars too thst were worthy of so great d 
master, by whom the graTitation of the atmosphere was 
fully established, and its varying pressure accurately aiid 
conveniently areasured, by the column of quicksilver of 
equal weight sustained by it in Jthe barometrical tube. The 
^elasticity 49f the air, by which it perpetually endeavours Hb 
expand itself, and, while it admits of condensation, resbta 
iu proportion to its density, was a phenomenon of> nei^ 
Jcind (the common fluids having no such property), and was 
of the utmost importance to philosophy. These principles 
opened a vast field of new and useful knowledge, and ex^- 
piained a great variety of pheenomena, which bad been ac^ 
^K>unted for before that time in a very absurd manner. It 
seemed as if the air, the fluid in which men lived from the 
beginning, had been then but first discovered. Pbiloi- 
tfophers were every where busy inquiring into its various 
^ropetties and their effects; and valuable discoveries re* 
warded their industry. . Of the great number who dis* 
trnguished themselves on this occasion, may be mentioned 
Torricelli and Viviani in Italy, Pascal in France, Otto 
Guerictc in Germany, and Boyle in England. 

GaKleo wrote a number of treatises, many of which were 
published in his life-tinie. Most of them were abo coUedted 
after his deaths and published by Mendessi in 2 voti. 
4to, under the title of " L'Opere di Galileo Galilei Lyn- 
iee6,^' in 1656. Some of these, with others of his pieces^ 
were translated into English and published by Thomas Sa-^ 
lisbury, in his Mathematical Collections, in 2 vols, folid. 
A volume also of his letters to several learned men, atid 
solutions of several problems, were printed at Bologna in 
4to. His last disciple, Vincenzo Viviani, who proved a 
'tiE^ry eminent mathematician, methodized a piece of bis 
ihaster's, and published it under this title, *' Qmnto libro 
de gli Elementi d' Euclidi,'* &c. at Florence in 1674, 4to. 
Viviani publisbecf some more of Galileo^s things, being 
extracts from his letters to a learned Frenchman, where 
iie gives an accpunt of the works which be intended to 
have published, and it passage frofii a letter of Galilee 
dated at Arcetri, Oct. 30, 1655, to John Camiilo, a ma-^ 
thtoiatician of Naples, concerning the angle of contact. 
Besides all these, he wrote many other pieces, which were 
unfortunately lost. Galileo had two daughters and a son 
hy a Greek woman he lived with ; the daughters became 
nuns ; one son conttnued the family, which, Frisi says, is 

246 G A L I L E I; 

but lately extinct; one turned missiohfl^ry, arid was in- 
duced from religious scruples to burn many of his grand-^ 
fiither's works ; and the third ran away. ' 

GALLAND (Antony), a learned antiquary of Franci, 
naember of the academy of inscriptions, and professor of 
j^rabic in the royal college at Paris, was born of poor pa- 
rents at Rollo, a little town of Picardy, in 1 646. Afier 
baving laid the foundation of learning at Noyon, he went 
to Paris, where he learned Hebrew and the Oriental lan- 
guages; and afterwards made a long voyage into the East, 
and acquired an uncommon knowledge of the manners slnd 
of the doctrines of the Ma|iometans« He returhed to his 
own. country, and was made Arabic professor in 1709; bnt 
did not live many years after, his death happening at Paris 
in- 1715. He was the author of several works, the princi- 
^pal. of which are, 1. '^ An account of the Death of sultau 
Osman, and of the Coronation of the sultan Mu^tapBa.'* 
2. *^ A collection of Maxims and Bon Mots, drawn from 
the Oriental writers." *S. " A Treatise upon the origin of 
.Coffee." 4, " Arabian Tales." AU these ure in French. 
The last, usually called <^ The Arabian Nights Entertain* 
ments," is a popular book all over Europe, aud has be^ 
published in various editions in English fot' above a century. 
Galland was also the author of many curious dissertations 
upon some scarce medals, wh'rch hav^e been highly com- 
mended. He had likewise prepared a translation of the 
Alcoran,, with notes; and a system of the Mahometan 
theQlogy, more exact than any that has yet appeared ; but 
i2e.did.n0t live long enough to publish them. * 
. GALLAND (Augustus), was proctor- general of tlie 
domain of Navarre, counsellor of ^tate, ^nd deeply vers<ed 
in the knowledge of the royal rights in France,' and in the 
iistory of that country. His works are replete with 
curious and profound erudition. They are, 1. *< Memoirs 
for the History of France and Navarre,'* folk). ' 2. "Trea- 
tises on the Ensigns and Standards of France,*' &c. 3. 
*^ Discourse addressed to the king on the origin and rise 
of the City of Rochelle,** Sva ^. *• A Treatise ugainst 
the Frs^nc-alleu, a claim of exemption from Imposts and 
personal Services,** in 4to. He is supposed to kavd died 
about 1644, but at what age is uncertain. ' 

1 Fabroni Vit9 Italoniui, vol. I.-^Hatton*8 Dictionary. — Elos'io di Galil^^ 
by frrisi.-^Brdcker.^— Saxir Onomast. 
. s, Mor«ri. — Niceron, vol* YI. tad X.--rS|uui Opqniaat* 

* Moreii— Diet. Hi«t. 

. O A L L E. ^ ?47 ,. 

GALLE (Servatius), or Gall^us, a Dutch writer, 
wbo was born at Kotterdam, accordiog to the inscription 
Ou his portrait, or according to otiher authorities, at Zu- 
riczee, in 1 627, and died at Campen in 1 709, was a cler* 
gyman and an able. philologist His principal work is bis 
treatise on the *^ Sybilline Oracles/* 2 vols. 4to, the first 
iOf which, containing the Oracles, was published at Am- 
sterdam in 1699, and the second, which consists of disser-- 
tations, appeared soon after. In this he has brought to- 
gether every thing relating to these celebrated fictions, 
but neither with success, nor judgment, according to Fa*» 
bricius and his biographer Reimar, who speak with harsh^- 
ness of his abilities, and give us an extraordinary instance 
ipf bis Ignorance in classing Agathias and Jamblicus among 
Latin writers.^ They also seem to intimate that be fre- 
quently, borrows . without acknowledgment. Gcalle was 

' more successful in a very porrect edition of ^^ Lactantius/* 

,. published at Leyden in 1660. He had also begun. an 
isditioQ of. ^^ Minuting Felix,^^ but did not live to com- 
plete it.* 

GALLINI (-Sir John), a native of Italy, a cele- 

, Crated stage-4&ucer and dancing-master, some time pa- 
tentee of the opera-house, and always proprietor of the 
f^oncert- rooms in Hanover-square, seems to merit sofme 
^aotiee, although rather from the fashion, than the worth 
of rbi$ character. He came into this country early in Hfe, 
after having obtained considerable distinction as a dancer 
^ Pairis^ aad first appeared on our opera stage in 1759, 
where his style of dancing pleased very much, and per- 

. formed in 1759 in the opera of ^^ Farnase," composed by 
Perez, where he is styled ** II Signer Giovanni Andrea 

. Galilni, director of the balli, and principal dancer," and 

^occasionally appeared on the same stage until 1763, after 

which his name. is no longer to be found in books of the 

lyric theatre, either as ballet-master or principal dancen 

It was soQU after his professional celebrity at the opera«- 

. bouse that he married lady Elizabeth Bertie, sister of the 
4ate earl of Abingdon. Admitted at first as a dancing- 
.master, by.bis vivacity, talents, knowledge of the Italian 
language^ ,and manners, he so insinuated himself into the 
favour of this noble family, as to bring about this not veiy 
creditable alliance. Many ridiculous stories were in circu^ 

* Moreri,— Diet Hiit.— Reimarus de Vit^ Fabricii.^-Saxii Onomastp 

«f G A L L I N I. 

lation at tbe time, of sigoor Gallini's expectotidiD6 dl the > 
honours which would accrue to him by hb marriage iotd a 
noble family ; which he imagined would confer on bim tbe 
title of My lord. But he was soou conviuced of his mts^ . 
take, and content with an inferior title. When tbe mar* 
riage became a subject of conversation, Dr. Burney hap*' 
pened to hear in the gang-way of the opera pit tbe foUoW'* 
ing conversation. One of two ladies going into tbe froot 
boxes, says to the other, ^^ It is reported that oAe of tbe 
dancers is married to a lady of quality;" when GaUioif. 
who h'appened to be ifi the passage near the lady wbo 
spoke, says, " Lustrissima, son io." — ^*And who are yoii?'? 
demanded tbe lady. — ^^ Eudenza, mi.chiamo signor Gal*' 
)ini esquoire." This match, as is usual with suchdisfNTQ^ . 
portioned alliances, was not the source of permanent fe^ 
licity. They lived asunder many years. Liauly Elizabetb ^ 
died Aug. 17, 1804, aged 80. , 

' By his great benefits at the theatre, and fashion as*^ . 
dancing-master at the principal schools and houses of tbe 
nobility and gentry, he, with unwearied diligence and ex- 
cessive parsimony, had accumulated a fortune sufficient to 
purchase in 1786 the patent of the opera hou^e, when be 
became sole impresario of that theatre. 

It was difter this period, in going to Italy to engage per- 
formers, that he obtained his title at. Rome of the^^pop^ . 
who made him *^ Cavaliere del speron d'Oro," knight of 
the golden spur, the only order which his holiness bES to 
f)eslOw. Qut lord Kenyon, when his title was introduced 
in court on a trial, refiised to acknowledge it, and treated 
the assumption with indignation and contempt. Sir Jobi^ 
however, continued to retain it, and was abetted by the 

Although he was extremely worldly, dextrous at a bar- 
gain, and cautious, in his dealings with mankiiid, be he** 
came an unfortunate projector in his attempt at a rapid, 
increase of his property. The rooms in Hanover^square, 
we believe, were very productive^ as be let every Door and 
every room, not only to concerts, balls, and assemblies^ 
but to exhibitions, lectures, and lodgers of all kinda,^ 
scarcely allowing himself a habitable apartment for hi^ 
own residence. When the opera house was burned* dowb 
in 1789, he advanced 30,000/. tpwards rebuildiag it,!aifid 
sent an architect to Italy to procure plans of all the great 
thesttres of that coyutry, out of whicl) to choose the pio&t 

G A L L I N i: %^* 

^gible for the new cbnstraction ; but itliasbe^n'giene- 
rally betitrved, that by some jumbie of clashing interests^ 
or cbieane of law, the manageitient was taken out of his 
hands, and he not only lost his power but his money. 
While the great theatre in the Haymatket wai rebuilditig, 
sir JcAtn fitted up the opposite little theatre as a temporary 
opera h^use, but it was so small and inconvenient, that it 
C0it1d Acitf contain an audience sufficient to cover his e«- 
pences. The next year the Pantheon was transformed into 
an dpera house before that in the Haymarket was finished ; 
and the unfortunate knight of the golden spur, tired of the 
squabbles and accidents which happened previous to the 
openrng of his new theatre, sold his patent, and afterwards 
v^oHy oonffiined himself to the produce of his Hanoveiv 
mpiare'romas, and the exercise of his profession as a danc^ 
'iog<4iiaster, to the end of his life. 

Indeed, at the time of the French rdtoIuiHon, be coul^ 
iiet resist the tebiptations which were thfown out in that 
country for tAtning the penny' in- th6 purchase 6f the 
estates of the guillotined and emigrant nobility and gentry 
tinder the title of national domains. And he bought an 
estate near Boulogne, which cost him 30,000/, ; but of 
which, by the artifice of French lawyerd, and connivance 
of ibe u^Qtpers, he was never abl6 to obtain secure! pos- 
session and at length abandoned all hopes of the estate 
or his tii^ney. This IbSs had much less effect upon his 
avaHeiotA character than could be expected, considering 
that he Was so rigid an economist, that his private life 
would furnish materials for a new drama on the subject of 
frugality, it his, however, be^n justly said of him, that 
be* was generally considered a^ the most able teabher of ' 
bis art that ever appeared in this country ; and is supposed, 
by 'bis incessant labours in this respect, notwithstanding 
his great looses, to have left money and effects to the 
4imount of tOO^OOO/. to portion his family, which consisted 
of a son and two daughters. He was a very shrevrd^ iu-? 
telligent man, who perfectly knew the world ; and, if bb 
was not generotrs, he wais, however, honourable in his 
dealings ; and if few had cause to be grateful for his 
bounty, 1V0 one bad a right to complain of his injustice. 
^' lA tbe height of his professicmal practice and favour h6 
ipubtisb^d a book, in which he gave a history of dancings 
from ity origin, and the manner in which it is practised in va« 
rioiis p^ts of the world. It appealed in 1762, under the title 


of "A Tretlit^ 0n. tte ayt^f DaociRg^ hj Gknraiioi Andrtu 
Galiioi, direclor of tbe daaoers at the royiU theatre in the 
.Hay«nark€^/' 8vo. . Until the move elegant f^ Lettrea smr 
la Dance^^ of the cetebrated baliet^mastor Noverre* pnbt- 
lisbed at Stiutgard in 1760, bad penetrated into tUs caoo- 
•try> Gallini's book was much read and talked of as aibtevary 
performance;, but uniuckilyy in a work. of M. CahnM^e^ 
^ublish^d at ^he Hague* i^i three small ?olumes, 17^4r, i2mo» 
we find all tbe.bistor^al part .of GaUini's treaitise^ with. the 
^ame sto»es;of tb^ wonderfal powers of the ancient mtdiies 
Bathyilus tand Py lades, at .Rome, their c|uai9rel^ and the 
feuds it ooG^^ioned; and liis biographer. seems to think 
that he never bad literatune sufficient to wrke an original 
.work in. bi^ own language, or even to.tnaoslate such aiuiie 
us that of .NoTerup or Githusaei into any language. Gallini, 
by taemperanca and exerei^^ enjoyed. a good stale of 
l»sakby^and escaped ideorepiiude. to the.Wt: for it was 
said Jn^tbe priivbeici fKv^utita.tbat ^* sir John Gatlini, on 8a^ 
ilnrday, 5thof Januaryv>1805, rung his bell at eight o'clock, 
and,, upon his servaoft entering, bis chambep, ordered his 
breakfasj} to. be prepared immedia^ly,. bis chmse^otba^ 
the door at nine o*olQck,. and. bis chariot in watting nt 
ihree^'^ A few minutes after ginns these direction^. he 
jcaomplained of not being well, and said, *^ I will resli till 
nine o'clc»ck." In half an hour he tang bis bell again, and 
iDEdered medical a^tance, as be had a violent pain in, bis 
stomach. On Hayes and Dr. Wood immediately aUeiided ; 
but at nineo'clockheexpired without agfoan, aged aibopt7tl.^ 
. GALLOIS (John), a learued Kreuobman,. was^boi^of 
a good family, ajtParis, in 1632^ He badsitudied 4iv«iBii)ty, 
ecclesiastical > and profane, histoiy, pbilos^phy^ matbemn- 
tics, tbei^Oriental, together with tbe ItaUap, ^paai$b, £og^ 
lisb, apd German languages ; and was deemed an uni«^cir* 
.sal scbobr. Hejs now memorable chi.e6y for. having b^en 
the^fimt who publisbcid the <^ Journal de^ Sgava^V' ^i^ 
.conjunction with Sallo, who bad 'formed, the ^psign 
.of tfais^ work. The. first journal was^ {^iblisbed Pn Jw* S^ 
J66S ; but these gentlemen censured new books with so 
jQouch severity,, that the whole tribe of iauthors rose up 
against their work, and ef&ptualiy^ cried, it down. Do 
£aUo abandoned it entirely, after having published a tkird 
journal, in March foUowii^. - GalJois was delermiMd. M 

A 8«e8's Cyclopc<lia.--Gc9t. Ji^ag. 1105. 

G A L L O I S. $tn 

vrntinue it, yet did not venture to send oat a Ibufdi 
jotrrnal till Jan. 1666, and then not without an fattmbW 
!0utvertt8eaieDt in, the begioning of it, in which it isde« 
dared, that the author ^ will not preeume to criticise, but 
mriy simfily to give an account of books." This, and the 
*f)rotectioii shewn by the 'minister Colbert, who was much 
.fiteiisfed with the work, gradually reconciled the public to 
-Che- Joiimal«r Thus began literary journals, which have been 
-continued from that time to this under various titles, a»d 
'by various authors ; among whom are the nanet of Bayle 
«^d Le Cierc* Gallois continued hia journal to 1674, 
iwben more impomlwt 4>oeupmtions obliged him to drop it, 
or rather tmnsfet it to another person. Colbert had taken 
liim into his hcMise. the year before, with a view of being 
' tanght Latin by him ; and the minister of state, it is said, 
•fook most of ^bis* lesson j| in bis coadi, as he journeyed from 
Vertoilles to Paris. Voltaire observes on this occasion, 
ahat ^< the two men, who have been tbe greatest patrons 
of learning, Louis XI V. and Colbert, neither of tbemnnr 
' derstOHod Lattn.^' Gallois' bad been made member of the 
«cad«myof sciences in 1668, and of the French academy 
in:i675. He lost his patron by death in 168&; and then^ 
^ being nt liberty, was first made librarian ta the king, and 
.afterwards Greek professor in the royal college* He died 
of tb£^ dropsy in t.707 ; and in I7i0 a cat^ogue of hip 
bpokfWas primed at Paris, coasistiog of upwards of 12,000 
^volumes. It isrema^rkable of this^^eamed i^an, that though 
he bad served mmy friends by bis interest with Calbert, 
yet he bad neglected to make any provision for Umself : 
Whence it bappet)edj that, at the death of that minister, 
)ie t^as but in poor circumstances, ahhoogh an abb6; ^ 
. GALLONIUS (Anthony), a native of Home, where 
he died in 1605, eacelied in theology, and was priest of 
the congregation of the oratory* His: works were nu- 
merous, but be is chiefly known by his '^* gli 
instfumenti di Martirio, &c.'*; '^ A Treatise? on the de- 
ferent kinds of Cruelties inflicted by the pagans onHhe 
Martyrs of the primitive Cburojb, illustrated with engrav* 
ings of the instruments of torture made use of> by them/* 
This work, first published in Italian in 1591, was compiled 
from unquestionable authorities. In 1594 the author trans* 
:1m^ it into Latin, and published it at Borne, under tl^e 

Hi G A L t N I U S. 

title * De Sanctorum Martytnm CrwciatilMM, &c.** illus- 
trated vfith wood eutft. It has since gone through matif 
editions on the continent. In 1591 he {Published hit 
* History of the Virghls,** also in Italian ; « The Uves df 
Certain Martyrs,'* 1 597, 4to ; " Th^ LHe of St. Philip 
Neri ;" and " De Monaehatu Sancti Gregorii," the ac*- 
count of St. Gregqry when a monk, ih 1604.* 

GALLUCCI (Angelo), ati Italian Jesuit, was born at 
Matcerata in 1 593, and in his thirteenth year entered the 
'Jesuits* college, i^rhere he war educated, and where bt 
ttfterwards taught Aetoric for twenty-four years. He died 
«t Rome, Feb. i28, 1^74. He is the aiuthor of 'some Latih 
prations, but principally of a history of the wars of the 
Ketherlands, ^ Commentatii de Bello Birigico," including 
the period from 1593 to 1609. This history, which is writ* 
ten in I.atin, ¥^s published at Rome, 1671, 2 vols. fol. 
dnd in 1*677 in 2 vols. 4to. It was afterwards traOshted 
into Italian by James Cellesi. His style is pure, but lesi 
-ftowing than his predecessor on the same subject, Strada. * 
'^ GALLUCCI (John PAt/L), a learned Italian astronomer^ 
"♦rtio lived in the sixteenth century, and was a member off 
<he academy of Vefiice, is said to have invented an instrti^ 
knent for observing the celestial phcBnomena. He pubtisheA 
%evefal works, among which are, 1. " pella fabrica etnsl^ 
4i diversi stromenti di Astr6nomia et Cosmografia,** Venice, 
1 597. 2. « Specimen Uraniciim,'* Venice, 1 593. 3. *« Cop*. 
iestium corpOrum et rerum ab ipsis pendentium Explieatio,^ 
Venice, 1605. This work has been improperly ascribed 
to Paulus Galvicins in the catalogue of Thtianus's library. 
4. "Tiieatrum mundi et temporis,** Venice, 15^9; 5. 
** De Themate erigendo, parte fortunse, divisiorie Zodiac?, 
'dignitatibus Planeftarmn et temp0ribus ad medicandum ac- 
commodatis.** This is printed with " Hasfurtus de cOg^ 
lioscendis et medendis morbis ex corpdrum ccelestitmi po«- 
sitione, cui argumenta et explicattonem inscripsit,'* Ve- 
nice, 1584.* 

' GALLUCCI (Tarquinius), an Italian Jesuit, was bom 
at Sabina, in Italy, in 1574, and was for some years a ce- 
lebrated professor of rhetoric at Rome. He was then madls 
irector of the Greek' college in that city, where he dictel 
July 28, 1649. Re published a small volume of orations 
to varioQs literary arguments^ an oration recited by him at 

> Mor^rl— Gen. Diet. • Gea. Dict.--^Moreri. ' ^ ibid. 

GAL LtJCtJ I. «5I 

Ibe faneral of cardinal BeUanmoe^'aWo ** Virgilianfli Winr 
dicaUonesyV with three commeniaries qq tragedy, coinedy^ 
and elegy, Rome, 1621, 4lo. He was a gtreouaus de« 
fender of Virgil, iQ whose behalf, agitintt Homer, he coa^ 
tended wtlh madam Daoier. His moat considerable pub* 
lication was a commentary on Aristotle^s Morals, published 
at Paris, 2 vols. fol. 1632 — 1645. ' 

GALLUS (Cornelius), an ancient Roman poet, and a 
person of distinction, was born at Frejus, in Provence, or 
as some think Friuli, in Italy. He was the particular fa- 
vourite of Augustus Caesar, who made him governor of 
Egypt, after the death of Antony and Cleopatra ; but he 
was guilty of such mal-administratU)n in his government^ 
that be was condemned to banishment, and deprived of 
his estate. This disgrace so afflicted him that he put an 
end to his life, when he was aged about forty-three, in 
the year 26. Virgil has complimented him in many 
places ; and the whole tenth eclogue is on the subject of 
his love to Lvcoris, the poetical name of Gallus's^ mistress, 
whose cruel oisdain is there lament<ed» Gallus had written 
four books of elegies on his amour, which Propertius com- 
mends; but Quintilian thinks him not so tender as Tibuk- 
lus or Propertius. .As to tho^e six elegies which have been 
published under his name, the critics are agreed that they 
are spurious, and that they were written by Maximus 
Etruscus, a contemporary with Boethius. Aldus Manutius 
met with some fragments at Venice ascribed to Gallus; 
which, though written in a better taste^ than the former, 
Joseph Scaliger has proved to be also spuriiaus. Some 
think he is the auttior of the little poem called ^^ Ciris,^* 
found among the works attributed to Virgil. His iragr 
ments have been printed with the editioqs of Catullus, 
printed in 1659, 1755, &c. ^ 

, GALLY (Henky), an English divine, born at Broken- 
bam, in Kent,, in August 1696, was admitted pensioner of 
Bene't college, under the tuition of Mr. Fawcett, May 8, 
1714, and became scholar of the house in July following. 
He took the degree of M- A. in 1721, and was upon the 
king's list for that of D. D. (to which he was admitted 
April S5, 172H) when his majesty honoured the university 
of Cambridge with his presence. In 1721 he was chosen 

1 Gen. Diet.— Moreri. 

S Vottiu* ^ Pott. Ut.— Fabric. Bibl. Ut.-^Saxii Onomast 

154 G A L L Y. 

kotarer of St Paurt Covent^^rden^ ami tnsUtiited tb€)i 
same year to the rectory of WaYMden^ or Wandeii, itt 
Buckinghaoisbire. The lord diaacelk)r King .appointed 
him his domestic chaplain in 172d, pfefinrred him to a prcs^ 
bend in the church of Gloucester in 17^S, aiid to^aAotheri 
in. that of Norwich about thi«e years after.' He presented'^ 
him likewise to the rectory of Ashney, alias 'AsbtOfl, iri^ 
Northamptonshire, in 1730; and to that of St. Giles's in^ 
the fields, • in 1732 ; his majesty made him also one- of his^ 
chaplains in ordinary in October 17^5* Div Gaily diedi 
August 7y 1769. He was the au^or of, K ^' Two ser^ 
mens on the Misery of Man, preached at Su Paulas Cp^ 
yeiit<>garden, 1723,'* 8vo. 2. *< The Moral Characters of^ 
Theophrastus, translated from the Greek, with notes, and' 
a Critical Essay on Characteristic Writing,'' 1725, 9vo^'^ 

3. '> The Reasonableness of Church and College Fine^- 
asserted, and the Rights which Churches and Colh^s^ 
have in thefar Estates defended/' 1731, 8vo. This nvasan- 
ansmer to a pamphlet called '' An Enquiry into the Cus- 
tomary Estates and Tenants of those who bold Lands* of 
Ghufch and other Foundations by the tenure of three Lives* 
and tweBty-»one. years. By Everard Fleetwood, esq."'8vo.- 

4. " Serax>n before. the House of Commpons, upon the^ 
Accession, June 11, 1739," 4to. 5. **Soake Considera- 
tions upon Clandestine Marriages," 1750, 8 vo. This was 
much enlarged in a second ^edition, the year following^ and 
bad the honour afterwards' to be noticed ii> the house of 
commons in the ddbate8;on the marriage act. 6. >' A Dis*-  
sertation against pronouncing the Greek laDgoageacoord*- AccenU," 1754, 1755, 8vo. 7. ff^A Secoild Di«i 
sertation,'' on the same subject, 8 vo.^ .': . ^: : 

GALVANI (Lewis),' from whose name the appellation.- 
of Galvanism was given to a supposed ^nev principle ill 
nature, aUo called animal electricity, wasboru Sept. 1^ ^ 
1737, at Bologna, of a family, isever^ o£ which had distitr* 
guisbed themsel?es in the professions of law and diiutiity* ' 
III i)is early youth he shewed a great jpropensity to religi-^ 
ous austerities ; but being dissusuled frum entering into an 
order of monks, whose conrent be- frequented, he directed' 
bis attention to the study of medicine. He pursued this' j 
study under able masters, and gained their esteem, espe- - 

cially that of professor Galcazzi, who received him into ^ 

- ' • • ' 

^ ^ Nichoii's Bowver.— Lord Orford's Works, vol, V. p: 3fi, " ,- 

G A L V A It h Ut 

lun iiM9^ and g«.ve him hisdmigbter in marriage. To tbitf 
Hiioii kh st^cess in life is in a great naeasave to ba ascribed* 
Id 1762) after haviag suslained an inaugural dwsis, .'< De 
.OssibuV' he was appoinled public lecturer in the univer-^ 
•ity of fiologua, and reader in anatomy to tbe institute in 
that city^ cls^eily by the- interest of bis wife's relatieAs* 
3y the excelience of bis method of teaching he obtained 
.crowded audtenoes,' and by. his researches and espertmetit^ 
in. physiology and comparatire anatoiny. he established a 
higjtk reputaiioQ throughout the schools <rf Italy. A smgu- 
lar accident is said to have giren birth to the discoyery 
which has immortalized 4ns. name. His wifc^^ to. whom he 
was most tenderly attached, being in a declining state of 
health, used a soup made from frogs, as a restorative ; and' 
some of these animals, skinned for the purpose, happening 
to lie on a table in Galvanfs laboratory, on whieb was 
ptj^eed. an- electrical .machine, one of the assistants in his 
ei:periments,. by accident, broughtihe-poiiit of a scalpel 
near the crural oerves of a frog lying not far from the con- 
ductor. Instantly the muscles of the limb. were agitated 
wit;h .strong convulsions. The experiment was repeated, 
the fact ascertained, and a long series of new eBperiments,; 
ingeniously varied^ were, put in execution^ by which he 
investigated the law of nature of which, accident had thus 
given him' a glimpse^ . His first publication or tbe Subject 
was printed lor tbe institute at Bologna in 179},. and en- 
titled *{ Aioysii <}alvani de viribus Electricitatis in motu 
Muscuiari Commentarius;". This work immediately excited 
tbe:attentioB of philosophers both in Italy and other coun<^ 
tries».. and the e^^periments were repeated and extended. 
In the hands of the celebrated Yolta, the agent wqb in*' 
creased in power to a great extent; and, directed by the 
genius of sir. Humphrey Davy, it has already led. to most' 
important discoveries in regard to the composition of many* 
^bstances, heretofore deemed elementary, and bids fair 
to change the whcde face of chemical science. - 

In^ coni unction with his physiological inquiries,' the du^ 
tiesof his professorship, and bis employment as a surgeon ' 
and accoucheur, in which practice be was very eminent,' 
gave- full occupation to tbe industry of Calvani. 3 Besides 
a number of curious observations on the. urinary organs, -^ 
and on the organ of hearing in birds, which were published- 
in the Memoirs of the Institute of Bologna, he drew up 
Various memoirs on professional topics^ which liave re- 

i4§ GAL VAN I. 

Qiainjed inQdlted. ,. He regularly held learned odnversatimk 
with a few literacy fcieods, iq which oew works were read 
and commented upon. He was a man of most amiable 
character in private life, and possessed of great sensibility^ 
Insomuch that the deat^ of his wife, in 1790, threw bitt 
into a profound melancholy. Him early impressions on the 
subject of religion remained unimpaired, and -he was al** 
ways, punctual in practising its minutest rites. During theP 
troubles in Italy he had espoused the side 6t -the old esta>« 
falished goyernment, and was stript of all his offices, be-^ 
cause he refused to take. the oaths of allegiance to the new 
Cisalpibe republic ; and most of his relations perished by ^ 
sudden or violent deaths, many of them in defence of their 
country. In a M;ate of melancholy and poverty ~be retired 
to the house of his brother James, a man of very respect^* 
able character, and fell into an extreme debility. The re* 
publican governors, probably ashamed of their conduct* 
towards such a man, passed a decree for his restoration to ' 
his professional chair and its emoluments : but it was now ' 
too late. He expired Dec. 5, 1798.^ 

GAMA (Yasco, or Vasquez di), an illustrious Portu*^ 
gueze, is immortalized by his discovery of the passage to.' 
the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope. ^ The mari?* 
time town of Sines in Portugal was the place of hi^ birtb, * 
his faotlly was good, but not noble, till made so by the 
honours 'he acquired. In 1497, Emaime) king of Portugal, 
earnestly desirous of making discoveries in those parts of . 
the globe, appointed Gama to command an expedition to 
endeavour to sail round the Cape, then called the Cape of 
Tempests* Yasco highly pleased with this appointment^A. 
which suited his undaunted and adventurous spirit, sailed . 
from the Tagus, July 8, having two ships besides his own, . 
and a store ship. At Lisbon he was generally considered 
as going to certain destruction, 'and th^ whole equipment. . 
as devoted ; but though, on his approach to the Cape, he 
actually encountered dreadful storms, his perseverance was , 
not to be conquered^ Like Columbus, he had to contend 
with the mutinous despondence of his own people, as well . 
as with the elements, but was superior to all. Having, 
doubled the Cape on the 2(Hh of November, he sailed 

along the eastern coast of Africa, but met with inveterate . 


^ Rees'g aoa Klcholsou's Cyclop8Bdias.'«*Thomso9*9 HUt. of the Eojal Sootetx* 
•-^Philoiopbiclir Trabsaetions. 

G A M A. 2Si 

b^Mity tnd tmpkterj horn the Moori^ settlers, except 
tbe king of Melindn. He proceeded as far as Caliqnt^ 
doubled tbe Cape again in April 1499, and returned to 
lisbon in tbe space of two years and filAiost two months; 
Tbe king and nation were oveijojed at this success, and 
bf» was created c<Hiot of Vidtguere, and admiFal of the 
lui\Wf Persian, and Arabian seas. Gama now rested e 
few y^ars, while Cabral was sent out with thirteen ships i 
and John de Nova, with a reinforcement of three more, 
visited Calicut ; but it was found that greater force was 
Ifanledf Md in 1502, be set sail again, having twenty 
ships imder his coounand* He returned in September 1 503 f 
F^ thirteee. sbipa laden with riches. When Emanuely . 
Idng ^ Portugal died, the credit of Gama continued un^ 
iaip4»ired, and in ] $24, he was by hili successor, Jobn III* 
appointed viceroy of India. He returned thither a tbhr4 
^me, and esiaUisbed his seat of government at Cochin^ 
bnt died on the 24th of December 1525, almost as soon ap 
he WM sealed. He was honoured with tbe title of don foi 
himself and his posterity, lind created a grandee of Portu«> 
gal, Oama wfu^ formed by ni^ture to conduct the most 
arduous entevpfisel. His intrepidity, which waa invinci«- 
b}e, wfts not more remarkable thaii his sagacity and pru^^ 
dence :• and tJie feelinga of bb heart appear to wonderful 
advEUtage^ when we find him, amidst all tbe extravagancy 
of piiblip applause, after his first return from India, droop* 
i9g 6>r the loss of his brother and companion of his voyage, 
Pai|li)s de Cema, and unable to enjoy bis fame. He ioA 
ftfen sent his flag*sbip home before him, under tbe com* 
Ifeppd c^ CSoiello, bis next oMcer, that be might attend and 
sooth the death-bed of this beloved brother. Such a 
victory pf tenderness over urdent and successful ambition^ 
g^ves a better picture of bis heart than the most elaborate 
eulogiuiB. The poem of Camoens, entitled <' The Ln^ 
^iad," on Giima's first expedition, is now well known in 
fim coun^ by Mickle^s able tradslation. ^ 

GAMACHES (Stephen Simok), a writer of some emi* 
nwce, and a member of the Freneh academy of sciences^ 
W9|( bom at Meulan in 1672, and, entering the clmrcdi^ 
pibtiiiued the office of canon of the Holy Cross de U ]^« 
feoejpnere, aod died at Paris in 1 7 56 . He was m uch esteemed 
for his literary talents, which appeared in the foltowuig 

Vol. XV. ^ S^ 

253 GAM AC H E S. 

^rorks: I. <* Physical Astronomy,'* 1740, 4t6.' f . « tSte^ 
rary and Philosophical DtsserUktions,'* 1755, 8vo. 3. ** Sys- 
tem of the Christian Philosopher," 1721, 8vo. 4. <^ Sys*' 
tern of. the Heart," p.ubiished in 1 708, under the feigned 
name of Clerigny. 5. ** The Elegancies of Language re>* 
duced to their Principles," a book called by one writer, the 
'^Dictionary of fine- Thoughts," and by others pronouticdd 
to besLwork which every man who whites should^ read-' 
/i.GAMBARA (Lorenzo), was an Italian poet of the sijc- 
teentbioenttii^y, protected and beloved byr cardinal Aleic*^' 
ander Farnese, whose writings were» much esteemed in hiir 
day, hnt now are thought flat and insipid/' He wrote; 
1. '.^A ^Ld^n treatise on Poetry^ in which <he dis^uadeii 
Christian poets frooi using pagan mythology i"' This was 
the 0minde banarable for many Ui^ntioos a^d' profane 
poema: written in his youth/ 2^. '< A Lattin 'po^m -on Co^ 
iusnbusi" V Alsoeck>gues,(«dtilledi ^^^ VenaMMria^^'and.dtb^r 
pfodiicticaui. Mur^iis treau this atiriio^r' w'itb the »gtp^aal^t 
cbotempt^ but he is highly praised by^ 4Siraldi tmd MjtttUi^ 
tins. -^He died in 1^586^' at^he age of. 90.* ' » - ^ - --"♦ * 
GAMfiARA (Veronica),- an Italian poMess^ born Mti 
1.43r5^ . was the daughter ; of' the count John (Frafieis Oani*^ 
bara^ iand was married in 1509 toiGibetto X. lord of Gori 
reifgio, wbeni.she survived manj^ years. Her natui'al'diS'^ 
position, the oourse oi her education,' and, above all pet-^ 
bapSy»the:instnictiom and advice of Peter Bemfbtd,- led her 
in her youth to: devote a part of her leisure to the^cultiV^-^ 
. tiM of her rpoeticisd talents, which; through aUthe vibb8i«« 
tildes ofherfutare-life, was her occasional amtisei&ient.' ''Itt 
1528 she went i to re^de. at Bologna, <^ with a brother wk'd 
was governor, of tbatxitj,^ where ^e established a kind iof 
academy; that waa frequemedbymany of tbeiiteritti,' wbd 
then resided at the Roman court. -On her return' to 'C^r- 
ireg^o,^ she had the honour of receivirfg as'faergtk^stfthe 
emperor Ghavles V. She 'died in' 155<). • Her 'writings 
which had been dispersed inJ various collections t>f tbetiine; 
' were corrected and published by. Zamboni in nid^ ^Efpes* 
cia, 8vo, with a life of the authoress. They dispfaiy a; pie- 
puliar originality and vivacity, .both in sehtinient and 1^'^ 
guage, which raise them far >above)tbose insipid efFosicfha^ 
which under the nao^e of sonnets at that tiibe* inundated 
Italy.*  .•..,... .'.!'.» 

1 Diet. Hist *. Tirabo8cIii,«— Moff«n.rr)^a3ui Onomatt. 

^ Tirai>Q8cbi, vol. VIL— Roscoe's Itfo^f—Morcri. 

G A M B OLD. 2S9 


GAMBOLD (John), a pious bishop among the Mora^k 
vian brethren, was bom near Haverford Wes in Sduth^ 
Wales, and« became a member of Christ- church, Oxford^ 
"Where he took the degree of M. A. May 30, 1734; and 
^waa afterwards vicar oi Stanton Harcourt, in Oxfordshire^ 
to which he was presented by Dr. Seeker, when bishop of 
Oxford. At this place, in .1740, he wrote *^The Martyr* 
dom of Ignatius, a Tragedy/' published after his death by 
the rev. Benjamin La Trobe ^th the Life of Ignatius^ 
drawn from authentic accottats^ and from the epistles wiii* 
ten by him from Smyrna and Troas in his way to Bome, 
1773, 8vo. A sermon, which he preached before tbft 
university of ^Oxford, was published under the title q( 
** Christianity, Tidings of Joy,'* 1741, 8?o- In 1742 he 
published' at Oxfprd, frofn the- University '^press^ a neat 
edition of' the Greek Testament^ but without kis name^ 
.^^ Textu per icm(inia!Milliaho,' cum ijiv^'ione pericoparum. & 
' interpuucturi A. Beugelii,'' l2mo. > Joining afterwajrda die 
Churthrof the Brethren*,. established by an act of parlia«- 
meht of 1749 1,' and known by. the liame of ^* Unitas -Fra^ 
trum,V or,* the tUnited Brethren; he was, for many years, 
iAieVegular minister of the congregation settled at Loudoa), 
and f resided in Neville's*court, Fetter*lane, ¥^ere he 
pVeached at the chapel oi the society. . His connexion with ' 
these sectaries commenced in I748,wwheu PeterrBoehler 
visited.Oxford, and held frequent .meetings with John and 
Charles- Wesley, for the edification qS awakmed people, 
both learned and unlearned. His discourses were in Li^, 
and.. were interpreted by Mr. Gambold. He was cfpnse-* 
crated a bishop .at an English proviocial' synod held at 
<Lindley house in- Nov. 1754, and was greativ esteemed for 
l^ts piety and lelurning l>y several JEngHsb bisobps, who had 

* The foU$^wmgparticttlartt were com- and patron, to associate with pefople^ 

municated to the; author of the '* A&^c- amcmg wbom, though he might h^'iii- , 

dbtes^ Bo#fer'^ by a: friend #ho ko^w .voeent, havebeen somie monMhSros dM- 

himinUiec^rljrpaft<»flife: VMr.Oam- jacters. When he wm youngs he bad 

bold was a singular, over-zealbus) but nearly perished through disregard to 

Innocent enthusiast. - tie hirti nbt quite - bta person. - 'At Ihis^ thMe he was^kindly 

jfire.en<ragh in hin^ ^rm a f999n4 Sr* . rtjiieTed by- bis bmlili^r collegian in the 

. mean Slylites, He was presented to Stap*', same department ; Pr. Free, a person 

ton Harcourt by bishop Stecket,' I think wetf known in London y but the tale is 

la- V739, but caabat be' eeirtaia; • He liot wortk g«rkig.»* - 
hadbBe|^9nly«b^plai|iofChinst-charch^ f The "Petition of the Krethr^n" 

not a stuHent (the name given to the on this occaston, mo&t probably dfrawn 

fellows), af that royal foundation. He -up by Mr. GatnboUlv is preserved ia 

deserted his flock in jl742, without the << Journals of the House of CoB»- 

giyinganxnoticeto his worthy diocesan mens,*' vol. XXV* p. 717, 

S 2  

itct e A M B 6 L XL 


hum bit oo9i«npofi^6fl in ike vnifenitV «f ^(brd. In 
IJM n oon|^€gatKHi wet ttculed by hitBop Gaoibdd, afc 
jOMtfaiH, in tutiand. Sdon ^ter be had joined tbe hr«^ 
IbneQ^ he piihltftb«d a treatise^ vrklen wbile he hm^ at 
£teAira Haf court, afid wbioh provea hiaiteady attachnnamt 
to 4^e dttivch «f ^oglaird, entirelijr eomisOni: wi^ bia eon^' 
4ieiiioD vffkh, and miotatry in, thm lehttrch of the brefehpeo. 
Tfafl litle «£it ia, ^^ A short autpmary of Cbrtttian Doctiinc^ 
in tim itay of question and ansiwr ; the anavrets- being ali 
made tnldif aonad and iranaraU^ words of the CoiBn»on»r 
|»rayer4M>ok of Ac ahureh of England. To ii4ifh are 
added, awia aattraotf out cf the Homilies. Collected for 
Iheaeiviae of a fe^ peraott^, aMin,hecaof the eptafalisbed 
ckiuneb ; .but iinagiped ootJto he oni^efQl to others.'^ We 
k&9m not the lexaiet date of this tueatise ; bu€ a siaeood edit 
;^€aief it aras printed io 1767, i3ma. Mr. Gambold alsa 
l^uyished in 17$1, aw, ^ Mdocims and Theological ideaf 
smhI Senteeo«s^ collected out of several dissertations and 
. dmei|r»es eif oeum Binaendorf, Aom 1738 ttti 1 747." Hi« 
^^ Hymns for the use of tha Bretbran^' vnere {urkitad ie 
Ita^ ITid, and 1760) lone Ujmat^ andta sngall liyron*- 
Jheeii for tbe cbildnen lietllDfigviKg to the brethiien's <ongre«* 
^atiata^ were priaiied entjreiybr Mr. Gambold's own band 
in Liediacy honse at Chelsea, a letteit from l/bL damhdd 
to Mr. Spangeaberg, Jane 4, 17^ cootainmg a eonciae 
and aiel^wHrisien obnraoter of tho eoisat of Zinzendorf, was 
jns^vtefd in Mr. James Mmaonr^s ** Essay towards giving 
3oate jtaet idteas of the persanal cfaoracter of count ^inaen*" 
4oif, the present advocate and ovdinavy of the bmthrenh 
«fallfcbes,^' 1754, -tvo. In J 752 be \)«a8 «Mikor of ^^ Six*- 
Heea X>isoeipnfes eta the depend Article of the Creed, 

r ached at. Bevlfn by the ondinary of she Brethaan,f^ i ^Hdd 
June 1753 appeared ^^Tbe ordinary of the Brethren's 
churches bisr short and pexeipaptory reworks qu th^ w^y ^n^ 
maaiieff wherein he has been bithefle itxeated in eonttoasar-* 
5sies, &c. Translated from th.e High Dutch, with a jpre- 

iaf^ W J^a Qa<nboid> mniswg^r of thQ ^kd^el mV^teix:^ 
lane.'' In the same year he pubUsbed, <* Twpiir{F*one 

disipourses, or dissertatip^s* upp^n tUe A^g^burg Cpxifes* 
sion, which is also, ibe Brethren's Confiassion of Faitb ; de« 
Jivered by the ordinary of the Brethren's churches befora 
the seminary. To which is prefi;Ked a .aynjpdical wcUing 
ipeiatkig to the sul^ect. Translated from the High Dutch, 
by f. Okeley, A. Bt'* la 1754 he was editor of << A mo* 

6 A. M B O I. D. «ll 

defet fien, fcr thm Cburah dP the Breijirimi^' 9^. Sv9 \ m(k % 
prefiscer bjr himadf. In tb« sannc yeari iti oorrjuntiiioii Wtlb* 
Mr. Hatttniy secMHary to the 'bre<bren> he arls6 drow up 
^< Tte i*e{>tei«ntatfoii «f the oomiliittcie of tb4 Kligir«h 
<K»if^it^stti0n in utvion WitH the Monvien cb»rah|'' ^4-*. 
dressed to the archbiillop of York ; ipnd also '< The plaAllr 
ciiseof the representatives of the people kQom^ii by theiuioMt 
of the United Fratrutn, from the year 1727 ttil thelse tifuea^: 
with regard te their conduct in this odantry under Marft-* 
^reientation." And in 1755 bctassistod in the publica^tioiK 
ef << A letter from ^ minister of the MoraTtan branch of 
Are Unitas Ftatfum^ logetrfaer with sqiims additiotial not^ 
by the Engliih edito)*^ to the aulfaor 6f the Moratians com« 
paeed and deieotiid ;'' and «ilso of *^ Ah exposition^ ^i' true 
state of the ib^tters objected in England te Dk<i |»eopla 
known by thti n*me of Uaitas Ffatruki^ ; by tb<! Didififtiy of 
the hrmbren ; the tMMes aiid additions by itib edit^**' In 
17^6 b* pretiiiUed at Fetter^tane ch&pel, and printed after* 
wafda^ a aentton upon tt piabltd famt and bmhiliattoa^ ^t# . 
ting fbj^th *^ the reasN>naUeoe»s and: extent of > religidua re%- 
tereme^." He mtta not dudy a gooi sehokr, but ii itoati 4i 

great parts^ and of «in^lar inediam4:al' fug^nuity. It wfa 
cte in both thiair iK^es before the learned Bowj^er tl^as'ati^ 
quAim^d tffth brs- liaedts ) but he no iooner knetw tketf^ 
than h^ wsis bappy in his acqo&intttnde, und rsry fr^lquendy 
ipplied t6 hiiti as aft occasional assistaiitib oar#6^iing:tbe 
press ; in tvtitch dapaoity Mr. {jmftihM jHipectatttiideit 
(among tMiry (Other valuable phWdaanm) die bdautiAil 
ftnd tery wcentate edition laf lord diviicisdler Biicon's works 
in 1765} 4nd in 17611 he was furofesMity t(h^ editoK, moi 
took an Mti%« paM in tbe tmnstetion iroio the Ub^ Duti^lk, 
f»f ><The iltfttdry of Ofe#afteidd;'* cooUintf^ a ^^tksi»rip<, 
tion of the douniny ami its inhabitants; and particularlry a 
refaetJon tif tb« ^i^kki isH^ried od for abdte th^sil thirty 
jre^vs by tbd Uditds Fraarum at Nevir Hermhsit asid Licli^ 
tenfefe rniAMK 6ot%nPry^ ^ Dkt^id Ctant^ ^ sIlastraMl watk 
m^ «ltfd dtker ^^dpfjeruphflki : printed for^ thf brtfthpen^s 
sdi^eby'for «)li»f«ythidr«neeof 9te<Ste eannong th^ Hea«- 
itbm/' 9'«i^.Sfd; ifr4U« ^AUMiinnof. itGa he retired t* 
bl» iRfrKvfttdoantryy ¥kim4 lm\'^&H^ at Hi»f(eHord Weti^ 

t GANDX '(<riMt9)j iM. «Jkle>krfiit^ ajtboUgh little kooim^ 
was born in 1619, and instructed by Vandyck; and his 

' * ' Niohols*8 Bowytr. 

i«t :g:an;d*y; > . 

works are & sufficient proof of .the signal iinprovecDeAtiie 
received from the precepts and example of that greai 
master. The cause of bis being so totally unknown »wasi 
bis being brought into Ireland by the old 4nke of OroMiid', 
and rietiiined in his service. -And as Ireland .was. at' that 
time in a very unsettled condition^ ^ tlie merit and the- me* 
moiy of this master would have been entirely unnotibed^ if 
some of bis peiformancesy which^still subsist, had not' pre* 
served him from obtiviou^ There are at this dnaeinltie^ 
land many portraits, painted by him, of noblemen^ and 
persons of fortune, \idiich are very^ little inferior to. Van- 
oyck, either for expression, colouring, . or dignity ; ' and 
several of his copies alter Vandyck, which were in the Or- 
mond collection at Kilkennyj were sold fiar original paint- 
ings of Vandyck. Mk. Gandy died in. 1689.^ 

GANGAN£LLI (JoHN' Vincent Antony), who vv»s 
elevafed to the popedom by the nameof .Clement XIV. 
was the son of a {^sician^ and born in 1705. ile was 
educated at Rimini, near his birth^tplace, and at the age 
of eighteen entered into the franciscan onier at Urbino; 
After finishing /his studies at various seminaries,, he 'waa 
appointed in 1740 to be professor of divinity in the college 
of St. Bonaventure, at Rome.. In this situation he gained 
the good opinion of pope Benedict XIV. who gave him the 
place of counsellor of the. holy. office; and io 1759 Cle-v 
anent XIII. made htm- a.caniinal. It is .said that in att 
his intercourse with his brethren and at their pubUc assem^ 
blies, he endeavotnred to lower their tone, and to pei^suadiS 
them thatit was' ahnost too late to oppose the will of tbd 
sovereigns <^ £urope by a display of ecclesiastical powers 
S^ This eould :not: • be very aoceptabie to the cardinals, who 
I>er8ist4^ in tb^ opinioirof the poi^r.of the reigning 
, pontiff^ and encouraged him in his disputes with Erance 
and other kingdcmis. . On the death of Clemeot XIU. Gsm^ 
ganelli was elected in his room in May. 1769, chiefiy/bjr 
the influence of the courts of France and Spain^ .who now 
tirged him to suppress the orde^ of Jesuits, and, although 
be did not enter on that measure . without ;mi;yph deUbe^a^ 
4ion, it was at last'Carriedyand fbrms therprinoipaKi^Ment 
of his pontificate. . He.signed thert>ri^f ffor -^tbisvpurposd 
on July .21, 1773, and h is said, mt^ c^ni^ei^te re)iH^ 
lance. The consaqpenee >to : papal power' was aor doubt 




gi$eaA» ,biit k appeared after all'to be bat ooe link in th# 
gt?eat cbain of causes fRbicb must relieve tbe world entirely 
^<Ho its influence. Ganganelli did not long sotvive tb» 
pvent, dying 8q»w 22, 1773. . After his death, a life of 
Jiim was published by Caraccioli, replete, with arreodotes 
iUustratire of bis amiable cbaraeter and liberal sentimeats-; 
but w^ juiow not how to give credit to a writer whoisoon 
afterwards pubtisbed some volumes of << Letters'' by Gan« 
^anelU, wlttcb, it is now universally acknowledged, were 
lbrgeriel«^ . t 

' GARAMOMD (Claude), a French engraver and^ lett 
ter-fpunder^ was. a name>of Parb,. and began to distinguisb 
himself abbot 1510; wben.he fofinded his printing ty^>e8^ 
dear , from all remains : ef . the gotbic, or, as it is usualljF 
called, tbe black letter. He brought them to so great a 
degree of perfection, thai be ean neither be denied the 
glory of having surpassed whatever bad ^been done inr tixis 
way Jbefore, nor that of not. beisig excelled; by any of fats 
succ^s^ors in this useful mechanic art< /His txjpm 'weim 
prodigiously multiplied, « well by the great mumbiar of 
matrices which -he engraved of ev^ry size, as by: the ItstierB 
^bich were foilnded from: these, > soithat all pnrts of fiorope 
were suppliecl with thehi'j and. ar often as they. were; used 
Vy foreigners, tfaey took caire, .hyiway of recomowndio^ 
tbejr woirks, to distifi^isb than by his narne^' both riii 
Italy, Germany, England, aDd;evenrin'HaUai3d ; pattttav 
^ulariy tbe smsUtR<^msttv by w^ynf exahUence; was knowdl 
emong tbe printera ill aU tfaescbcauGiides, by/ tbe qame 6t 
Garamond^a small fi4»naB; >; Hei likewise^, by* the^speoial 
commtind of sFjraneis* I. founded. three specifes.of Greek 
types for . the uae of Rnhestififtepbeas, : who^printed with 
4i9jn all. bis bean tifcil edladnsv .both of: the New Testament, 
aod'several Greek authers. :: Garamond/died iii 15€( ; and 
alibis fine typesmame into^tbe hands of Fobrnier the elder, 
aneminaot letter-founder at. Paris. P . 
. G A RA^SGr (Fft4NCi3),i a French Jesuit, and the author 
of. tbe eniffiity biltMtednidse".Jetuits and the Jansenists, in 
tbftt cfaifiith of ;Ro|iie^>'Was bonribt AigoulSme in 15ft 5, and 
haniog.'iaid *4' goodtifoHmdation .of jpaimmar-flearning, en-^- 
teorec^of! tb<^ J^uM eoUege in 16C]^.: * It iras tbe sfS^cial 
Qi^re^pf; .tho9e> f^lhers^' tcfMtiAt none into their society but' 
youths^ gmiu9';ya|«d Garaste was'*npt.:wanting in good 

•J . } i^i0rH»«^, ::...> < Morerk 

t#4 QAB A SS E^ 

9iluitl 'p«r^9 Hatf 4iA lia> ne^bct to Mnprove ^Uea^ hf 
ftddi^snd itudy; of wktoh be gwre jm admirable jprd^ 
SB Jus book of ekigs^ on tM desth of Htory IV. anrf in 
i: poeoi in heroio . i^ene^ addrosised to Lodis XIIL \i{>otl 
iaaagmmtioDi io tho oame of the cdlt^ge ^ Poietiers; 
latlfs cif thtiM two pieocft are^- L ^^ Eie^iaroid ^d fn<» 
nesla morfce HeDrki magni Ubtr. singiilarisi-' Pie^Mri^ 
liSily 4 to. a* ^^ Sactra Rbelnenna Oarimiia il#r0fda tio^ 
mnm CoUegii PktaipeiiBit oblata Ludo«i Xlli. Regi C^Mwr 
liamssimpinsuainavgQratione/' ibid. The two following 
faeces are .abo ascribed :t6 : biai : !«' ^^ Be Wft^is^inblance 
ite la lumiere da SloteiliSfrido Ja#iiMce>'* Bootdeaux^ 1619; 
^. ^ Lea cfaanpi..El3FAeq^ ponjr JariBAcofytioil do Roy Louis 
XUI. lort jqtt'jl entroit^ a fiourdeaujD k IViedaftion de isoii 

. As bo;bad a gnrat 4eal cf sflirllb and (imaginatioo, and a 
ctfong iiK^p, be became afSiopijlar ppaachet^ ^n tbe <hitf 
eities of Franee. ..-He aivjqiistasri biiuself in tbe fhilMt 
viidi'Uiiora>meii viTaoity^ , .sod bad »a . pdfcoiiai^ turn fei^ fber 
Hvit then in^ roigiiei. viu^b^ Jieiag teo£cir<^ by a «uititble / 
deliY^ryy made deep: impfeBifoba iqifsa bia ail#iende4 Bvi€ 
be wa6 no$ coa^fiiot with tbefaoabur^iie tbuadid t^bis ^eti 
His avbkiofi led hioi ta ^m at bdbg moi^e OKtehaivdy 
aervicMble by ii^ wisitiDg*. Witb ^t spirit) wbilQ y^ ht 
bis oonMsiste, be pebibibed in 1614. a,; deffffftce of the JeM 
saila agaioflt tbr^c^ of tbeii adversbrieitat bnoe; Tbii^ pieei^ 
be^entitledi *^ The. Hevoscope of ADts^doton^ togesber with 
theiife^ deatby borialr and apbtbeosss ef Ma tvKo^^ cnU9hi<k 
.fpemaas Man^iereand He^deialfiere.^ Tbe treatise ap«* 
Ipeasad under a feigned nanbCM'^d wasdfasvik vp in Ati 
itooiadi style^ bet.iaoiiwirtivittan^ by buf^iiery^; and^ 
in tbe auise ntgm; «nd: slyle, be priosed in 161^, ^< The 
Gal?in«ilic Xiixir^ or.Refenn^ Pbilosapiier^s'StOHe) flnst 
di^ op by Cabin aa Geneva^ and afeeimvda ffoHshed by 
Isaa^ Casaubon at I^onttet^ wilfa the testamentary^ cod^x 
of Attfci-'C^ton^ lately feuhdnpos Charanttin«-bri^." l%e 
first of ftbes^ k. entitled ^^ >Aminm 8abtb||pli Osipiurlif^ 
frairis borosceptts,'' 4uu %4nlw«rp» l#44y 4tfc * Tb^ ie^ 
eond '^ Andres SebiappiiCk^iBiia Amifo Eixir GiiAi^M^ 
Onm^V &c. ibid* 165.1^ 8to«. .In*llielNMlie'aiUifcfi^ tiftf 
tbree following pteoeai; L.t^l/Antumfd^ ^ ^ftklkMim 
deleLettrede6laratWftdttiFere.C4iM»r J«l% CMi a*. 
<* Plajrdoye du Piei;re de laMartiliere Avocat en nurleBient 
pour le Recteor de VVjmemt£ ^it'-^ith Scentrn tea Je«^ 

Harass 8: ^ifet 

Witt/' PiAsi iGlSf, av([». 3. «« PMH HM«Wnli«rK Aifld^ 
AeM^itf a t^»riii{ei»i adv^us PV^ibif tcrbi ft BdlMUiftMb 
Colklgii OtiMihObtoiiii hlkbiU Iti 6«natti PiitfitfeA^i. anltt. 
14^1 1," PftKfl, i^if, 9to. Nic^roti t>b^rve4, chM Mr iUb 
fhor'g §atiri€al style Waiyery like tbut of the«lfMli« Sdltdf^ 
pius, whieh #as apparency th(^ reaibtt Of his chfiiftihg ift^ 
iteaftk, #lilch suited bim iexftbtly v^«lL . -» 

Tbe iwd subsequent yc^iu^s he ^mpldyed bilk peh Iti AMMI 
Ulid pane^fic, boih grossly tx^ggttAiei. Tb^Mr ptMiS^ 
liyrics Hre, 1. '^Oraisen L'Aiidre«; 'd« Ne^^oidtid pf^MMt 
Pfesideflt du Pltrlemetit de BoiirdtatlX.** iThU ol'ittcm Wi(| 
made iti 1616, wh^n tbat president died, aiid wa^ priln«A 
with his reitionstrances atLy<H)4, i6St, 4te. 2. '^Coldft^ 
Henribo Mligho in poiite titiVo positti^, Ottrmeft/* PiHii^ 
!617, 4tOi That fittnous equestrfah statue wu ^reeAM 
Aug. 25^ 1614. The sMtife i»» '^ L6 batkqii^ d«« Pli^jr^ 
doiers de Mt. 8eWlti^ ^r Ctitfftet d<^ rEsj^luMlH"* letf; 
8vo; a lf>ii^(ilMt attack dh the ui^nrat^ S^tthl; 

III 1 618, be tbdk tb« ibiir vows, kbd betettus li Mbisf ttF 
his oitta*. I'hif ii «he higher tide^ toHfttt^d dn that 0^ 
itby tAht bf ihe thMtotic Itt^titatMrfft ; MA tPOtr ftUttfti!', 
b^ilg ih^eUby admttMd t6 t^ad «itt ^lidy this' MMittbit 
iiiyst^rieii 6f Ms f«H^dfi, id H'f&^y^rs ilpt>eMM M^ 
<h4i sta^ 6f ih^ ptiMi6 iti the cHthttfcter lof a >s^uii Ufcadi^ 
ti^oo fbi^ ttie fiiitb^ ^giittst the ififiddif tM pti^ban^^ b( 
those Mvst^bs. Btut in ihetttetlif Hme his' pe)i illr^ftt 
ttom fyiti^ idte; lit 1^6 j^o be printed i pteii« isllttttM 
^* lUbei&is tabtmtA by tbe tnfllistets, piard^ariy l^Mtt 
duMoahb, Mihisterdf eiMt^dti, ih ViUMrer to tftAbuf. 
UoMntH inderbed in Ms bodk"* ' C<^ tb^ In^dei^tion of ^^ 
f^is) ; dnd tw6 yeilrs HftCiriirairds be ventttfed to ftttiti^k thij 
^bst 6f St^eti Pmsqtitek*, iti Motbef ptee^, cfnMttod « Ife« 
eber&h^ des K^^cbereh^ ^ft autifH c^Tfeft tPEHehne f^^ 
^uknr." Tbet^ ciitth^'bi^ giv^A a b^ttet ^6itAeil of fte 
j^ulinr'strsthl ofbrs^iiMbal #rt, tbbn is fuf tilirtbed l^ xbt 
6f3sUe dedifc^ory to IM^ 1)dcflf. tt is addressed td tbcr tste 
sWfjp^Hto P^cpiter, ii1ii$t^«r Ne iiMy bt i ^ fdr,"* '^ays Ue^ 
« b^in^ itet'er^eiM AMd tp'INtd t^t your f dligioti, I kbOW 
wok ^ wMtifta^ty yoa took ^ yeHif^dt^panHtire bttt of tifi* 
Mf i ^Mid thertffbM I'attt forced to Mritdto you at a Veii* 

ns^ tfbftto addrieiirflfis t>dtkM wtuHisiref you mity heJ^ 

Gatfassetbe next jear^ l€28. published <^ Lja-Doctriae 
icupeuife des^.baAtts ispipks de oe4eo^[>s^ &c The curiousi 
4oe(lrincj4>f thf ^.W]ts/mtpretei>dei^ to wit^ of this ^e^ eott** 

mt 6 A R A 8 S £« 

tp Aspbin ii^ Aqr fimnd theiMelves under a nwesiiep' of 
0<di fei>i»g thattfac^ v^r9 sonre pissagds in it which eon^i 
malt ke msmxmd; ttbd tlM F» GarMBeiuid promUeA to-cXMr«^ 
rect tlieiDi without performing bis prontitt. On tbift, iAm 
ddelevs agreeiiig iHat tlie bo6k otig^t to be (miuNittedi the 
oeiiiufe w«f ftccdrdkigly piBied Stpt I^ and imtnedKaiiety: 
l^iiUMhed^ wick ilie iMe of << Cenium S. Fiiduliati« HiM-* 
kglcfli^ &0i The Oemiira d the lacred Fadid^ of A^ 
Clergy, at Parity upon e hook entitled Tbeologtoiil 8uift«^ 
9iat7 of F. FrhtioiB'GahMMe/' The sentence was to thi» 
eiect^ that the venuHity doiytnoed aeveral bereiiciily er-' 
etoeooi^ adandatoui, and rash prop68itions $ set^ral hU 
4ifio«tienB ef pasaages of Scripture^ and of the holy fhtbefti 
Ideeiy cited) atid wrested fitnn their truei sense ; and mf 
infihitd naerfmr of expressiofls Unfit to be wrifxen or read 
h J dMrittiaatt and' dMnea* 

' This senteti^e fite peffealy agreeable t«y die ahhet of 
Ski Oyniii% eridque^ iriiich^ after mafiy hindMuees '^\t»e& 
hy the Jesttiife, cease out the ttine year, entitled, << A 
CbUtttMMi bf the fiiuks and capital Aittitieii cOfitintiM iti ^d 
llieoldgicalSoibmaryiyf F. Fral)OisG«rasie*/' Inati#0iW 
iO'i#hibb, our hutbor wffrtei *^ Atris teuebAnt ta IreAitatloUi 
4ce. AdTice eonc^rain]g the reftnaitten of tbd Theidtogleal 
Sonaaary ef ¥* GaraasO." This Uaaye <mt aiteo hefbTe ttf6 
tod of the yesiD, md oeiielud<eid the dispute hetwdetv fh«i 
tmo aeiM>atants in^particular. Bet the awo ordeirs ef Jei^iei 
and. Jdneenists in general^ of ^eui these wef^e reftpeetM^ty 
the champions, grfewfrom the eonseqnenoei of it^ into 
audi an. hnplaoaMe haired and vnttMsiiy agaitikt eadh odier i 
iasenemed net bewranguiabaMeb^^rdbaiy lll^ Witll 
re^pe^l to OaAttoe^ the .tosi^ta vsid seme hind tf predeweer 
They did not ohstitiately penriav ki auppenlbg taitfi^'bttt 
banished bim to ome ef - their bOCises at ft ^reVt dislilO<il! 
f^oth Panb, whi^te he \lkM be«i4 wf x^ mere^ This fnintih^ 
watnt^ to a men ef his aoibittoot end busy tempei', wftii 
#oiBd then death. Atstcotdiwghf ^ as if w<eaty of ^loeliia Mii 
Wh^tt the plague imged nelendy in l^oktidrs, iu (681, M 
ahi^ eirheetly ef his siiperasrs to atlMd tboMttmw^d 
ieised withtt; learre was gfai^ed^ -and iu tbiltobMtiHbte 

. . . • , ; • . . •! 

^ He intended fbur Tolvmei, but <9Mi»iiieB4cUasons,<fC4b«.ii(oil UBaM- 

tl^ t^^o ffMbniy irefe printed,- and am b'ooks a ma'u (^n rea<f, especiajfy if he 

abridgment of the fourth ; his name deiigni to set up for an author who 

m aht ftlMtille«ip4se^ itod>iDUif f^ri^ siaaerMkn««h«ritftl,«imsf6iil,'cte«^ 

Tilege prefixed, be asstines lb* asms fMMnif llc^ ^ * 

of Alexandre dePExclusie* Baylere* 

9^ce, catching the oontagion^ he died among die infecfted 
persona in die hoapkal, on the 14th of June that year. 
He is styled by bp. Warburton,in his Commentary on 
the ^* Essay en Man/' an eminent casuiiit.^ 

GAtlCILASSO, or Garcias Lasso D£ i.A Veoa, a ee!e« 
brated Spanish poet, was born of a noble family at Toledo^ 
in 1500 or 1503. His father was a counsellor of state to 
Ferdinand and Isabella, and employed by them on several 
important negociations, particularly inun embassy to pope 
Alexander VI. Garcilasso was edueated near the emperor 
Charles V. who had a partieulftr regard for hiisi, and took him 
^ith biflft in his military expeditions, where he became as rp^ 
gowned for his courage as for his poetry, fie accompanied 
that emperor into Germany, Africa, and Provence ; and 
it was in this last expedition, in 15S€, that he commanded 
% bftttalign, when be received a wound, of which he died 
at Nice, about three weeks after, aged only thirty -three. 
The ' wound was made by a stone tiirown by a countryman 
Irom a turret, and falling upon his head. The Sp^ish 
poejtiy arm greatly obliged to Garcilasso, not only for ex* 
tending its bounds, but also for introducing new beauties 
into it. He had strong natural talents for poetry ; and he 
did not fail to innprove them ly culture, studying the best 
poets ancient and modern. His poems are ftiTl of fire^ 
^ave a nobleness and majesty without affectation ; and^ 
(What is scmiewhat singular, there is in the^ <a great deal of 
<ease, united with much subtihy. Paul Joviu^ has not 
eorupled to say that his odes have a^tt the sweetness of Ho* 
^ace» Though his imitations of the ancients may be traced 
throughout almost all his works, yet, as they are conspicu- 
ous for good taste and harmonious versification, and were 
written amidst many distracting occupations, there can be 
no doubt that he would have gained great celebrity if be 
4bad lived )onger. The learned grammarian Sanctius has 
written commentaries upon all his worlds, and has illustrated 
iam every where with very learned and curious notes.' 
They were all printed at Naples in 1664, with this title, 
^^ Garcilasso de la Vega Obras Po^icas con annotationes 
4e Franc. Sanchez,*' in 8vo. We must hot confound this 
fleet with another person of the same name, ^'native of 
Cusco, who wrote in Spanish th^ Hii^tory of JFlotidjBk, at>d 
Ihat of Peru and the Ihcias.' 

* Cleaii Bjct by Bayle.— Morerl-xNJ^ron, vpl. :PPiX. 
^ AfitODla^nH. BIsp.-rMoren, ^ > 


• GARDEN (Francis), tetter known to. tbtf public by 
the title of Lord Gardi^nstone, was ' bom at Edmburgh 
June 24, 1721. His father was Alexander Garden, of 
Trotdp, an opulent )and-boIder in ' AberdeenshVe;*- and 
bift mother was Jape, daughter of sir, Francis Grabt,, of 
Cullen, one of the senators of the college of justice^ , After 
pafsing through the usual course of liberal educatioti at 
ischool and at the university, he applied to the . study of 
law as a profession, and in 1744 was admitted a hiember 
.o^tbe fatuity of advocateis, and called to the Scottish than 
In his practice as an advocate he, soon began to be distin- 
guished by a strong native rectitude of understanding y.hy 
that vivacity of apprehension and. imagination, 'which i^ 
commonly denominated genius; by manly candour in; ar- 
gument, often more persuasive than subtilty and.sojpfbasti'* 
cal artifice ; by powers which, with diligence, might easily 
attain to the highest eminence of the profession.; But the 
same strength, openness, and ardour of mind which dis- 
tinguished him so advantageously among the 
^tbe bar, tended to give him a fondness for the gay enjoy- 
ments of convivial intercourse, which was in some respects 
unfavourable to his progress in juridical erudition^ yet 
.without obstructing those promotions to which his talents 
entitled himl In 1764 he became his majesty's solicitor, 
and afterwards one of the judges in the courts of sessioii 
and justiciary, the supceme jqdicature^, civil and criminal, 
for Scotland. On this occasion' he assumed, according to 
the usual practice, the title of lord Gardeuf^tonevr His 
place in the court of session be , continued, to. occupy till 
his death, but had some year's before resigned the office 
,of a commissioner of justiciary, and iii recompense got ^ 
.pension of 200/. per annum. Clear discernnient,: strong 
.pood sense, conscientious . honestjr^ and amiable^ benevo- 
lence, remarkably distinguished his opinions and conduct 
Asajudge. • • . *.*. ;' 

Ashe advanced in years, ^hupianity,. taste, thd public 
spirit, becam^ still-more eminently the. predominant prin^^ 
ciples in his mind. He pitied 'the condition of; t^.i pea- 
santry, depressed rather by theirvignorance. of .tbei'piost 
skilful modes of labjaur, aud^ by their. remoteness, from t^e 
sphere of improvement, than by any, tyranny ;Or^exiortioii 
of their landlords: He admired, protected, and cuRiyatecjl 
the fine arts. He was the ardent votary of political liberty, 
and friendly to every thing tfa^at premised a ratibhid ifiune- 

GARI>ENi 4tt 

.Horation of public cecotiomy,* and the priociplas of go- 
T.ernmeDt. . In 1762 be purohased the estate of Jobnstonr, 
ICO. Kincardine. Within a few years after be began to at- 
tempt a plan of the most liberal ioiprovement of < the yalue 
.of tbiis estate, by an extension of the Village of Laurence* 
kirk,< adjoining. He offered leias^s of small- farms, and of 
{ground for building upon, which were to last for the term 
spf one hundred ' years ; and of which the conditions were 
extremely inviting to the labourers and tradesmen of the 
surrounding cou nuy. -These ofF^^rs were eagerly listened 
to; and being more desirous to make the attempt bene* 
.ficial tatl^e country than profitable to himself, he was in^^ 
duced* within a few years to reduce bis ground*rents to 
one. half, of the original ratel Weavers, joiners, sboe- 
^maliKars, and otlierartizans in* a consi^lerable number^ re- 
/•orte^ to settle in the rising village. His -lordship's ear- 
nestness for the success of his project,- atid to promote the 
prosperity of the people wboot be bad received under hi^ 
protection, led him to engage in several undertakings, by 
the failure of which he incurred considerable losses. Pro<^ 
jects of aiprint^Beld, acid of manufactures of linen and of 
.stockings, attenrpted with sanguine bopetf in the flew village, 
atididhiefly at ^is lordship's cisk and; expence, misgave in 
^uch' a: manner as might wellb^m dispirited a man of less 
steady andvai:dent pbUaqtbiioiiy.: fint the. vHlage still coH^ 
titmed to a4vaDce under bis k>rd$^ip?aeye and fostering care. 
, InJ7J9 b^ proQur^ it tabe erected into a burgh of barony, 
leaving a magistracy, an annual fur, and a weekly niarket* 
Her pro.^ded in it<a good inn for the irecepti^n of travellers, 
and furnished it with a library for their amusement, the 
only ,pneof the kind probably in either kingdom. We Ve- 
..mepiberyv likewise, an ^/ium, in which were many^inge* 
joious Gontributidnsy both in^proseand verse, by the lite- 
rati^ of > Scotland* > He ^nvited^ an ar^st for drawing, from 
the;: continent, to settle at Laurencekirk. He had at 
i^gtbtbe:ple|»ure of seeing a considerable linen-mariu^ 
;fac(oryiifixed \ in tit ; ^and before ^ his death be saw hb plan 
pfimfwomg fke condition of the labourers, by the forma- 
^ tU^mof ai new ivallage atXaui^encekJirk, csd^vned with suc- 
o(iss(beyiHid.hiav.mo8t sanguine' hOpe». -He has iJcknow- 
. ledge^ulaimeoioii: conceminrg Uiis .village^ ^^Tbat be had 
tried in some measure a variety of the ptj^surets which. man- 
kind pursue ; but never relished any >o much a^ ^^ plefti» 
sure arising from the progress of his village.'' 

m & A % d E K. 

. Tn 1785| by tbe c}e4kth of a brother, be became pot^ 
sesfed of (be fignily eatnt^a, worth ^out aooo^. a year. 
Which not only ^pable4 him to panue his usual course of 
liberality, but to ieek relief from the growing iqfirfDitiea 
of bi^ ^ge^ by a partial rela^^atioo from busin^sa, which he 
4eteriained to epaploy in travel. Accordingly, be set out in 
{$ept. 1786, 9ii4 perforiBed the tour of Frsaoe, Geneva 
$wij^s^r}and, the ^retherlands, an4 Italy* and after three 
years, ri^turnf d to bi% native eoiintry, with a large o^lec^ 
^ion of objects of natural history, aod speoiipehs of the 
fine ^rts. H\^ \u$% yearfl were speet in the dischatige of 
ibe dntie^ of his p€|ice as a judge ; ie pr rfonuiog anany ge« 
^^rpus o(]iices of beneyolei¥?e and humanity, and in pfo« 
paotfpg the comfort of (lis tenPsOts. As an amusement for 
ibe last two or three years of bis life, he remed yoiBe of 
the Ij^t fogipve piejees, in which he had indulged the 
gi^ety of bi« fancy iq his earUef days ; and a small volmne 
iwfs published iioder tbe title of *^ Miscellaniei ia prosf 
f iVd yerse,*' }n whipb the best pieces are upon good aur 
fhority jttcribed to lord Gardeostone* He revised also die 
f^ |4efnprwdi|0i»'* wbipb be had made upon bis Um^k^ 
and two vpjuwep of them w^e published during his life* 
itime, und^r the tJ^le of ^^ TmveUiug Memorandiims," con* 
jtainipg a mmh^f of ia/tarestfiig observations, criticisnis^ 
jyad affscdptes. A third vobixae appeared after bk 4^atb} 
with an ^kccovot of bi/n, fi^om which we have borrowiid the 
^Keate^ pait pf tbi^ .artiele. His lordabip died July 22, 
179?» d^^eply r^retHe^l by bis friends and by bia CQ|iiury« 
Si« i|a$t pvkbAifiatioe was *' A Letter to the Inhabitaots of 
|^ure9^JarA:«," ooiit$iinj«g fiondli saluury advice J 

^AKPI/NSR I^Am&k » bfwe ofiiqer of the arasy, and 
UPt jifes^ i^el^bf^^ for bis pietyt was bqro. at Carriden, i* 
J^itbgo^h^er^ Af^Qlkiid^ Jao. 10, 168^7 *6» Hewaa 
1^^ l^n ^ cf^tai^ Patmk. Gabrdiner, of the family of Ter^- 
jlfOf41j^a^, by. Mo* Mary Bodge^ of the fapnly of Glsids*^ 
limir. .His iMiijf was mHit^rj, his fadier, h)s uncle by 
t^.m^hf^^fifiid^ aed bis elder brother, ^1 fell in battleir 
He wj^ ediicat^ at the school of lialithgow, bat wa^soeu 
X/^moj^ from ii% lOwiug to bia early jseal to fi^Uow bia £s^ 
tber's prpfession. At tbe jige of faurteea- he haden ea^i- 
|l|gA> ooqipiission in the OiH»b aenrice^Mi wfaieb lie qdu* 

* ti^prdfixed to his M€moraodui]is:<^inQ]a}r's StatUtiAal iUM[rts*-v-filfia)i 


tinued until 1702 ; when he received the sapie from queea 
Anne, and being present at the battle .of Ramillies, in hU 
nineteenth year, was 9everely wounded and taken prisonoK 
by the French. He was carried to a convent, where be: 
resided until his wound was cured ; and soon after was ex- 
changed. In 1706 he obtained the rank of lieutenant, and 
after several intermediate promotions, was appointed ma-, 
jor of a regiment commanded by the earl of Stair, in whose 
family he resided for several years. In January 1730, be^ 
was advanced to the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the same 
regiment, in which he continued until April 1743, when, 
he received a colonePs commission over a regiment of 
dragoons. During the rebellion in Scotland., in 1745, his 
regiment being in that country, and the rebel army ad- . 
yancing to Edmburgh, he. was ordered to march with the , 
utmost expedition to Dunbar, which he did \ and that hasty 
retreat) with the news soon afterwards received of the 
surrender of Edinburgh to the rebels, struck a visible 
panic into the forces he commanded. This aSected his . 
gallant mind so much, that on the Thursday before the . 
battle of Preston-pans, he intimated to an officer of con- 
siderable rank, that he expected the event would be as it 
proved ; and to a person who visited him, he said, *^ I 
cftnnot influence the conduct of others . as I could wish ; 
but I have one life to sacriQce to my country's safety, and 
I shall riot spare it." On Fridav Sept. 20th, the day be- 
fore the fatal battle, when the whole army was drawn up, 
aboiit noon, the colonel rode through the ranks of hi$ re- 
giment, and addressed them in an animated manner, to 
exert themselves with courage in defence of their country. 
They seemed much affected by his address, and expressed 
a very ardent desire of attacking the enemy immediately; . 
a desire in which he, and another gallant officer of dis- 
tinguished rank, would have gratified them, had it been 
in their power, but their ardour and theix: advice were over- 
ruled by the strange conduct of thu commander-in-chief,, 
sir John- Cope, and therefore all that colonel Gardiner 
could do> was to spend the remainder of the day in making 
as good a disposition as the circumstances would allow. He 
continue all night under. arms, wrapped up in his cloak, 
and Weltered under a rick of barley, which happened to 
be in the field. By break of day the army was roused by 
the noise of the approach of the rebels; and the.fttaok * 
was made before sun^rise. As soon as the enemy came 
Vol XV. T 


within gun-shot, they commenced a furious fire ; and the 
dragoons which constituted the left wing immediately fled. 
The colonel at the beginning of the attack, which lasted 
but a few minutes, received a ball ip his left breast, which 
made him give a sudden spring in his saddle ; upon which 
his servant, who had led the horse, would have persuaded 
him to retreat ; but he said it was only a flesh-wound, and 
fought on, though he presently after received a shot in 
his right thigh. The colonel was for a few moments sup« 
ported by bis men, and particularly by about fifteen dra- 
goons, who stood by him to the last ; biit after a faint 
fire, the regiment in general was seized with a panic ; and 
though their colonel and some other brave officers did 
what they could to rally them, they at last took to a pre- 
cipitate flight. Just ill the moment when colonel Gardiner 
seemed to be making a pause to deliberate what duty re- 
q^iired him to do in such a circumstance, he saw a party 
of tiie foot fighting bravely near him, without an ofliicer to 
lead themy on which he rode up to theni immediately, and 
cried out aloud, " Fire on, my lads, and fear nothing/* 
As he had uttered these words, a Highlander advanced 
towards him with a scythe fastened to a long pole, with 
which he gave him such a deep wound in his right arm, 
that Ivis sword dropped from his hand, and several others 
coming about him at the same time, while be was thus 
dreadfully entangled with that savage weapon, he was 
dragged from his horse. . 7'he moment he fell, another 
Highlander gave him a stroke either with a broad -sword, or a 
Lochaber axe, on the hinder part of the head, which was the 
mortal blow. All that his faithful servant, John Forster, 
who furnished this account, saw further at this time, was, 
^t as his hat was falling off, he took it in his (left hand, 
waved it a^ a signal for him to retreat, and ad led, which 
were the last words he ever heard him speak, " Take care 
of yourself." The servant immediately fled to a mill, 
about two miles distant^ where he changed liis dress, and 
disguised like a miller's servant, returned with a cart about 
tvvo hours after the engasrement. He found his master not 
only plundered of his watch and other things of value, but 
even stripped of his upper garments and boots. He was, 
however, still breathing,, and from appearances, not alto- 
gether insensible. In this condition he was conveyed to 
the church of Tranent, and from that to the clergyman's 
house; .where he expired about eleven o*clock in the fore- 

G A R D 1 N'E R; 275 

noon, Saturday Sept. 21, 1745. The rebels entered \ih 
house before be was carried off from the' fields' and (rluh** 
dered it. His remains were interred on the Tuesday fbl^ 
lowing, Sept. 24, at the parish church of Tranent Evehi' 
his enemies spoke honourably of him, and seemed to join' 
in lamenting the fall of so brave and so worthy a mani.^ 
Nor was it for bravery only that colonel Gardiner was dis-^ 
tinguisfaed. He was perhaps one of the most pious men of 
his age and country. He was, sslys his biographer, in tb6^ 
most amassing manner, without any religions opportunity, 
or peculiar advantage, deliverance, or affliction, reclaimed' 
on asudden, in the vigour of life and health, from u life' 
of licentiousness, not only to a steady course of regnlarity 
and virtue, but to high devotion, and strict, though un-'' 
a^cted sanctity of manners. Ail this is an^ply illustrated' 
in Dr. Doddridge^s well-known life of this gallant heno,-' 
whose death was as much a loss, as the cause of it, the 
battle of Preston «-pans, was a disgrace to his country.- 

In July 1726, Col Gardiner married lady Finances Er-^^ 
skine, daughter to David fourth earl of Buchart, by whotn 
be bad thirteen children, fiveonly of which survived their 
father, two sons and three daughters.^ 

GARDINER (Richard), an English divine,' a native of' 
Hereford, where he was born in 1591, was educated at'' 
tlie school there, and became a student of Christ^chtircb^'* 
Oxford, about 1607. After taking his degrees in arts, he ' 
entered into holy orders, and was noted for a quaint sin- 
gularity in his manner of preaching. King James 1. being' 
much pleased with a speech which he had delivered before 
bim in the Scotch tone, when he was deputy-orator, gave ' 
him the reversion of the next canonry of Christ-church; 
into which he was installed, on the death of Dr..Thomv 
Thornton, in 1629 ; and .taking his degrees in divinity the 
fiollowing year, he was made one of the chaplains in ordi* ' 
nary to king Charles I. In 1648 be was ejecteJ from his 
canonry by ^be parliamentary visitors, and lived obscurely • 
in Oxford, until the restoration, when he wsis re-instated 
in his stall, and from that time devoted the profits of it to 
charitable uses, with some benefactions to his relations, 
and to Christ-church. He published several seimoms, par- 
ticularly a volume containing sixteen, Loud. 1659, 8vo« 
2. *' Specimen Oratorium,'* Lopd. 1653, containing some 

^ Doddridgt'tt Life of Colonel Gardiner, tad Funeral Sermon on hin. 

T 2 

276 G A R Q I N E R. 

Gtf.his unW^HM^y orations. -This was reprinted in 1657^- 
und in 1^62, with additioBal orations and letters. Tberd' 
Vf^re subseqiient editions printed ^t Oxford in 1669 and 
^675^ &<;. ye^.t^e boolf is y^^Q9. He died P^c. 20>* 
1670, and was buried ip , Cbrij^t^.^urob catb^raU with' 
a^ e)egan;t. i^tin ^pitapb^ writte,ii.a^ th^ de^ifeoi^bif exe* 
Qutprsy by T)y. Sbvdi, wbo §uoc^cided bim in bil Qaoonry.' 
-. QARPIN.ER .(SxifUlEw), bishop pf Witich$st0r, and 
^f^ocfellor of England^ . was tbe iUegitifiiat« son of Dr 
Lionel Woodvili. or Wydville, de^in of JCK^t^r/ and bishop 
qf Salijsbury, ^rpjtfaer to Ebgabatbi oueeo jQonsQi;tto Cd«. 
waff] ly,^ I^e-F^ borp in t4^S^ at J^uxy St. Edmonds^ in* 
Suffolk, and took his nai^e .from .h^s reppt/ed &thert> wbom 
his mqther viarried, r^bougb ia a m^enial situation, to c^it* 
Cji^l tbe incontin/euce of the bisbQPr Affer -^ properedu^^. 
catiop at spboo{^.|ie writs sen^tpTri^ity^b^U, in Cambridge;^ 
where ,p^^suing.)bia^st^di§^ wi]Jii diligeiip^^ b^ SQOn ob^ 
tained repqtation J^y tbe q^M^^nets of his partSy, ^nd was 
pjO'ticnlarly gtistiingilisbed for i^is ^egan^e. io . wriding atid 
speaKitig Latin, an well as. ^r hi'' ^i^oofBinon -skill in the 
Greek Jangu^ge'it, In the fpr^iif r be ftiade Cicero hisip9Li>-. 
tern, and became so absolute a «uu>ter of* bis styl^^ asto 
bjf c)iaTged with affi^ctation in that respect,. ^With theise 
a^tjainoients in classical learning, he applied himself to 
the civil and canpn law ; and took bis . doctor's degree in 
t&e^ first of these, in 1520; in the iatter> the foliowiog 
year; and it is said, was the sai^ie year elected master of 
liis college. > » 

> .' ^m hia yii^ws were far fromb^ing confined to tbe tini- 
▼ersity. He bad .some time before been taken into the 
faoiily of j(be ^uj^e of >]orfQlk, and tbe^ca into tbnt^f 
" - "• . * ' - » 

* Mr. Lo^f e f ay t, that one of Raw- Suff«lk» with a distinction of a border ^ 

linov't MSS. in the Bodleian library, . and at ia6t they were impaled with the 

with oiore probabiKty qiaket him -a arow of the see «f ^iii«he«ter wMrbeut 

younger so« of sir Tkoma/Oardi|»er,. the dirttinetion. SirypeV Meatofff^ls, 

kilt, the repreteittative .of a very ah. vol. III. fiefbre that time be asujilly 

cient family' in I^ancallure. LodlpB^f went by tbe naaie of Stephens;; * ' 

lilastrations, vol. I. p. 102. But thi»  } Lelaod cofUplim«ots him o« this 

contradicts all former accounts, and account, in a poem addressed to bim 

leaves us at a losn to conjecture why ' by the name of Stephen- Gitrdineri id 

lie was in eafly Life often oalled Pr. ,the close -of arbiob he ftiretela him» that 

Stephens. his brow wouicl be honoured witl| a 

*f Viz, Gardiner ; but this was not mitre ; a proof that his surnaniiV was 

dQ||^,..tiiL'af^ef,be became biabop of at least given him b|^ otbers befi»re h« 

Wjnchester, wben he also assumed ;the waa a bishop. J>taQd*s Encom. Ulustr* 

armsof the Oardine:'* ofOlemsford,' in Viror. p. 4^. 

t AOi. Ox. Tdl. IJI,— ^i«». Rrit. rol y;.^p, jg7$5. _ . , ! 

O A R D I N E R. 27T 

csifdxiinl Wolsey, who made him his secretary. This post he 
now held, and it^ proved the foundation of lys risef at couirt..' 
The cardinal having projected the treaty of alliafeic^' 
With Francis t. in 1^2^^, employed bis secretary to dHtw^ 
up the plan^ and the king coming to bfs house at More-^ 
parky ill Ifertfordshire, found Gardiner busy at this worV 
He looked at rt, liked the performance exireniely welV 
the performer's conversation better, and bis fertility in th^ 
invention of expedients best of all; ahd from this dmtf 
Gatdinei' was admitted into the secret ofslflPairs, and eri^ 
tirely con6ded in, both by the king and his first minister. 
He reoeived a public marH of that confidence in 1527,' 
when he was sent to Rome, in order to negociate the a^« 
duous business of Henry^s divorce from queen ^athariha; 
£dVrard Fox, provost of King's-college, in Cambridgey 
w^nt with him on this embas^ ; but Gardiner was th^ 
chief, being esteemed the best civilian in England at thii 
lime; and having been admitted into the king's cabinet* 
cduncit for this affair, he is styled in the cardinal's cre<^ 
dential letters to the pope, *^ primary secretary of the 
most secret counsels,'* He was now in such favour with 
the cardinal, that, in these very letters, he called Gar^- 
dinet the half of himself, ^ Dimidium sui," than whom 
none was dearer to hini. He wrote that Gardiner should 
unlock his [the cardinal's] breast to the pope; who, itt 
hearing him speak, he might think he heard the cardinal 
himself. The successful issue of this embassy in obtaining; 
a new commission, directed to the cardinals Wolsey and 
Campejus, as well ai Gardiner's address in the negociatiotf, 
may be seen in the general histories, of England. Wp 
shall only notice one particular not mentioned there, which 
is his success' in' disposing Campejds'to make m toiir to 
England. This, requiring some extraordinary toanag^« 
ment, Gardiner took it upon himself; and having put evety 
thill g requisite to set the affair in a proper light at hom^, 
into the hands of bis colleague Fox, dispatched him to 
carry the account to the king, who jbined with Anfne Bo- 
leyn in applauding * the ingenuity, intrepidity;* and ifi* 
dustry of the new minister. 

^ ^ There is a letter from thit lady to yoq for my Ic^er, wfaereia I peroeWe 

our oeg ooiator in the Paper-oiiiee, mp- the willing and faithful miad you have 

.poeedto be written on thit oocasion, to do ke pleasure,*' |bc* See tho 

' which bcfius, ** Mr« Stophmi, I tksak whole in Biog, Biit* 

27« G A R D.I N E R. 

. But the loudest in his praises was the cardioal, in whose 
private business Gardiner had reconciled the pope to the 
endowment of his two colleges at Oxford and Ipswich *, 
out of the revenues of the dissolved lesser monasteries. 
This added to the rest, made such an impression upon the 
csrdiiial*s mind, that crying out, ** O inestimable treasure 
and jewel of this realm!'* he desired Fox to remark those 
words, and insert them in his letter. There was still aop* 
ther instance of Gardiner^s abilities and attachment to 
Wolseyi which had its share in exciting this burst of ad- 
ntMration. During the course of this emba<)sy, the pope 
falling dangerously ill, the cardinal set all his engines to 
work, to secure the keys provisionally, to himself, in case 
of a new election, and the suffrages of one-third part of 
the cardinals were procured for him. He dispatched orders 
immediately to provide that those cardinals should be 
withdrawn to a place of safety, and should there declare 
him pope^ though the majority should appear against him ; 
assuring, his own party, that they should be vigorously susr 
tained by king Henry and his allies. This scheme, how* 
ever, was rendered abortive by the recovery of Clement 
VII. but the pains taken in it by the cardinal's agents, 
^mong whom Gardiner had at least an equal share, could 
not fail to be highly pleasing to him. In the event, in- 
deed, the king h^d most reason to be satisfied with his mi<<- 
nister^ who gave his opinion that all solicitations at Rome 
would be lost time; the pope, in his judgment, being 
immoveftble in the resolution to do nothing himself; though * 
he might not improbably be brought to confirm such a 
aentence as his majesty could draw from the legates f. 
^Henry, fully persuaded in the issue of the sincerity and ^ 
Judgment of this advice, recalled Gardiner, resolving to 
.make use of his abilities in managing the legantine ' 

During his residence at Rome, he had among other 
. things obtained some favours at that court for bishop Nix 
. of Norwich, who on his return rewarded him with the 
.archdeaconry of Norfolk, in 15^9; and this probaiply was 

* Gardiner and Fox^ were the per<r othen writteo at tlie same time, or 

MMW oo whom the cardinal chiefly re- eveo later, 

lied for laying the plan of these mag- X Th^ ^i"£> ^^^ ^^ snfflnr the pr«h> 

- mSoent frandationi, Strype. eeMinga to be btfpm befoiw the car<« . 

f The whole letter if inserted in the dinals till Oardioer's ratum. fumeVa 

Btof. Brit, as an instance of Oardi- Hist of Reform. foL II«. .  
mfi elsiant ityl# in RugliMht shove 


the first. preferme&t be obtained in ibe church.* Jn trulihy 
it must be owned that bis merit as a divine did fiol entitle. 
,bi{n to any extraordinary expectations, that way, but as be 
n^^ first entrance into business in a civil capacity, so 
.be continued to exercise and improve bis talenta io «tate 
affair^, which gave him an opportunity of rendering bimr 
self useful, and in a^ manner necessary to the king; who 
soon .after hia arrival, tooic him from Wolsey^ and declared 
.him seci^etary of state. Thus introduced into the ministry 
at home, besides the ordinary business of bis office,- and 
the lai'ge, share be is said to have had in the administratioa 
of affairs in general, he was particularly advised widi by 
the king in that point which lay nearest to hia heart; and 
when cardinal Campejus declared that the cause of the di** 
.varce;was evoked to Rome, Gardiner, in conjunction, mth 
J'ox the almoner, found out Cranmer, and discpvering his 
opiniop, introduced him to bis ma|estyt whom they thus 
enabled to extricate himself out of a difficulty then con* 
£idf red as insuperable. 

As this step proved the ruin of Wolsey, la bis distresa 
he applied to bis old servant the secretary, who on tbis> 
occasion is said by the writer of bis life in the Biog*^ Bri- 
tannica, to have afforded an eminent proof of bia gratitude^ : 
in soliciting his pardon ; which was followed in- three days 
by his restoration to his archbishopric, and 6000/». sent 
him, besides plate and furniture for his bouse and chapel* 
It is certain, however, that Gardiner did not interpose be«A 
fore Wolsey had supplicated him more than once in th^ 
most bumble manner, to intercede for him, and it is equally 
certain that Gardiner did not risk much in applying to the 
king, who for some time entertained a considerable regard 
for the fallen Wolsey. Gardiner also, at the cardinaVa 
recommenclation, in 1530, introduced the pirovost of Be* 
verly to the king, who received him graciously, and shewed 
him that he was bis good and gracious 4ord, and admitted 
and accepted him as his orator and scholar. .Th^^se. weri» 
matters of easy management. But the yeaic bad not ex-* 
pired, when the king's service called the secretary to a 
task of another nature, which was to procure from the uni- 
versity of Cambridge tbeir declaration . in favour of bis ma- 
jesty's cause, after Craumer'a book should ^>pear.ii| siip<9 
port, of it. In this most difficult point bis did colleague 
FdiCivas joined with him ; and they spared no pains, ad- 
dress^ or artifice in accomplishing it To make attends. 

390 G A R D I N £ It 

for ftneli an utmserved compliance with the royal will^/a 
door^was presently opened in tbe church, through which, 
by one single step (the archdeaconry of Leicester, iatb 
which be was installed in the spring of 1531), Gardinc^r 
advanced to the rich see of Winchester, and was there 
consecrated the November^ following. Gardiner was 
not, at the time, apprized of the king'ii design of confer* 
ring on him this rich bishopric ; for Henry, in his caprice, 
would sometitties rate him soundly, and when he bestowed 
it on him said^ ^^ I Itave often squared with you, Gardiher, 
but I love you never the worse, as the bishopric I give yOu 
will convince you.** As bishop of Winchester he now as- 
sisted in the court when the sentence, declaring Katharine's 
aiarriage null and void, was passed by Cranmer, May 
82, 15S3. Tbe same vear be went ambassadoi^ to the 
French kiag at Marseilles, to discover the designs of tbe 
pope and that monarch in their interview, of which Henry 
waa very suspicious; and upon his return home, bein^ 
called, as other bishops were, to acknowledge and defend 
the king's supremacy, he readily coniplied, and published 
his deface for it, with this title, ** De vera Obedientia.'* 
His conduct was very uniform in this point, as well as iii 
that of the divorce and the subsequent n^rriage, and he 
acquired great reputation by bis writings in defence of 

• In 1535, Cranmer vinting the see of Winchester, in 
irirtde of bis inetropolitan power, Gardiner disputed that 
power with great warmth. Some time afterwards, he re-^ 
kumed his embassy to France, where he procured the re- 
moval of Pole (then dean of Exeter, afterwards cardinal] 
out of the French dominions, having represented him as 
bis master's bitter enemy ; and this was the original, root 
of that disagreement between them, which in time became 
bnblic. Before hjs return this second time, being applied 
to by Cromwell for his opinion about a religious league 
with tbe protestant princes of Germany, he declared him«r 
self against it, and advised a political alliance, which h<i 
judged would last longer, as well as answer the king's cfnds 
better, if strengthened by subsidies. In 1538 he was sent 
ambassador to the German diet at Ratisbon, where he in-!^ 
curred tbe suspicion of holding a secret cori'espondence 

^^ Regiitr. -C^otoair. Re had re- eorperated LL. D. at Oxibrd, Octobef 
•igned the arnhdeaeonry of Leioeiter. precediiif- AUien. Oxon, Vol* I; coU 
ii^e ^Dd of September, and boen in* 158. 

G A ft DIN Eft. 281 

with the p6pe. Whatever truth there may be iti this 
qhar^, it is certain that Lambert this year was broiight to 
•the stake by his instigation, for denying the resll presence 
ID the sacrament. This instance of a sanguinai^ temper 
Was then ' shown before the statute of the six artitles was 
toacted ; a law on which nliany were piit to death, and 
which he undeniably framed and promoted in the bouse of 
lords to the utmost extent of his influence. This act passed 
in 1540; and the first person condemned by it, add burnt 
in Smithfield, the same year, was Robert Barnes, who at 
his death declared his suspicion of Gardiner^s having a 
hi&nd in it *. Upon the death of Cromwell, his rival long 
in the king*s favour, the university t>f Cambridge, where 
he still h^ld his mastership of Trinity-hall, chose him their 
Tice^chancellor ; and in return he shewed his sense of it 
by an assiduity in his office among them, tind li warm zedl 
to assist them on all occasions with his interest at court; 
which, as long as the sunshine of any signal service lasted, 
was very good. But in this, his case, like other courtiers, 
was subject t6 the sudden vicissitudes of light and shade 
which so remarkably cbecquered the series of that reign ; 
and this minister was no more excepted than his fellows 
from complying with those conditions of ministerial great* 
ness, which were indispensable as long as Henry sat at th^ 
helm : and, though he tells us himself that, after the king 
had let him into the secret, that he could look sour and 
talk roughly, without meaning much harm, he ever after 
bore those sallies with much less anxiety, and could stand 
a royal rattling pretty well t ; yet this was only sometimes^ 
iltid oh some occasions. For upon others, we find him sub- 
Initting to very disagreeable supplications and expressions 
of deep humility, and great sense of hi& failings, directly 
eontrary to the convictions of his own conscience and un* 

* Hit words at the stake wera, that not baen aaftaged to the kiii^*t iatiiU 

lie forgave the world in general, and faction, upan which he. treated QarW 

the bishop of Winchester in parttcolar, diner in the presence of the earl with 

If he had any hand in his death ; which fudh a storm of words as qnite oon- 

inptying a doubt, Bayle, preposte- fbnnded him ; but balsre they parted^ 

roosly enough, infers Qardioer's iooo- the king tooli him into his chamber* 

4eaoe of this man's blood. See his and told him, that he was indeed very 

9icC. Ml Barnes (Robertv) Mgry, yet aoC paciicniarly with him; 

4 This secret Heury acquaiuted him though he bad iisad him so, because 

on the following occasion : Our he could not take quite ao mtich liberty 

doctor had been joined with the earl of with the eari See his letter to Somorir 

Wiltrtiln^ hia relation by blood, in set in Fok's Acts aiid MonunentSy an4 

SOBM aOhif'^f eoBteqaan^, whick htd in Biog; Brit, 


derstaDdio^, Of this we bave the following remarkable 

The bishop bad for his secretary a i»(ation of his own 
. name^ Garctiuer, wbo« in some conference with jFrytb the 
martyr. . had, acquitted himself so well, that they were 
jud^c^<^,fiV fpr the. public view^. This young clergyman 
was much.^n l>is master'^ favour, yet he fell under a pro- 
8ecution,.u|)oi> the act of supremacy ; and being very ob* 
stinate, was exey:uted, a3 a traitor, March 7^ 1544. Tbw 
was made an engine against the bishop by his enemies, who- 
ipriiispered the king that he was very likely of bis secretary's 
opinion, notwithstanding all he bad written; and that if 
he was once in the Tower, matter enough would com^ cwt 
.against bimy/On this suggestion, his majesty consented 
to his proposed imprisonment , But the bishop being in»> 
forn^ed of it in time, repaired immediately to court ; con^ 
fessed j^U.tbi^t his majesty had charged him with^ whatever 
it w^; &n!i thus, jiy, complying with the king's hamour, 
and shewing the deepest concern for real or pretended 
failings, obtained full pardon, to the great mortification of 
his enemies. We have selected this instance, from many 
others of a similar natare» all which are evident proofs of 
Gardiner's want of honest and sound principle, because it 
ii^ay be. of use in discovering bis real principles upon the • 
subject of the supremacy,, which will at last be found to 
be nothing more, in fact, than an engine of his political 
craft. . It bas.i^ndeed been alleged in hiis behalf, that he 
was npt always so servile and ready an instrument of the 
king's will, especially ufM>n the matter of the supremacy, 
and Strype publishe& (Memorials, voL J. p. 215) a letter in 
the Cottonian library, which Gardiner wrote to. the king in 
consequence of his majesty's being angry with him for ap« 
proving some sentiments in a book that impugn 
bis supremacy. But if this letter, as Strype conjectures, 
was. written about 1535, this was the time when the king, 
had some thoughts of a reconciliation with the see of 
Home, and of returning the supremacy to the pope, w;hich 
being very well known to Gardiner, might encourage him 
to speak with the more freedom on that subject Gardiner, - 
than whom no man seems to have more carefully stedied 
the king's temper, was not accustomed to look upon hinm 

• Tbe title of this piece if, " A Let- may see tb^ demeanour and hevetj of 
t'er 6f a young gentleman named mas- Jojin Fcyth/ lately bufOl, fcc.*^ 
ter Germaa Ganiioari wbcreiQ men 

G;A: R D I^N E R« 29% 

fiolf jkS uoidoue because be sometimes received $ucb notices 
of his majesty's displeasure as threw some other courtiers 
iotp the roost, dreadful apprehensions. This knp\yledge 
and bis artful use of it taught him to seek his own safety, 
in tt|king a share with others, in the divorce of Apne of 
CleYes, and that of queen Catherine Howard ; the first of 
whic^^ if we Consider his skill in the law, fnust have been 
against bis conscience, and the second as much against his 
inclination, on account of his attachment to that noble 
fiamily. The same regard for himself might also, had he 
been in the kingdom at the timey have led him to take % 
part against queen Anne Boleyn, sir Thomas More, and 
bishop Fisher. 

..All his sagacity, jstubtlety, and contrivance, however, 
were not su6Bcient to save him from a cloud, which shewed 
itself in the close of this reign ; a change which might be 
attributed to the unsteadiness of the master, were there 
jnpt facts sufficient to throw tbe imputation in some mea- 
sure upon the servant. Certain it is, though uppn what 
particular provocation is not known, that he engaged 
.deeply in a plot against th^ life of Cranmec; which, hiding 
discovered and dispersed by th^ king, bis "majesty, ^ully 
satisfied of the archbishop's innocence, left all his enemies, 
and among the rest Gardiner, to bis mercy. ,The pialice, 
though forgiven by Cranmer, cannot be supposed to be 
forgotten by Henry, But this did not hinder him. firom 
leaking use of this willing servant, against his last queen, 
Katharine Parr. That lady, as well sis her preceding part* 
ners of the royal bed, falling under her consort's distaste, 
he presently thought of a prosecution for heresy; upon 
which occasion be singled out Gardiner,' whose inclinations 
that, way were well known, as a proper person /or his pur- 
pose to consult, with. Accordingly . tbe minister listened 
.to his master's .suspicions, improved his jealousies, and 
cast the whole into the form pf articles ; which being signed 
.by the king, it was agreed to send Katherine to the Tower. 
.But she had the address to divert the storm from breaking 
upon her head, and to throw, some part of it upon her per- 
secutors. The .paper of tlie articles, being entrusted to 
chancellor .Wriothesiy, was dropt out of bis bosom, and 
carried to her ; , and she, with the. help of this discovery to 
her royal consort, found charms enough left to dispel his 
suspicions: the result . whereof was, severe reproaphes to 
jbe chancellor^ and a rooted displeasure to the bishop^ in- 

i«* G A R ri 1 M^ R. 

jtbiiitich that ^£ \At\^ wd'ulj il^m iec! hii (s^cii lafterwtrdi!; 
Mis behaviour td him' corresponded with that resei^trni^ntJ 
Iti the draught' of 'his ihajesty^s Will^ bef^i/re his departtirid 
Oh his last e^p^ditidh to France, the bSsh6'p*& name Wa^ 
ih'sertdd 4niong his estecUtors knd' couirseRori io princi 
Edward. Biit after this, wheii the will eam^ to be drawiS 
afresh, he was left but ;' knd though sir Anthony Brdwti 
riioved the kin^ tWice/ to put his name as before into it; 
yet the motion was rejected, With this remark, "that '^ if 
he (Gardiner) waij one, he would trotible them all, and 
they should never "be able to rule 'him.'* Besides this; 
when the king saw him once with some of the privy- cotni^ 
sellors, he shewed his dislike, and asked his business', 
which was, to acquaint his majesty with a hefievolence 
gratited by the clergy : the king called htm immediately 
to deliver bis n^essage, and having received it, went away, 
gurnet assighs Gardini^r's known attachment to the Nor-^ 
folk family foi* the catkse of this disgrace : but, wfaktevef 
viras the cause, br whitt^ver usage he met with on other , 
occasions, this iastice is tmdenisibly.due to him,^ thalt hl^ 
ever shewed a high respect to his master^s medibry, mA 
Either out of policy ot gif'atftude, he always spoke and 
Wrote of hitt? With tnuch deference. - : iv 

' Ih this Unhinged situation hfe stood when Edward VE 
asceiid'ed the throne ; and his behaviour tmd^^ the soh 
mote thah justified thd father^s censure upon the unnili- 
ness of his temper. Bfeing prevented ffom distiivbing the 
council within doOH, he opposed all their teeasures with- 
out. The ^eforriaation was the great object of this teign'; 
knd that, as planned b}^ Cranmer, he c6u1d not by any 
condescension of the archbishop be brought to approtj^ 
or ^ven to acquiesce in. He condemned the diligence hi 
bringing it bu as too hasty, which #ould cause a miscar- 
riage; observing, that under i minority, all shonlA bb 
lept quiet, and for that reason no alterations attetnpted,; 
knd this served him also for ia, ground to oppose the wajr 
v^ith Scotland, as too hazardous and <bxpensi\re. Froni the 
same principle, he ho sooner heard of the intehd^^ rOyii 
visitsCtioh, than he iraised objections to' it: hie both quesT- 
ti'oned its legality, atid censured its imprudence; as an in- 
novation ; alletlgJhg that it wotild tettd td weakeW thiS prcJ- 
Vogative as assumed by* Henry, in the eyes of tfa'e taei^neii, 
when they saw all dion^' by die kind's powbr al suiilreiife 
Heiad <i{ the chnrch (on the due nsfe Of which all. reiormac-^ 

G A R DI N £ R. HM. 

tion mast depend) while he was a chil(}> and CQuld know 
n/Gatiingat aI^ andih^ pro^ector,^ being absent,. not xn\xcl\ 
mQre. These, however, were words only, and be did no^ 
atop tt^ere ^ for when th^ homilies and injunctions for that 
^sitatipn w^re published,, he insisted, on the perusal oC 
ibem, that h^ <;ould not con)ply with them, though at the. 
. escpence of losing his bishopric ; asserting, ^t the same 
ijine, that all their proceedings were framed against the 
law both of God and the king, of, tb^ danger of which, he, 
faid, he was well apprised. . 

Upon his coming to London .he was filled before the 
council, Sept. 25^ IHl ; and there refusing to proipise 
either to receive, tlie homilies, or ps^y pbedience to the 
visitors, if .they came into his dioceses he was committed 
close prisoner to the Fleet. Some days after, be was $e|i{: 
^r to the deanery of St PauVs \>y Cranmer, who, witb 
other bishops, discoursed in defence of the homily upon 
justification ; which he had censured, a^ excluding charity 
fiTom any share in obtaining it. The archl^ishop proceeded 
tp apologise, for Erasmus*^ '^ Paraphi'ase on tl^e New Tesr^ 
tament,^' as the best extant ; which, being prdere^ by the 
injunctions to be set iip in ^\\ churcl^es, bad been pbjcQtied- 
to by Gardiner. . His gifac^, seeing no hopes from argu* 
aients, which made no impression, let fall some words of 
bringing hiin into the privy-council,, in case of his conqur* 
rence with them; but that too having no effect, be was 
remanded to the Fleet, wb.ere he cootinqed till the parliar 
n^ent broke up,. Dec. 24, and ih^n wa^ s^t at liberty by 
the general act of amnesty, usually passed on the accession 
of a prince to the throne. He was never enlarged with aiiy 
offence judicially^ every thing being done in virtue of that 
extent of prerogative which nadi)een assumed by Henry 
VIII. which was thought necessary for mortifying the pre- 
Ute^s haughty, temper, as well as to vindicate their pror 
ceedipgs from the contempt he had shewn them. . \ 

After his discharge he went to his diocese ; and, thoQg]^ 
he opposed, as much as possible, ,the new establishment 
in its first proposal, yet now it w^s settled by act of par- 
liament, he knew how to conform ; which fie not only did 
inmself, but took 5:are that others should do the same. 
Yet he no sooner returned to town than he received an 
order, which brought him again before the council.; 
where, after some rough treatment, he was directed nqt 
tft stir from his bouse t^i^l hf w/snt .|o, giv^ satisfjiittion in$^ 

^se G A E D ! ^ E It 

sermon, to be preached before* the king and court in a 
public audience ; for the matter of which he was directed 
both what he should, and what h6 should not say, by sir 
William CeciL He did not refuse to preach, which was 
don^ on St. Peter's day; but so contrarily to the purpose 
required *, that he was sent to the Tower the next day, 
June 30, 1 548, where he was kept close prisoner for a year/ 
But his aflairs soon after put on a more pleasing counV 
tenance. When the protector's fall was projected, Gar- 
diner was deemed a necessary inlplement for the purpose ; 
his head and hand were both employed ibr bringing it about, 
and the original draught of the articles' was made by him. 
Upon this change in the council he had such assurances] 
of his liberty, and entertained so great hopes of it, that it' 
is said he provided a new suit of clothes in order to keep 
that festival ; but in all this he was disappointed : his first ' 
application for a discharge wa^ treated with contempt by 
the council, who laughing said, '* the bishop had a plea- 
sant bead ;'* for rewarU of Whieh, they gave him leave to 
remain five or six weeks longer in prison, without any 
notice taken to him of his message. Nor did the lords 
^hew any regard to his next address: and he had been 
almost two years in the Tower, when the proiector, re- 
stored to that high office, went with others by virtue of an 
order of council, June 9, 1550, to confer with him in that 
place. In this conference they proposed to release him 
upon his submission for what wa's past, and promise of 
obedience for the future; if he would dlso subscribe the^ 
new settlement in religion,^ with the king's complete power 
and supremacy, though under age ; and the abrogation' of 
the six articles. He consented to, and actually subscribed,^ 
all the conditions except the first, which he refused, in* 
sisting on his innocence. The lords used him with gfeat' 
kindness, and encouraged him to hope his troubles should^ 
be quickly ended, and upon this, seeing also the protector 
among them, he flattered himself with the hopes of. being 
released in two days, and in that confidence actually made 
his farewell feast. But the contempt he had at Rrst shewn' 
to the council, being still avowed by his refusing to make 
a submission now, was not so readily overlooked. On the 


^.Hitjiest vai Mattbew vtiL IS. rery ooDtemittuoiuly.' The MS, is ex-* 

whence he took occasion, in acknov-. tant in Bene't college library, at Can«^ 

kdgihf the king^ tuprertacy, to deny bridge. Tanner's Bibl. Brit. Hibern. 

that of his ooupcil, wbom he teaated ^.-dOS* 


Qontrary, this first visit was followed by sevei^ai others of 
the like tenor ; which meeting with the same refusal, at 
length the .lords Herbert, Petre, and bishop Ridley,- brbaght 
him new articles, in which the required acknowledgement, 
being made more general, runs thus : ^* That he had been 
suspected of not approving the king*s proceedings, and 
being appointed to preach, had not done it as he ought to 
have done, and so deserved the king^s displeasure, for 
which he was sorfy ;'* and the other articles being enlarged 
were, " besides the king's supremacy, the suppression of 
abbies and chanteries, pilgrimages, masses, and images, 
adoring the sacrament, communion in both kinds, abolish- 
ing the old books, and bringing in the new book of service, 
with that for ordaining priests and bishops, the complete-^ 
oess of the scripture, and the use of it in the vulgar tongue, 
the lawfulness of clergymen's knarriage, and for Erasmus's 
Paraphrase, that it had been on^ good considerations or^ 
dered to be set up in churches.'^ These being read, he 
insisted first to be released from his imprisonment, and 
said that he would then freely give bis answer, such as he 
would stand by, and suffer if he did amiss ; but he would 
trouble hiroielf with no more articles while he was detained 
in prison, since he desired not to be delivered out of his 
imprisonment in ^he way of mercy, but of justice. .On 
July 19, he was brought before the council, who having 
told him that they sat by a special commission to judge 
him, asked whether he would subscribe these Mast ' articles 
or no ? which he answering in the negative, his bishopric 
was sequestered, and he required to canform in three 
months on pain of deprivation. Upon this the liberty he 
had before of walking in some open galleries,- when the 
duke of Norfolk was jnot in them, was taken from l;iim, and 
he was again shut up in his chamber. At the expiration* of 
ti)e limited time, the bishop still keeping his resolution, 
was deprived for disobedience and contempt, by ^ court of ' 
delegates, in which Cranmer presided, after a trial which 
lasted from Dec. \S to Feb. 14 following^ in t\feiny*four- 
sessions. He appealed from the delegates to the king ; but ' 
no notice was taken of it, the court being known to be ' 
final and unappealable. 

In the course of the proceedings, Gardiner always bew ' 
haved himself contemptaously' toward the judges, and par* ' 
ticularty called them sacramentarians and heretics ; on 
which account he was ordered to be removed to a meaner 


lodging in the Tower; to be attended by ose servant only^ 
of the lieutenant*8 appointment ; to have bis books and 
papers taken from him ; to be denied pen, ink^ or paper; 
and nobody suffered to visit bim. Uovtrever, as be con* 
tinned a close prisoner here during the rest of Edward's 
reign, the severity of this order was afterwards mitigated ; 
as appears from various pieces written by him in this con- 
finement. He is said to have kept up his spirits and reso- 
lution, and it is not improbable, that he foresaw the great 
alteration in affairs which was speedily to take place. The 
first dawning of this began to appear on the demise of king 
Edward, when Mary was publicly proclaimed queen July 
19, 1553. On Aug. 3 she made her solemn entry into the 
Tower, when Gardiner, in the name of himself and his. 
fellow-prisoners, the duke of Norfolk, duchess of Somerset, 
lord Courtney, and others of high rank, made a congra- 
tulatory speech to her majesty, who gave them all their 
liberty^ The spokesman took his seat in council the san^e 
day, and on the 8th performed the obsequies for the late 
king in the queen^s presence. On the 9th he went to 
Winchester-house in ^outhwark, after a confinement of 
somewhat more than five years ; and was declared chan- 
cellor of England on the 23d. He had the honour of 
crowning the queen Oct. I, and on the 5th opened the 
first parliament in her reign. By these hasty steps Gar- 
diner rose to the prime ministry ; and was possessed at 
this time of more power, civil and ecclesiastical, than any 
English minister ever enjoyed, except his old roaster car- 
dinal Wolsey. He was also re-chusen chancellor of Cam- 
bridge, and restored to the mastership of Trinity-hall 
there, of which, among his other preferments, he had 
been deprived in the former reign. 

The great and important affairs transacted under his ad- 
ministration, in bringing about the change in the consti- 
tution by queen Mary, are too much the subject of general 
history to be related here. The part that Gardiner acted 
is very well known ; and although from the arrival of car- 
dinal Pole in England, he held only the second place in 
affairs relating to the church, in patters of civil govern- 
ment, his influence was as great as before, and continued 
without the least diminution to the last By his advice a 
parliament was summoned to meet in Qct. 1555. As he 
was always a guardiaii of the revenues of the ecclesiastics, 
bothi regular and aecular^^ be bad at this time projected 


some additional security for church and abbey lands, tie 
opened the session with a well-judged speech^ Oct. 21^ 
and was there again on the 23d, which was the last time 
of bis appearing in that assembly. He fell ill soon dfter^ 
and died Nov. 12, aged seventy-two. His death was occa- 
sioned probably by the gout ; the lower parts df his body^ 
however, being mortified, and smelling offensively, occa-i 
sion was hence taken to consider the manner of his death 
as a judgment. The report that he was seized with the 
disury in consequence of the joy with which he was trans- 
ported on hearing of the martyrdom of Latimer and Ridley^ 
has been disproved by the dates of that event, and of his 
illness, in this way. Fox says that when seized with the 
disorder he was put to bed, and died in great torments a 
fortnight afterwards. But, says Collier, Latimer and Rid- 
ley suffered Oct. 16, and Gardiner openc^d the parliament 
on the 21st^ and was there again on the 23d, and lastly^ 
died Nov. 12, not of the disury, but the gout. The readet 
will determine whether the disorder might not have been 
contracted on the 16th, and increased by his subsequent 
exertions; and whether upon the whole, Collier, with all 
his prejudices in favour of popery, which are often very 
thinly disguised, was likely to know more of the matter 
than the contemporaries of Gardiner. Godwin and Parkeif 
say that he died repeating these words, ^^Erravi cum Petro, 
at iion flevi cum Petro ;** i. e. ** I have sinned with Peter, 
but! have not wept with Peter.'* 

He died at York place, Whitehall, whence his body wasi 
removed to a vault in St. Mary Overy's church, South- 
wark ; and after great preparations for the solemnity, was 
carried for fink\ interment to Winchester cathedral. 

Gardiner, says an excellent modern biographer, was 
one of those motley ministers, half statesman and half 
ecclesiastic, which were common in those needy times, 
when the revenues of the church were necessary to support 
the servants of the crown. It was an inviduous support ; 
and ofiten fastened the odium of an indecorum on the 
king^a ministers; who had, as ministers always have, op- 
position enough to parry 4n the common course of business ; 
and it is viery probable that Gardiner, on this very ground, 
lias .met ; with hardar measure in history, than, he might 
otherwise have done. He is represented as having nothing 
of a churchman about him biit the name of a bishop. He 
bad been bred to business from his earliest youth ; and wa» 
;,yoL, XV. V U ••' "i ' 

290 ifc A ll D I N E k 

thoroughly vcrsQcl in all the; wil^s of men, con^idefeJ 
either as individuals, or emboii^ed in parties. He krieW 
all the modes of access to every foible of the human heart; 
Bis own in the mean time was dark, and impenetrable. 
He was a man, ** who,'* as Lloyd quaiudy says, ^ ^as to 
le traced like the fox ; , and^ like the Hebrew, wfi» to be 
read backwards ;'' and though the insidious cast 0f his eye 
indicateclf that he was always lying in wait, yet his iltrong 
sense, and persuasive manner, inclined men to believe ht 
was always sincere ; as better reasons could hardly be 
l^tven, than he h^d ready on every occasion. He wets aa 
littlQ troubled with scruples as any man, who. th;oiight it 
not proper entirely to throw off decency. Wba^ moral 
firtues. and what natural feelings he had, were all under 
the influence of ambition ; and were accompanied by a 
happy lubricity of conscience, which ran glibly over ev6ry 
obstacle. JSiich is the portrait, which historians have give^ 
ns of this man ; and though the colouring may be mbi^ 
heighteued in some than in others ; yet the same turn of 
feature is found in all. 

^ . In opposition to this character^ so ably epitomized by 
|if r. Gilpin, in his Life of Crantper^ we are riot siirprized 
at the labours of Roman ipathblic writers to palliate the 
vices of Gardiner; our only surprise^ not unmixed with 
^bame, is that such writers as Heylin and Collier, and Dr. 
Campbell in the *^ Biographia Britannica,'' should bav^ 
engaged in the sam^ cause, and with such effect as to be 
quoted as authorities by the enemies of the reformation; 
Alter all, however, Gardiner's actions sufficiehtly attest 
the badness of bis character. Nor ca^i he even be screened 
tinder the pretext that he acted under mistaken princijples^ 
of conscience, unless at the same tin>e we deprive him of 
that knowledge and those talents which have been justly 
Ascribed to him. In the first edition 6f this Dictionary^ it 
was said that ^' no maxim w^s more cooktdnlly professed; 
nor more uniformly observed by him» jA>an thiit of ihaUng 
the law the rule of his conduct.'* But this is oioC justified 
by fact. Many of the protettants were thrown into furisoft 
l^y him, while the laws of Edward VL Were yet iii forces 
ind they were kept there until he could prOcAre a law by 
which they might be brousht to the stake. And that aah- 
guinary measures were delightful to htm, appears frbm the 
gross 8<^urrihtv with which he treated the pvoteiftauts vi^ 
were tried before him. Auoiter curious apology has been 


^Adyaiicedj. tl^jt fltb,ough be w^s the author pi those;Cru^ 
. tiesi jf t he very sopn grew weary of them, and refused t0 
have apy hand in tbem, leaving the whol^ to Bonner. Bu(^ 
pven tius was, without any alteration .^ bi3 di8pQ8itio% 
jnerely a change of policy* U^.^^yf tj^?t,4hQ end wa^xioi: 
prqmot^ by tbe.^eansy md, t|^at tbe courage of the. maVf 
l^r^jip their sufferings ,qould not .be icoipcealed from.thf 
p^opie^ ofi whQOQ it produced, ap effect ^het^ very reverse of 
|vbat he pprpo^ ; . and he seem^ to bc^VQ. discovered tb» 
tr^tb pf the loaxim that '^ the blood of tbe martyrs was thm 
•e^d of the cburoh.** . x 

f Ip, bis private character, Gardiner is entitled to somft 
' i^peqV not from its. morali^y^ f^r he is, said to have been 
licentious ; b^t b0vw^ a man of learnings and in some ra-r 
inarkablei.instanpeS{ a patron of^ Thomaa 
Smith, who .bad be^n se^rc^y to Edward VL was pec* 
|ni|ted by<bim to, live ip Itfaiy's. days, in a state, of privacy 
unipol^ste4» aud with a pensiop of IQOL a ypar.forhis bettev 
fiippor^ though b^ bad .a good estate of his own. Rogec 
AschaiHyt another secretary to tbe same prinoe^ oC th^ 
I«atin jtpDgi)^ waitcoptinu^ bis pfiice, and bisisalarf iq'* 
pjri^a^d by thill prelsjte's fayoufi ; which he fully repaid, by 
those elegant, epistle^^ to bim>^..tbi^t.arje extant in Jus wcarksi 
Stryp^, who nqtipes this cirprnpstanee, adds : ^^Thus lived 
two ei^cellent proteatants, Muder -the wings, at it were, of 
thp sworn enemy and destroyer of protestajats,^* ;Heis said 
^SQ. to .haVie been of a liberal and gCMUirous dispositiooi $ 
k^pt a good bo\|se» and bnought .up seiwral young gende** 
me^, aome of whom became afterwards men of the first; 
rank in. the state. 

.. He MfCote>a^veral books^ of which die principal, aie^i li 
V JDq vfera Obediential 1594.'\ ^. ^Palinodia diotllibri ;'1 
wbei^ UUs. wa$ published is not known. . 3. ^,iA necessaiy 
-doatrine of . a .Christian man, set forth bvthe kingVma? 
jestie.of. Englfmd^ .1543«V. .4.. M> An. Explanation andAs-i 
sertion of die true Catholic Faith, touching the most 
b}a9i^8^craniwt of the Altar, &c. l$5i:\ L fVConfu- 
to(i9. C^vUlatjiQnum quibns jaccosanctum £ucharisti».sa^ 
cramentum ah impiis Capernaitis impeti solet^ 1551." 
This he composed while i^ prisoner in the Tow^r : he m%-. 
9«l0ed this .cpnttgyer^yagaiiist Peter Mactyc ^nd others^ 
«^p espoused Cranmer. After the, accession of queen 
Mary, be wrote replies in his^owjn.dpfpnce, against Tur;^^ 
oerj Bofietj and other pvolostant exiles. • 

or 2 



• • ^ ' 

Some of his letters to Smith and Cheke, on the pronun* 
ciatton of the Greek tongpe, are still extant' in Betie't- 
coflege library at Cambridge. The controversy made a^ 
great noise in its time, but was not niuch known after- 
wards ; till that elegant account of it appeared in public, 
which is given by Baker in his " Reflections on Learning," 
p. 28, 29, who observes^ that our chancellor assumed a 
power, that Consar never exercised, of giving laws to wot ds. 
nowever, he allows that, though the controversy was ma- 
naged ' with much warmth on each side, yet a man would 
ivonder to see so much learning shewn on so dry a subject 
Du Fresne was at a loss where the victory lay ; but Roger 
Aschand, with a courtly address, declares, that though the 
knights shew themselves better critics, yet Gardiner's let-^ 
ters manifest a superior genius ; and were only liable to 
censure, from his entering furUier into a dispute of this 
kind, than* was necessary fpr a person of his dignity. ^ 

GARENCIERES (Theophilus), a physician at Caen, 
but a native of Paris, received his degree before the age 
of twenty, and came over to England, where he abjured 
the Roman catholic religion. He was incorporated m 
the university of Oxford on the 10th of March, 1657, and 
having settled in London, was appointed physician to the 
French ambassador ; but fortune was altogether adverse to 
him,' and he died overwhelmed with poverty and distress, 
in some part of Westminster, occasioned, as Wood< says, 
^' by the ill usage of a certain knight," whose name, bow* 
ever, he does not mention, nor the time of our aulhor's 
death. * He was a man of some science, as his works evince. 
They consist of a treatise, in English, on the nature and 
properties of the tincture of coral, printed in 1676, ia 
12mo; and another in Latin, entitled ^'Anglise'Flagellum, 
seu. Tabes Anglica- nUm^ris' omnibus absoTuta,'' 1647, in 
18 mo. He. also translated into English, **The true Pro* 
phecies or Prognostics olf Michael Nostradamus, physician 
to Henry II. Francis U. and Charles IX. kings of France,^' 
167.2, folio.« . • - ... 

. GARENi&EOT ,{R£NB James Croisstant 0£),' an ^i« 
nent French surgeon, was born at Vitre, a small town in 

} Bii)^' B^ii. — StiypQ^g Cranmer passim.— -Strype's Annals and Memorialfl. 
<^-^urnet's llist. of the Reformation. — Lloyd's State Worthies. — Gilpin's Life 
•f Craamer, pp. 6*7^ 95, 119, 178.— For his leaming, see a note on Warton's 
Life of Sir T. Pope, p. 238.— Of bis conduct as a persecutor, Foit's Acts sm^ 
Monuments, and in defence Collier's Chnrch History.— Hey Un*8 Hist, of the 
Iteformation,— «iid Dodd's Church Hist. 

s Wood's Fasti, ?oL lI«-*ReM'0 Cyd«p«duu 

G A R E N G E 6 T. 293 

" • •  .' 

JBrittany, on the 13th of July, 1688, where hisfBther pr$ic- 
Used surgery. . In order to improve himself, he spent five 
years in the hospital of Angers, and in the^great naval bps-* 
pitals of Brittany ; and afterwards made two voyages ii? the 
rfavy. In 1711 he went to Paris, and studied under Win- 
slow, Tbibaut, Meri, &c. and afterwards gave a course of 
lectures on anatomy in the medical schools ; and hence- 
forth his reputation extended even to foreign countries; 
for he was elected a member of the royal society oV Lon- 
don. He was also apppinted demonstrator royal in the 
schools of medicine. On the establishment of the society 
of academicians, under the patronage of the king, in 1731, 
Garengeot was chosen ^' Commissaire pour ies extraits,'' 
which office he retained until 1742. He then succeeded 
Terryer in the place of surgeon-major of the king's regi- 
ment of infantry. He died at Cologne, in consequence of 
an attack of apoplexy, Dec. 10, 1759. 

The first of the works of Garengeot, entitled ** Trait6 
des Operations de Chirurgie," was published at Paris in 
1720, and translated into the English and German lan- 
guages. 2. *' Traits des Instrumens de Chirurgie,'' print* 
ed at Paris and the Hague, 1723, and at Paris again in 
1727, in two volumes, with plates. 3. " Myotomie hu- 
maine," Paris, 1724, 1728, 1750, two volumes, 12i|ao. 
The last of these editions is much more correct than the 
two former. 4. ** Splanchnologie, ou, Trait6 d* Anatomie 
<;oncernant Ies visceres," Paris, 1728, 1729, in 12mo; ibid. 
1742, in two volumes, 12mo. A German edition was 
printed at Berlin, in 8vo, in 1733, which is said to con- 
tain some valuable matter, but chiefly belonging to Win- 
slow and Morgagni. 5. " His last work was " L' Operation 
de la T^ille par Tappareil lateral corrig6e de tons ses de- 
fauts," Paris, 1730, in 12mo. \ 

GARISSOLES (Anthony), a French protestant divine, 
was born in 1587, at Montauban. During his academical 
studiejs, he made so rapid a progress in divinity, that he 
was appointed minister at Pujlaurens, when only twenty •^ 
four years of age, by the synod of Castres. He was after- 
wards minister and professor of divinity at Montauban, and 
died there in 1650. His principal works are, an epic poem, 
in 12 books, entitled ^^ Adolphidos,'' in which he cele- 
brates the great exploits of Gustavus Adolphus, in elegant 

) Diet. Hist.'— K^ees's Cyclo/»diiH 

f 94 G A R I S S O L Ig; S. 

Latia verse ; another Latin poem in praise of the protes- 
tatfit S#iss 'Carildtis V several thisologieal theses ; a treatis^ 
«^D(B Imputatione primi^peecaiti Adae,*' 8vo ; another, •* D^ 
Christo Mediatdrfe/* 4to ; and an explanation in Latin of 
Cdvin*s Catechism, f^hlch he wrote with his colleague M. 
Charles, 8vo, &c. * ' 
GARLAND (John), or Joannes de Garlandia, a 

Srammafian, is said to have been a native 6f Garlande en 
ri'e in Normandy; bdt aSbe came into England soon after 
the Conquest, ' Bale^ Pitt^, Tatiber, hav^ supposed him 
tfn Englishihan, and Prince has efrroU'ed him among the 
*» Worthies of Devon.** He wis not dead in 1081. Hii 
works have not all been printed ; but among those that 
have, are, 1. *' A Poem oh the fcontetapt of the World,*^ 
ibiproperly attributed io St/Bernard, Lyotis, 1489, 4to^ 
2. Anbther poem, entitled ** Floretus, or Liber Floreti ;*' 
on the Doctrines of T'aitb, aiid almost the whole circle oi^ 
Christian morality. &. A treatise on "Synohlmes," and 
toother'bn Equivoques,'* or ambiguous terms; Paris, 1490. 
4tb, and reprinted at London by'Pyntoh' in 1496, ana 
again in 1500. 4. A poem 'in irhymed versJes, entitled 
^Facetus,** on the duties of maA towards* God, his neigh-^ 
Bbur, and himself, Cologne, 1 520, 4to ; tUe three poems are' 
often printed together. ' 5. '< Dictionarium irtis'Alchymiaej^ 
eum ejusdem artis' compehdio,**^ Ba^le, 1571, 9vo. ' 
• GARNET (Henry), a person memorable in English 
history for having be^ti privy'to the celebrated conspiracy 
called ** The Gunpowder Plot,** was borii in Nottingham- 
Aire in 1555, and bred at Winchester school ; whence he 
went to Rome, and took the Jesuit*s habit in 1575. Afteif 
studying under Bellarmin, Saurezj and Christopher Cla- 
fius, he was for some time professor 6f philosophy and 
Hebrew in the Italian college at Rome ; and when Clavius, 
professor of mathematics, was disabled by old age^ he sup- 
plied his place in the schools. He returned to England in 
1586, as provincial of his order; although it was inade 
treason the year before, for any Romish priest to come 
into the queen's dominions. Here, under pretenc^ of 
establishing the cathoUe iaith; he laboured incessantly to 
raise some disturbance, in order to bring about *a revolu- 
tion; and with thts view held a secret correspbridehce 

1 Gen. Diet, hy Bayle. — Moreri. * 

9 Taaner. — Moreri.— *Priace's Worthies of DeTon,"-»Dibdiii'8 Typograp]|ica| 

Antiquities, vol. II. , o -. . * ' i • 

A B. N E '^. , -j^SfeSf' 


wit^ the kiipjp of, Spajp, ^hon^i lie solicited| to pff^^i vfi 
expedition a^ga/nst uh cguntr)^. This pgt profjepding 
so fast as be would iiave it, he availed hicuself pf the 
z^al of some papists, wbp applied to him, as hea^d. of their 
or^d^r^ to resofv^ this case of conscience^ namely, " Whj^ 
ther, for the sake of promoting the catholic religion, it 
Oiigbt; be paroiitt^d, should necessity so require, to in- 
volve the innocent in the same destruction with t/ie guilty ?*' 
to which this casuist replied without hesitating, th^t^ ** if 
tb^ guilty should constitute the greater number, it might/' 
This impious determination gave the first motion to thsvt 
horrible conspiracy, which was to have destroyed at onp 
stroke the king, the royal fiimily, and both houses of par- 
liament) but the plot being providentially discover^d^ 
Garnet was sent to the. Tower, and was afterwards tried, 
qondejpfkn^ tp be, hange4 for high-treason, anfl Q^ecut^d of, 
the wes); end of §^. I^ajul^s, ^zy 3, 1606. ^e declare^ 
just before w ^i^qi^UPQi tl^at he was privy to. the gqpr 
pqwder plot; but^ as it was ri^ves^lpd to bixn in qqpfession, 
tt^QJigfit it his duty to conceaFit^ But besicjes tbis.misera^ 
ble sifbferfuge^ it ws(s proved that hp knew s9XD^tl^ing of 
it, put of. confession. Ete has be^n pjs^qed by tl)e/Jesui(f 
among^ theijr noble army of martyrs. He was. p;pbat))y ^i| 
eptl^usiast, and qertainly behaved at his exequtioj). in ^ 
mannf^r .tbat. would hav^ 4^ne credit to a better caus|e. I^ 
is said, hpw^y^, upon other, authority, tb^t he.declinbe4 
the honour of martyrdom, eiccl^mi^g, '^ Me i^a,rtj(r^J 
<) quale o^artyrem !" — " I a martyr ! O what a^ n^^tyr V^ 
J^bcuTs account of* his execution is ratlier inter^sjting. H(^ 
published some, works, among which ar^ ^nuq^rajec),^ l« 
^^ A tre^atise of Christian nepovation or iBirth^'* LonfJpo«, 
1616, 8jvo. 2. ^^. Canisius's Catectiisn^, translated from th^ 
Latir^" ibid. 1590, 8vo^ and St. Omers, 1622. Sever^ 
>vorks were published in d^fetoce of tl^e measures takei) 
agai^ist bim. ' 

OARNET (Thomas), an Jng^nioi^s pngUsb physiyiaiij, w^ 
born a^ Carterton, n^af. Kirjtby Lo^nsdale;, We^tmorelaiiidt 
April 21, 1766. Abput tb^ ag^ qf fpurte^n,; after haying, r^- 
ce^Y/e4 ^^^1 fy^^ ruqiments of education at his natiye village,, 
b^,. vyas place^d.a$ an^ apprentice undej: the tuition of Mr., 
JDawsoo, ajt,Se(lbe;:glV in. Yorkshire, a celebrated ma^lb^np^* 
tician^ wbp, was at. tha^ tii?^ a surgeon and apothecarjT^ 

1 HiBt. of Eii^laDd.-TDodd*s and CQ\\s^f» Church Hii^ries^ 

«f« GARNET. 

Here he laid the fotindation of bis medical and philosopbi- 
eal knowledge. After this he proceeded to Edinburgh, 
and took his degree about 1788. During his residence 
there, he became the pupil of Dr, Brown, whose new sys- 
tem of medicine Dr. Garnet, from this time, held *in the 
highest estimation. Soon after he visited London, and at- 
tended the practice of the hospitals. He had now arrived 
at an age which made it necessary for him to think of some 
permanent establishment. With this view he left London, 
and settled at Bradford in Yorkshire, where he gave pri-^ 
vate lectures on philosophy and chemistry, and wrote a 
treatise on the Horley Green Spa. In. 1791 he removed to 
Knaresborough, and in summer to Harrogate, and was 
soon engaged in an extensive practice. As this, however, 
was necessarily limited to the length of. the season, which 
lasted only three or four months. Dr. G. soon after his 
marriage, which took place in 1795, formed the design of 
emigrating to America. At Liverpool, whete he was wait- 
ing to embark, he was strongly solicited to give a chemical 
course of lectures, which met with a most welcome recep- 
tion, as did also another course on experimental philoso- 
phy. He then received a pressing invitation frpm Man- 
chester, where be delivered the same lectures with eqiiat 
success. These circumstances happily operated to pre- 
vent his departure to America, and be )3ecame a success- 
ful candidate for the . vacant professorship of Anderson's 
institution at Glasgow, in 1796. In Scotland, bis leisure 
hours were employed in collecting materials for his ** Tour* 
through the Highlands ;^' which work was in som^ degree . 
impeded by the sudden. death of his wife in child-birth ; an 
event which so strongly affected his feelings, that be never 
thought of it but with agony. Dr. G. was induced to re- 
linquish the institution at Glasgow, by favourable offers 
from the new Royal Institution in London, where, for one 
season, ^e wa^ professor of natural philosophy and che- 
mistrv. and delivered the whole of tbc?^ lectures. On 
retiring from this situa^tion, which was far too laborious 
for the state of his health, at the close of 1801, he devoted 
himself to his professional practice, and took a house in 
Great Marlborough-street, where he built a new and con- 
venient apartment, completed an expensive f^pparatus, and 
during the winter of 1801 and 1802, he gave regular 
courses on experimental philosophy and chemistry, and 
jiIsq'^ new course on « ^oonoipia," pr^ « the l-aw^ of Ani« 

GARNET. '991 

inal Life, arranged according to the Brunonian theory.'* 
These were interrupted in February, for some weeks, by 
a dangerous illness, which left him in a languid istate; 
though he not only resumed and finished the lectures he 
had begun, but aJso commenced two courses on botahy, 
one at his own bouse, and the other at Brompton. lo the 
midst of these, he received, by infection, from a patient 
whom he had attended, the fever which terminated his life, 
June 28, 1802. His " Zoonojnia" was afterwards ^pubr 
lished for the benefit of his family. ** Thus," says his bio- 
grapher, *' was lost to society a man, the ornament of his 
country, and the general friend of humanity. In his per- 
sonal attachments, he was warm and zealous. In his reli- 
gion he was sincere, yet liberal to the professors of con- 
trary doctrines. In his political principles he saw no ^nd, 
but the general good of mankind ; and, conscious of the 
infirmity of human judgment, he never fai^led to make al- 
lowances for error. As a philosopher and a man of science, 
he was candid, ingenuous, and open to conviction ; he 
never dealt in mystery, or pretended to any secret in art; 
he was always ready in explanation, and desirous of assist-* 
ing every person willing to acquire knowledge." Besides 
his **Tour in Scotland," and the other works mentioned 
before. Dr. Garnet contributed many papers to the Me- 
moirs of the Medical Society of London, the Royal Irish 
Academy, and Other scientific societies. * 

GARNHAM (Rev. Robert Edward), an English divine, 
was born at Bury St. Edmund's, May 1, 1753, and wa« 
the only surviving child of the rev. Robert G. many years 
master of the free grammar-school at Bury, and rector of 
Nowton and Hargrave, in Suffolk ♦. ' His mother was 
JVfary, daughter of Mr. Benton, and sister of the late Ed- 
ward Benton, esq. secondary in the court of king's-bench. 
He was educated partly by his father, who supported a 
considerable reputation for classical learning, i^nd partly 
at Bury school, whence he Was admitted of Trinity-college, 
Cambridge, in 1770, and the following year was elected 
scholar. In 1774 he was admitted to his degree of B. A. 

'  He wM formerly feHoi^r of Triilky n98» aged 82. His wid«w survived 

eoliege, Cambridge, and took t^e de- him iitUe more tbaa twelve months, 

gree of B. A. 1737, and M. A: 1747. dying at Bury> Dec. 6, 1799, aged 79, 

After having retired tome years from They were buried in the cbaneel of Um. 

IMS school, he died at Bury, Nov. 8, parish*cbarch of Nowton* 

I Preface to his ** Zoo&onia.''— -Qeot. «od Baropeaq Al«g« <^r XfQfiL 

298 G A R N H A M. 

;^bich be obtained with credit to his college and himself^ 
and was elected fellow in 1775, and proceeded M. A. m 
1^77.' In 17^3 he Was elected college preacher, and in 
Kovemb^r 1797. was advanced into tbe seniority. He 
was ordalnea deacon March 3, 1776, and afterwards entered 
on tbe curacies of Nowton and Great Welnatham, in the 
neighbourhood of Biiry. pn June 15, 1777, he was or* 
dained priest, but having imbibed some scruples as to the 
articles of tlie church, of the Socinian cast, he determined 
never to repeat his subscription to tbe articles for any pre- 
feirmtot which he mieht become entitled to from the col- 
lege patronage, or which might be offered to him from any 
biher quarter. Agreeably to, and consistently with, this 
statebf mind, he resigned, at Midsummer, 1789, the cu- 
racies ib which he was then eneaged, and resolved thence- 
forward to aectine officiating in the ministry. Mr. Garn-* 
nam*s health was never robust, and, during the last five or 
aix years of his life,' suffered much from sickness^ whic^ 
prevented his residing at 'Cambridge after tbe death of his 
lather^ in 1798^ and indisposed and disqualified him froiu 
|>iirsuing his former application to his studies. His indis- 
position and' ibfirmities continued to increase j and, in the 
summer of IBOl, he evidently appeared to be much broken^ 
For some short time he had. complained of an astl^ma; and^ 
on the Saturd^ay preceding bis death, was at^icked with an 
inflammation oh tjie lungs arid breast. He continued till 
the morning of the following Thursday, June 24. 18p2,^ 
iyben;he expired in the 50th year of his age, and wa^ I^Ur 
ried in tne chancel of Nowton church. His writinc^s were 
nunierous^ but all . anonymous. 1. "Examination of Mr. 
Harrison'*8 Sermon, preached in the cathedral church or 
St. Paul, London^ before the lord mavqr^ on May 25, 
1788, 1^89.'* 2." Letter to the right rev. tbe bishop of 
Norwich (Dr. Bagot), requesting him to name the prelate 
to whoin he referred as *'contendino: strenuously for the 
general excellence of our present authorized translation oi 
the Bibley i789.''*' 3. "Letter to the right rev. the bishop 
of Chester (0r. Cleaver^, on the subject of. two sermons 
addressed by him to the clergy of his diocese ; cbmpre* 
bending also a vindication of ;the late bishop Hoadly,. 1 790.'* 
4, *• R^tieW . of ^ Dr. Hay*s sermon, entitled^  Thoughts 
on.t|ie Ath^ni^i^i) Creed,* preached ApriJ 12^ 17.90, at the 
visitation of the archdeacon of .Bucks,** 1790. 5. <^ Out- 
liiHe cfa Commentary on Revelations xi. If— 14,** 1.794. 

G A R N B A M. 299 

6. *' A Sermon preached in the chapel of Trinity-coUegey 
Cambridge, on Thursday, Dec. Ifi itdS, the day'ap* 
pointed for the commemoration of the benefactors to' that 
society,'* 1794. He wrote also the papers in ^'Commen- 
taries and Essays** signed Synergus : and some iii '^The 
Theological Repository,'* signed Ereunetes, and Idiota.' *, ' 

GARNIER (John), a Jiesuit, professor of classical 
learning, philosophy, and rhetoric, was b6rn at Paris in 
)612, and died at Bologna in 1681, in a deputation to 
Rome from his order. His principal works are, I.Anedt^ 
rion of ** Mercator,** folio, 1673. 2. An edition of th? 
•* Liberat,**'in 8vo, Paris, 1675, with learned notes. 3. Ad 
edition of the " Liber diurnus,** or Journal of the Popes; 
with historical notes, and very curious dissertations, l^Sb^ 
4 to. 4: "The supplement to the works of Theodoriet,*^ 
1 68^5, 4to. 5. ^' Systema Bibliotbecee Collegii Parisiehsis, 
societatis Jesn,'* Paris, 1678, 4to; a very usefnl' book to 
those who are employed in arranging large libraries. * 

GARNIER (John Jam£s), ian ingenious FVench writer^ 
was bom at Goron in the Maine, March 18, 172d^. 'Afte^ 
being* educated, probably in hi^ own country, hi came t6 
Paris, without money or intei^est, dnd dependitig bhlj^oh 
his- learning. This soon recommehded him, however, to 
a place in the college ^f Harcodi*t, and in 1760 he was 
appointed coadjutor to the abb^ SelKei^ in the rbya! cdllege^ 
and was made before 1764 Hebrew professor, and diosefl 
a member of the academy of inscriptions and belles lettresl 
His useful studies Were interrupted by the revolution^ 
and in 1793 be was compelled to fly, for refusing the re- 
publican oaths. He thetl went to B6Ugival,^bere he di^d 
in 1795. AH he could save frontf confisoatlbn \i'as hti 
libranr ; but his friend Lalande, the celebrated astronbmer, 
so effectually repre'sebted to the government^ the dts'gr&ce 
of suffering a man of so much merit to want bread, tbat i, 
pension was granted him. He wrote, 1. " L*Homnlfe'de 
lettres,*' Paris, 1764, 2 vols, 12mo, in which the niethod 
he lays down to form a man of letters is highly liberal ati^ 
ingenious. "^ 2. "Traitfi'de Torigine dn gouvernemettt 
Frtmgoise,** 1765, ib. 12nial S. ^« De Peducation dvile,** 
1765, l^mo. 4. " De cbiftmerce remis asa piacei*** * In 
r77a he published the 9th Vol. 4t6 df Velly and yillaret*tf 
History of Franfce; begiflning *lth the yeaf^469, and 
continuing his labours in this work, produced the 15th vol. 

I Qent Mas* ^^^^ ^ Morej(i.*<'Niceroi|« roll. XL«— Sawi OoGmust 


in 1786, displaying throughout the whole more erudition 
than his predecessors. He wrote several papers in the 
memoirs of the ^academy of inscriptions, relative, among 
other subjects, to the philosophy of the ancients, and 
especially to that of Piato, of which he was perhaps ratber 
too fond, though less fanciful than some modern Platonists.* 
GARNIER (Robert), a French tragic poet, was born 
at Fert6 Bernard in the province of Maine, in 1534. He 
was designed for the law, which he studied some time at 
Toulouse; but afterwards quitted it for poetry,. in which 
he succeeded so well, that he was deemed by his contem- 
poraries not inferior to Sophocles or Euripides. Thuapus 
says, that Ronsard himself placed nobody above Garnier 
in this respect : what Ronsard says, however, is no more 
than that he greatly improved the French drama. 

P^toix Garnier, la scene des Francis, 
Se change en or> qui n'etoit que de bois. 

But although his tragedies were read with great pleasure 
by all sorts of persons, and held in the highest estimation, 
when they had no better to read, upon the. introduction of 
a more refined taste, they gradually felt into disesteem^ 
and now only serve to shew, that France, like other na- 
tions, has been capable of admiring very indifferent poets. 
Besides tragedies, he wrote songs, elegies, epistles, eclogues, 
&c. of no better stamp. He died in 1590, after having 
obtained several considerable posts. Seneca the tragedian^ 
was Garnier^s model, which 'single circumstance may easily 
give the learned reader an idea of his taste and manner. 
His dramatic works were printed collectively at Lyons, in 
one vol. 12moi^ 1597, and reprinted at Paris in 1607.* 


GARRARD (Marc), or Gerards, a Flemish painter, 
was born at Bruges in 1561, and practised history, land-* 
scape, architecture, and portrait: He also engraved, illu- 
minated, and designed for glass-painters. His etchings 
for Esop^s fables, and view of Bruges were much esteemed. 
He came to England not long after the year 1580, and re^ 
mained here until his death in 1635, having been painter 
to queen Elizabeth and Anne of Denmark. His works are 
numerous, Uiough not easily known, as he never used any 
peculiar mark, in general they are neat, the ruffs and 

* Diet. Hist.— Month. Rev. vol. XXX. 

' >{oreri.—Niceroo, vol XXVI a— Diet. Hist. 



habits stiff, and rich with pearls and other jewels. His 
flesh-colours are thin and light, tending to a blueish tinc- 
ture. His procession of queen Elizabeth to Hunsdon- 
house has been engraved by Vertue, who thought that 
part of the picture of sir Thomas More's family at Burford 
might have been completed by this painter.* 

GARRICK (David), an unrivalled actor, was grandson 
of Mr. Garrick, a merchant in France, who, being a pro- 
testant, fled to England as an asylum, Opon the revocation 
of the edict of Nantes in 1685 ; and son of Peter Garrick, 
who obtained a captain^s commission in the army, and 
generally resided at Lichfield. Peter Garrick was on a 
recruiting party in Hereford, when his son David was born ; 
and, as appears by the register of All-saints in that city, 
* baptized Feb. 28, 1716. His mother was Arabella, daugh- 
ter of Mr. Clough, one of the vicars in Lichfield cathedral. 
At ten years of age, he was sent to the grammar-school at 
Lichfield; but, though remarkable for declining puerile 
diversions, did not apply himself with any assiduity to his 
books. He had conceived an early passion for theatrical 
representation ; and, at little more than eleven years of age, 
procured "The Recruiting Officer" to be acted by young 
gentlemen and ladies, himself performing the part of ser- 
jeat Kite. From school be went on invitation to an uncle^ 
a wine-merchant, at Lisbon; but returning shortly to 
Lichfield, he was sent once more to the grammar-school, 
where, however, he did not make any considerable pro- 
gress in learning. 

About the beginning of 1735, Mr. (afterwards Dr.) 
8amuel Johnson, undertook to instruct some young gen- 
tlemen of Lichfield in the belles lettres ; and David Gar- 
rick, then turned eighteen, became one of his scholars, or 
(to speak more properly) bis friend and companion. But 
the master,' however qualified, was not more disposed to 
teach, than Garrick was to learn; and, therefore, both 
growing weary, after a trial of six months, agreed to try 
their fortunes in the metropolis. Mr. Walmsley, register 
of the ecclesiastical court at Lichfield, a gentleman much 
respected, and of considerable fortune, was Garrick's 
friend upon this occasion, recommended him to Mr. Col- 
son, an eminent mathematician, to be boarded and in- 
structed by him in mathematics, philosophy, and polite 

1 Walpole's Aoecdotes^. wbore are a f«w other partitfttUr* of tfai»>art»st. 

io^ G A R R I C K. 

learning J with a view of. being sent within tw^ or tfhxe^ 
years to the Templ^, and bred to the law. B^t wjien 
Garrick arrived in Xoqdon^ he. ifound that ,bv^ finai^^e^i 
>6uld not suffice to put him under Mr. . Colson, ^yi th? 
death of his ijncleji who, about 1737^, left Portugal,, auj^ 
died in London soon after* He bequeathed his, nephew 
lOOO/. witb the interest of whic}), Ke pr^jdently epibr^iced 
the means of acquiring, useful knowledge uQder Mr. Col* 
son. His proficiency,, nowqvcr, in mathematiqs aiidphir 
)osophy was pot extensive ; his mind was sti^L tbeat;rically 
disposed^ and, ^t>9tb faUier s^nd .mother living .bi|t a short 
iime after, he ^ave hlpisejjp up to. iiis darling passjion fof 
acting;. |^rom.wyiichj^,says His historian, ^* nothing hpt hi$ 
tenderness for so dej^r,^ gelation as a mother had }4ther|i) 
restrained him^",; I)uring the short interval, hqw^yer^ bq- 
tween his moth<?r's ,de^t)^ and his^ cqmmenci,ng con^ediap, 
he engagea Jp. the wiiie tr^d^ with his brother Peter Car- 
rick ; and th^y tiir^d vaults ii) JDurh^in-yard. ^,,.. ,„ 
Wneh he had at lep^tt^ formed his final resolution^ I^ 
prepared himself in ear^^st, for that ^ploymeo^t, he ,s^ 
ardently loved, and in which be so. eminently e^c^UQd| 
tie was frequently ih tne cfmpany of, the i^o^t^dpiir^a 
actors; he obtained intifqductions to the piaqager^ 9/ t^q 
theatres; Jbe^^fiejinj^ talent, in renting pajrjipular a^d f^s 
vourite portions of plays ; and spmetimes wrote criti$;ispa3 
upon the actipn ancl elpcution of the players. His,d\^de^9^ 
however, withheld him from trying his strength, a); Qr^ uppo 
a Lpndpn theatr^ : be thought jhe hazard too grqat ;.AP$ 
therefoire cqmfuen,ced, his noviciate in actiag, with a^ 'Cfiqy? 
pany of players then ready tp set out for Ips>yich> .'aj^^x 
the direction of JVir. ^IHa^d s^d JV^r. Dunsitall, in. ^e sjom^ 

fiiejr of nil[ T^jfe lirst e%f^ of his th^s^uri^f^l ^al^p|;s was 
exerted in Abpan,^, in . " Orponpto ;", jind met , i^id^ ap^ 

^Jaupe . equs^l to ^is most sanguine desires, iLTpde]: .th^ 
assuinei^ n^i^e of l^yddal, )ie not piijy %ct^4 ajyariety.oiF 
characters ill plays, particulars .Chamont in the ** Qxpim^] 
captain Brazen in the *^ Recruiting OUScer,^' .and sir Han^c 
tVildair;. but be likewise attempted the act^v^.fe^ts of the 
harlequin. In every essay .he was gratified witb/.pPQstant 
and loud applause, and Ipswich has alw^3 boailted of 
Kaving first seen and encouraged this mi^mpc^l^MCtor* .. .. 
Having thus tried his powers before a provincial an- 
dienpe,.. and taken all the necessary steps for a l^on^on 
stage, he made his appearance at Goodman^s-fieldsj Oct^ 

G A R R I C K. 303 

L9> 1741^ when hfe acted Richard HI. for th^^nt time^ 
His ac^ting was attended with the loudest acclamatipns of 
applause ; and his fame was sq quickiy propagated through 
the town, that the more established theatres of Druryrlape 
and Covent* garden were deserted, The innabitants of the 
ipost polite parts of the town wer^ drawn afte^ him ; and 
Gooamah'8-6eIds were full of the splendor of St James*^ and 
Grosvenor-s^uare, We must not wonder, that the playera 
were the last to admire this rising genius ; who, accprdin^ 
to his biographer (and surely he must know), ^^ are more 
Kable to envy and jealousy tha^n persons of most other prp* 
fessions,'* and Qiiin and Gibber could not .conceal their 
uneasioeas and disgust at hU great success. The patentees 
a'^o of Druiy*lane and Covent«garden were, seriously 
alarmed at the great deficiency in the repeipts of theiir 
'bouses^ and at the crouds which coostantly fillec) the thefi^ 
tre of Goodman^S'^fields ; for Gii&rd, the manager tbere^ 
having found his advantage from Garrick^s itcting, had ad- 
mitted hkn to a full moiety of the profits ; and Garrick^ 
in consequen(^e of bia being perpetually {tdmired, acted 
almost every night. Nay^ to a long and fatiguip^ charac- 
ter in the play, be would frequently add another in the 
farce. Those patentees^ therefore, united their efforts, to 
destroy the new-raised seat of theatrical empire, and for 
this pur{>ose inteiided to have recourse to law.. An acit of 
parliament, the 1 1th of (j^eorge IL co-operated with their 
endeavours ; which were further aided by sir John Barnard^ 
who, for some reasons, was incensed against the. comediana 
of Goodman's-fields ; in consequence of which, Garrick 
entered into an agreement with Fleetwood, patentee of 
Drury->lahe^ fbr 500/. a-year; and GifFard and his wife^ 
soon after, niad^ the best terms they could with the sam^ 
proprietor. During the time of Garrick's acting in Good^ 
man's-fields, he brought on the stage two dramatic pieces^ 
'^ The Lying Valet, a Farce ;** and a dramatic satire, 
called *^ Lethe ;*' vi^hich are still acted with applause. The 
laiteir was written before he commenced actx>r. 

GarricVs fame was now s6 extended, that an invitation^ 
vpon very profitable conditions, was sent hini .to act iti 
Dublin, during the months of June, July, and Augixst, 
1742; i^hich invitation he accepted, and went, accom^ 
paoied by Mrs. Woffington. His success there exceeded 
all imagination ; be was caressed by all ranks as a prodigjt 
of theatrical accomplishment ; and the playhouse was so 

30« 6 A R ft 1 C K. 


crouded during this hot season, tbat a very mortal fever 
was produced, which was called Garrick*s fever. He r^-' 
turned to London before the winter, and attended closely 
to his theatrical profession, in which he was now irrevoca- 
bly fised. To pursue the particulars of his life through 
this would be to give an history of the stage ; for which, 
we rather choose, and it is more consistent with our plan, 
to refer to Davies's very minute account. 

In April 1747 he became joint-patentee of Drury-lane 
theatre with Mr. Lacy. July 1749, he was married to 
mademoiselle Viletti ; and, as if he apprehended that this 
change of condition would expose him to some sarcastical 
wit, be endeavoured to anticipate it, by procuring his 
friend Mr. Edward Moore, to write a diverting poem upon 
bis marriage. In truth this guarding against distant ridi- 
cule, and warding off apprehended censure, was a favourite 
peculiarity with him through life. When he first acted' 
Macbeth, he was so alarmed with the fears of critical exa- 
mination upon his new manner, that during his preparation 
for the character, he devoted some part of his time to write 
an humourous pamphlet upon the subject. It was called, 
*^ An Essay on Acting ; in which will be considered, the 
mimical behaviour of a certain fashionable faulty actor, 
&c. To which will be added, a short criticism on his act- 
ing Macbeth." 

in 1763, he undertook a journey into Italy, and set out 
for Dover, in his way to Calais, Sept. 17. His historian 
assigns several causes of this excursion, and among the 
chief, the prevalence of Covent-garden theatre under the 
management of Mr. Beard, the singer ; but the real cause 
probably was, the indifferent health of himself and Mrs. 
Garrick, to the latter of whom the baths of Padua were 
afterwards of service. During his travels, he gave fre-* 
quent proofs of his theatrical talents ; and he readily com« 
plied with requests of that kind, because indeed nothing 
was more easy to him. He could^ without the least pre- . 
paration, transform himself into any character, tragic or 
comic, and seize instantaneously upon any passion of tb& 
human mind. He exhibited before the duke of Parma, 
by reciting a soliloquy of Macbeth; and haid friendly con-' 
tests with the celebrated mademoiselle Clairon at Paris; 
He saw this actress when he paid his fifst visit to Pariis th ' 
1752'; and though mademoiselle Dumesnil was then the 
favourite actress of the French theatre^ he ventured to 

G A R R I C K. 305 

tmmottnce that Clairon would excel all competitors ; which 
prediction was fulfilled. 

After he had been abroad about a year and a half, he 
turned his thoughts homewards ; and arrived in London in 
April 1765. But, before he set out from Calais, be put 
in practice his usual method of preventing censure, and 
blunting the edge of ridicule, by anticipation, in a poem 
called ^< The Sick Monkey," which he got a friend to 
print in London, to prepare bis reception there. The 
plan of it was, the talk and censure of other animals and 
reptiles on him and his travels. Wretched, surely, must 
be the life of a man exposed continually to public inspect* 
tion, if thus afraid of censure and ridicule, and afraid with 
so little reason. In the mean time the piece died still- 
born ; and bis historian says, ** is among the few things 
he wrote, which one would wish not to remember.*' After 
his return, he was not so constantly employed as formerly 
in the fatigues of acting; he had now more leisure to 
apply himself in writing; and in a few months he produced 
two dramatic pieces. 

' In 1769 he projected and conducted the memorable Jur 
bilee at Stratford, in honour of Shakspeare ; so much ad« 
mired by some, and so much and so justly ridiculed by 
others. The account of it, by bis biographer, is curious, 
under more points of view than one. On the death of Mr. 
Lacy, in 1773, the whole management of the theatre de- 
volved on him. He was now advanced in years ; he had 
been much afflicted with chronical disorders; sometimes 
with the gout, oftener with the stone : for relief from the 
latter of which, he had used lixiviums and other soap me- 
dicines, which in reality hurt him. Yet his friends 
thought that a retirement from the stage, while he pre- 
served a moderate share of. health and spirits, would b^ 
more unfriendly to him, than the prosecution of a business, 
which he could make rather a matter of amusement, than 
a toilsome imposition. Accordingly, he continued upon 
^he stage some time after ; but finally left it in June 1776, 
and disposed of his moiety of the patent to messieurs She- 
ridan, Linley, and Ford, for 35,000/. In Christmas, 1778, 
when upon a visit at eavl Spencer^s in the country, he was 
aeized with a (it of his old disorder ; but recovered so far, 
as to venture upon his journey home, where he arrived, at 
his house in the AdeJphi, Jan. 15, 1779. The next day, 
he sent for his apothecary, who found him dressing hixii* 
Vol. XV. X 

c Sp6 G A R R I C K 

. self, and seemingly in good health ; but somewhat alaraiedy 
that he had not for many hours discharged any urine^ cen^ 
4trary to his usual habit. The disorder was* incessantly 
gaining ground, and brought on a stupor, which increased 
'gradually to' the time of his death. This happened JalL 
:20, without a groan* The celebrated suigeon Mn Pett 
-pronounced his disease to be a palsy of the kidneys. His 
body was interred with great magnificence in Westminster- 
abbey, and in 1797 a monument was erected to his me^ 
;mory, at the expence of a private friend. Garrick is-sup- 
:po$ed to have died worth 140,000/. 

Mr. Garrick in his person was low, yet welUshaped and 
.neatly proportioned, and, having added the qualifications 
.of dancing and fencing to his natural gentility of manner, 
bis deportment was constantly easy and engaging. His 
complexion was dark, and the features of bis mce, wbtcb 
irere pleasingly regular, were animated by a full black eye, 
brilliant and penetrating. His voice was clear, raelodidiMi, 
land commanding-, with a great compass of variety; and, 
from Mr. Garrick's judicious manner of conducting it, en* 
joyed that articulation and piercing distinctness, which 
Tendered it equally intelligible, even to the most distant 
parts of an audience, in the gentle whispers of murmuring 
love, the half-smothered accents of infelt passion, or tte 
professed and sometimes aukward concealments of an 
aside speech in comedy^ as in the rants of rage, the darings 
^f despair, or all the open violence of tragical enthusiasm. 
. As to his particular fort or superior cast in acting, it 
.would be perhaps as difficult to determine it, as ic w6uld 
be minutely to describe his several excellencies in the very 
difFerent casts in which he at different times thought prCK 
-per- to appear. Particular superiority was swallowed v^ 
in bis nniversality ; and although it, was someiimes cod- 
tended, that there were performers equal to bim in their 
jowu respective forts of pbying, yet even their partizans 
'^ould not deny that there never existed any one perforiner 
tbat came near bis excellence in so great a variety of parts. 
rTragedy, comedy^ and farce, the lover and the hero, the 
jealous husband who suspects his wife's virtue withoiijt 
^ause, and the thoughtless lively rake who attaqks it withotAt 
design, were all alike open to lijs imitation, and all alike 
did honour to his execution. Every passion of the buniaii 
breast seemed subjected to his powers of expression^; 'nsi]^, 
:even time itself appeared to stand still or advance ai^ be 

G A R R I C K. SOr 

urottld have it Rage and ridiculey doubt and 'despair^ 
iraosport and tenderneM, compassion and oontempt, love^ 
jealousy^ fear, fury, and simplicity, all took in turn posr 
•ession of bis features, while each of them ir^ turn appeared 
|o be the sole possessor of those features. One night old 
«ge sat on his countenance, as if the wrinjklet she had 
stampt there were indelible ; the next the gaiety and blopia 
of youth seemed to overspread his face, and smooth eveo 
those marks which time and muscular conformation migb^ 
have really made there. I'hese truths were acknowledged 
by all who saw him in the several characters of Lear or 
, Hamlet, Richard, Doril^s, Romeo, or Lusignan; in his 
Ranger, Bays, . Drug^er, Kitely, Brute, or Benedict. In 
short, nature, the mistress from whom alone this great per- 
former borrowed all bis lessons, being in herself ioexhausti- 
ble, aad her variations not to be numbered, it is by no 
means surprizing, that this, her darling son, should find 
an unlimited scope for change and diversity in bis manner 
of copying from her various productions ; and, as if she 
had from !his cradle marked him out for her truest repre- 
sentative, she bestowed on him such powers of expjressipii 
in the muscles of his face, as no performer, ever yet pos* 
sessed ; not only for the display of a single passion, but also 
for the combination of those various canSicts with which 
the human breast at tiroes is fraught; so that in bis coun« 
tenance, even when his lips were silent, bis meaning stoo^ 
pourtrayed in characters too legible for any to mistake it. 

His conduct as a manager, and his private character, have 

jbeen variously estimated. No .man perhaps had more 

friends, or more admirers, but he could not fail to create 

enemies by a superiority which so frequently bid defiance 

to rivalsbip. On the other baud it is allowed that as he 

excelled all other performers in dramatic merit, so he also 

excelled them in jealousy of fame. This seems to have 

l^ceompanied him through the whole course of his life, and 

foprmea a perp^uitl source of uneasiness to himself, fnd 

:ridicule tQ his enemies. As by his vast riches he |iad the. 

-power of doing good, his liberality has been asserted by 

one party, and denied by another. But it is impossible to 

refuse credit to the many instances of generosity which his 

ji^iograpbers have produced, and as impossible to reQOQcila, 

Ihem with the common notions of avarice. This, however^ 

•aftd other questk)ns respecting the public and private eha* 

rapter of GarVick, will be found amply discussed lu 91^ 

X 2 

808 O A R R I C K. 

references. As a performer it has been again and agaift 
^aid) that we ^ shall ne^er look on his like again/* |l sen* 
terice sufficiently mortifying to the lovers of the draoia^ 
but which perhaps may be confirmed without any positive 
deflect in the merit of his successors. If another Gsirrick 
in all respects equal to the former should appear, and we 
may form the supposition, there would always be an tn- 
disiinct, traditumaty idea of the original English Rosciut, 
which would obstruct the fame of a new candidate. The 
idea of Garrick must soon become of this description, a^ 
the generations who admired him are fast decaying, and iu 
a few years criticism will be able to do no more than strike 
a balance between the contending opinions of his firiends 
and foes. 

As a writer, Garrick claims but a second place. There 
is in the Biog. Dramatica a list of about forty drainatie 
pieces, some original, but chiefly alterations of old plays, 
or light temporary pieces. Besides these he wrote some 
minor poems, and a vast number of prologues and epi- 
logues. The general character of all these is vivacity, 
neatness, and a happy adaptation to the occasion. ' 

GARSAULT (Francis Alexakdek de), was grandson 
of M. de Garsault, groom of the king*s grand stable, whom 
M. de Colbert made inspector general of the studs 
throughout the kingdom in 1663. His uncle was captain 
of the ktng^s studs, and he was appointed captain in rever- 
sion, but did not succeed to the place; he nevertheless 
paid much attention to horses, and was by that means qua- 
lified to publish his *' Nouveau parfait Marechal,^' the 
fourth edition of which is, 1 770, 4to. It is the best Frencli 
work on that subject; nor has it been exceeded by any 
that have since appeared. M. de Garsault had before 
translated Snape*s " Anatomy of a Horse** from the Eng- 
lish, which translation appeared in 1737, 4to. In 1756 he 
pobiished his treatise on carriages, including a description 
of a coach that cannot be overturned ; which he made use 
6f a long time. " Le Guide du Cavalier,** 1769, 12mo, 
is the last work published on horses by this author; he 
afterwards employed his leisure hours in painting, engrsv- 
rng, and several other works ; as '' les Faits des Causes 
celebres,^' 12mo; " le Notionaire de ce qu*il y a de plus 

> Davies and Murphy's Lives of Q^rrick.— Biog. Dramat40a.-«*Nicboify 

JBowyer.-T-Cumberlaml's lAta. — Dr. Johnson's Work'— -Qod Life bjr.Boswe^.-f 
Msron'a life of Whitehead, p. 63, &4, &c. &c. 

' GAR SAUL T. 30© 


^liie dans lea Connoissances acqaifes/* 8vo. He wrote 
alsQ in the coUectioQ of the academy of the sciences, the 
arta of the tennis-racket • oiaker^ the peruke-maker^ tbq 
^ylor, the sempstresSt the sheemakeri the harness-maker, 
the ^ler« and ^ eollection of plants engraved, in 4 vols, 8vo. 
A palsy brought him insensibly to his grave, November 
1778, at the age of 86.' 

GARTH (Sir Samuel), a celebrated poet and physician, 
%aa born of a good family in Yorkshire, and sent from 
school to Peter-house-coUege in Cambridge; where .mak-* 
ing choice of physic for bis profession, be acquainted him- 
ftelf with the fundamental principles and preparatory re-* 
quitttes of that i^Mful science^ At the same time he bad 
an admirable genius and taste for polite literature ; andr 
being' much delighted with those studies, he continjued at 
college, . employing bis leisure hours in that waj^, till ha 
took the degree of M. D. July 7, 1691. Soon after this, 
resolving to undertake tbe practice of bis profession in* 
London, he offered liimself a candidate to the college of 
physicians.; and, being examined March 12, 1691-2, was 
admitted fellow June. 26th following. 
, . The college at this time was engaged in* tha( cbaritafale 
prcgect, of prescribing to the .sick poor ^ gratis, and fur« 
^i^ing them also with medicines at prime cost. The 
foundation of this charity was first begun by an unanimous 
YQte passed Jul^r 2^i 1687, ordering all their members to 
gire their, advjoe gratis, te aJl their sick neighbouring 
poor^ . when desired, within the city of London, or seven 
miles. round* Wit^ the view of rendering this tote mord 
<^&pt«ial, fmother was passed August 13, 1688, that the 
Ubotatory of ihe college, should be fitted up for preparing 
medicines for tbe.poort and also the room adjoining, for 
airepofitory^ But due apothecaries found means to raise 
a. party afterwards in the college against it ; so that the 
design could nol^ be carried into execution. The college 
was in this . embipiled slater when our author became a 
&llow; and eoii$^rci9^ heartily with those members who 
jreffolredt . notwithstafidM^ tbe disoouragemenDs. tbey met 
nJnhf . tp pftHtoete Ihe enerity^ an order was made by the 
iinanimous consent of the society in 16S4, requiring strict 

*< '  By flift pftof Hi«re iflitf ersliMd tudh «r tHe pcf ish #li«te' th«y dw^tt, to wl^icA 
aibrou^t€erUi6ate«of tbftif beln^fso, \tett added tl;« tihtirclmardeni and 
'•igotd by-tlw rtdor, Ticsr, mt cumM tfteilteera. 

' Diet Hii^t. de L»ATOc»t. 


obedience ftom all their members to the order of ISH/ 
This new order was presented to the City on June IS^* 
1695, for their assistaince ; but this too being defeated hj 
the dissolution of the common-council at the end of the 
year, a proposition was made to the college, Dec. 22, 1696, 
for a subscription by the fellows, candidates,* and Ucen* 
tiates, for carrying on the charity, by preparing medicines 
in a proper dispensatory for that purpose. 
' In the same year. Dr. Garth, detesting the behaviour of 
the apothecaries, as weii as of some members of the faculty 
in this afiuir, resolved to expose them, which he accord- 
ingly exectited, with peculiar spirit and vivacity, in his 
admirable poem entitled << The Dispensary?* The first 
edition came out in 1699,^ and it went through, three im- 
pressions in a few niionths. This extraordinary encourage- 
ment induced him to make several improvements in it; 
and, in 1 706, be published the sixth edition, with several 
descriptions and episodes never before^ printed *. In 1697 
he spoke the annual speech in Latin before the college, on 
8t. Luke^s day ; which being soon after published, left it 
doubtful, whether the poet or the orator- was most to be 
admired. In his poem he exposed, in good satire, the 
false and mean-spirited brethren of the foculty; In the' 
oration, he ridiculed the multiforious classes of the quacks, 
with spirit, and not without huri^our. 

So much literary merit did not fail to gain him great 
reputation as a polite scholar, and procured him ftdteit<» 
tance into the company and friendship of most of the no- 
bility and gentry of both sexes ; who being inclined hf 
his agreeable conversation to try bis skill in his profession, 
were still more pleased to find him answer their wishes 
tad expectations. By ^uch m^nis^ he came into vast prac- 
tice, and endeared himself to his patients by his polite- 
ness, agreeable conversation, generosity, and grMt good^ 
nature.' It was these last qualities that* prompted him in 
170rto provide a suitable interment for the sbamefnUy 
abandoned corpse of Dryden ; wbkb ha caused to be 
brought to the ccrflege of physiciai»i proposed and encoa« 
raged by his own example a subscription for defraying the 
^ • •  ' 

^ Pope obsertretl that th« Disptni aiy 8om«thiiigof poetical ardour; and boios 

Had been corrected in-eTery edition, no longer •upnortedbyaooideat^i and 

and tbat wwery chang^e was an iinf»iv>ve. extrinsic popalariiy» hst icaroely bsca 

inent. Dr. Johnson, boweTer, ,addft nble to ioppor(it8el£. . 
not witboot FtasoBy tbat it «tiU wants 

G A- R T H.* ^* 


Mpence^of II funeral, pronounced 8 suitable ofalioH' ovei^' 
Ule fetnains of the great poet, and afterwards attended the: 
aolemeity from Warwick-lane to Westminster-abbey r 1 1 is^ 
commonly deserved, that the making of a man*s foi tuaeis ^e^ 
nerally owing to some one lucky incident ; and nothing was' 
perhaps of more service in that respect to Dr. Garth, tbanP 
ibe. opportunity he had of shewing his true character by- 
this memorable act of generosity. 

' . Inhis Harveian speech he had stepped a little aside 
^rom the principal subject, to introduce a panegyric on* 
king William,, and to record the blessings of the revotution« 
The address is warm and glowing ; and to shew that his^ 
iiaod and heart went together, be entered with the first 
members who formed the famous Kit-Kat club, which* 
consisted of above thirty noblemen and gentlemen^ and 
was erected in 1703^ purely with the design of distinr 
guisbing themselves by an active zeal for the protestaiu 
succession in the house of Hanover^. TJie design of 
these gentlemen to recommend and encqurage Joyalty, by 
the powerful influence of pleasantry, wit, and humour, 

- furnished Dr. Garth with an opportunity of distingaishvng 
'bimiself among the most eminent in those quahties, by the 

extempore epigrams he made upon the* toasts of the club, 
, yfhi^h: were inscribed on their drinking-glasses. 

In politics, Dr. Garth ^ras prompted not more by 

* S^^ sense than by good disposition, to make bis muse 
-fufeeervient to bis interest, only by proceeding uniformly 

• itt 'titt : same, road, without any malignant deviations. 
Thus, as he had enjoyed the sunshine of the court 

. tiiifilig k»rd:Godolphin's administration in queen Anne's 
inig^f\timt .minister bad the pleasure to find him among 
-lfcd&Sil.t>£ those who paid the muse's tribute on the 
^S^yeyse .of his fortune in 1710^ and in the same un* 
-llbangeaUle spirit^ when both the sense and poetry of 
. tbfts jiddress i'^re^ttad^ed by Prior with all the outrage 
' ^ifMoly .vmileocef ' be took no notice of it ; but had the 
' nafcisfaptton to see .an .unanswerable defence made for him 

- byJ^ddisDO^ - The/t^sk, indeed, was easy, and that elegant 
writer in yMi ccmclttuoaof it c^serves^ that the^ame person 

";• . . . ' •' 

- '• * Bayer'i Life of qaeen Anii«. The with tarts» and other articlee fer the 

- iiame of kit-Kat w«s taken from oiie table. Jacob Tooson was their secre- 
' €3iYistepfaer* Kat, a pa8try-«oook, -near - taiy,- and in virtue of that offiee, be- 

^le MTeWiiy Kinf -etraet,)VeiUiiinster» came poasf $ie4. of the pieturea of. aii 
where they met, who often served thein the original memberi of iM club^ 

ax* GARTH. 

wbb has endeavoured to prove that be i^bo wmte die << Dhh^ 
peasarj" was no poet^i will very suddenly undertake to^ 
§he^ that he who gained the battle of Blenheim, was wr 
general. Thexe was, indeed, no fieed of a ptopbetie 
apirit to inspire the prediction. It was written in Sept. 
1710; and tiie following year, in Deoember, tbe^dukeof 
Marlborough was removed from all his places, and having^ 
obtained leave to go abroad, embarked at Dover for Od** 
tend, Nov. 30, 1712. Dr. Gai^th had lived in the partica* 
lar favour and esteem of this g^reat man while in power, 
and when he was out of power be lamented in elegant verse, 
bis disgrace and voluntary exile. 

In the mean time, with the same feelings, he had writ^' 
ten a dedication for an intended edition of Lucretius^ in 
17 1 J , to his late majesty king George L then elector of 
Brunswick; and on the accession of that prince to the 
&rone, had the honour of being knighted with the duk^ 
of Marlborough's sword, was appointed king^s physioiati 
in ordinary, and physician general to the army* These 
were no more than just rewards even of his medical merit; 
He bad gone through the office of censor 'of the college in 
1702, and had practised always with great reputation, aad 
a strict regard to the honour and interest of the faculty ; 
never stooping to prostitute the dignity of his prefession, 
through mean and sordid views of self-interest, by courting 
even the most popular and wealthy apothecaries. In a 
steady adherence to this noble principle, he concurred 
with the much celebrated Dr. RadclifFe, with whom lie waa 
also often joined in physical consultations. 

Garth had a very extensive practice, but was extremely 
moderate in bis ^ws of advancing his own fortune ; bii 
humanity and good-nature inelining him more to make use 
of the great interest he had with persons in powev, fcv the 
support ^and encouragement of other men of letters. He 
chose ^o live with the geeat in that degree of indqseudeney ' 
and freedom, which became a man possessed of a tuperier ' 
geniu% ef ishidi he was daily ffnag fresh proofs to the ' 
public^ One of these was addressed to the late duke of 
Newcastle, in 1715, entitled *< Claremoot ;'' being wite^* 
ten on the occasion of giving that name to a villa belon^n^i 
tor tbat nobleman, who was then only earl of Clare, wnici 
he had adorned with a beautiful and sumptuous structures 
Among the Latia writersi Ovid appears to heve been the 

GARTH. a^l5f 

doctor'ft favottrile ; and it has been thought tbat there 
aome raaciQiblance in their dispositionsi mannerfy and 
poetry* One of his last performanceSi was an edition of 
0?id*s Metamorphosesy translated by various hands^ ia 
which he rendered the whole 14tb book» and the story oC 
€!i(^iii in the 1 5th. It was published in 1 7 1 7p and h^ 
pie&xed m pre£sce| wherein he not only gives an idea p£ 
the work, and points out its principal beautieSf but ahewa 
the uses of the poeoi^ and bow it may be read to most ad- 

The distemper which seised hiln tbe ensuing year, ^nd 
ended not but with his life, caused, a general concerui and 
was particularly testified by lord Lansdown, a brother 
poet, Uu>Bgh of a different party, in a copy of versus 
written on the occasion^ He died after a short illnesSf 
which he bor« with great patience, January .18, 17 1 8-) 9* 
His loss was lamented by Pope, in a letter to a fdend^ w 
foUows : << The best«-oatnred of men," says tbi? isiaoh* 
admijred poet^ *< Sir Samuel Garth, has left me in the 
truest conoern for his loss4 His death was veiy heroiQal# 
and yet unalEected enough to have made a saint or a pbi^ 
loaopher fismoiuu But ill tongues and worse hearts bav^ 
branded even his last moments, as wrongfully as they did 
bis life, with icreligbn. You must have heard many tal^ 
on this subject; I ImiI if ever tberft was a good ehrialiaii^ 
wsthotti kaMKMig himself lo be so» it was Dr. Garth." ThtSi 
however, is nothing against positive evidence, that Dr« 
Garth was a free-thinker, and a sensoalisi ; and the latter 
part of it, his bemg a good Christian without knowing 
Uoiaelf to he ao^ if it be not aonaense^ is a proof tbat Pope 
cannot deny what he is angry to hear, anld lol^b tocoallsast 
Ur* Johnson observes^ tbat !^ Pcpe afterwards declared 
Idmself. convinced that Garth died in the cMsm^nion irf 
the church of Borne/' and adds a sentiment of Lowth'i^ 
*^ that there is less distance than is thought beiwieen scep^ 
lieism and pq>enr; and that a mind, wearied, with per^ 
petual doufa^ willingly seeks repose in tbe bosom .pf aa 
iafalUUe chnrch." If Dc. JxJmaou took this decWilation of 
Pope's from Spence's '* MS Anecdotei^" to which, it ia 
known he- bad aocess, he did not transcribe tbe whole* 
What Pope said is thus given bv Spenee : << Garth talked 
in « less Ubertine manner than be bad been used about thil 
three last years of his life. He was rather doubtful and 

514 GARTH. 

fearful than irretigioiis. It was usual for hioi to say, tluil^ 
if there was any such thing as religion, it was aiaoiig th»^ 
Boman catholics. He died a papist, (as I was assured by 
Mr. Blount, who called the father to him in bis last mo* 
ments) probably from the greater efficacy, in which we 
give the sacrameots. He did not take any care of bimaelf 
in his last illness, and had talked for three or four years a» 
dne tired of living.'' The same MS. insinuates that thia 
impatience of life had nearly at one time pErompted him to 
suicide. -  ' 

* Dr. Garth was interred Jan. 29, in the -dtarob of Qar- 
fow*on-tbe*hill> near London, where he bad caused <« 
vault to be built for himself and his family ; being .^ur^ 
vived by an only daughter, married to the faonoorabie eo^ 
lonel William Boyle, a younger son -nf due-honourable eor 
lonel Henry Bpyle, nncie to the last earl of Burltngtfui of 
that name.' 

GAilTHSHORE (Maxwell), an eminent physician, 
and> very .amiable man, was born at Kircudbrigbt, the 
prineipal town of the county of that name in Scotland, 
Oct S8, 1730. 'He was the son of the rev. Greorge Gavtb»* 
•bore,' the minister of Kircudbright, and received hi^ 
early education at home. At the age of fourteen * he waa 
placed with a surgeon-^apothecary in Edinburgh, wheae 
be attended the medical classes'of the university, and; the 
infirmary. In his twenty-second year, wlmi he had 
finished bis medical studies, he entered the army, aa nmte 
to surgeon Huck (afterwards Dr« fiuck. Sanndors) m ioefl 
Charles Hay's regiment. In.lTi&he bad a»Qpportnm^ 
of reiinquisbiiig this service for the more advaiatageeua sin 
tuation of'sncceeding'to the practice of Dr. John FcMtyce, 
« pbysidanat Uppingham, in Budandsbite, who was 
about to remove to London. In this place, Dr. Garth* 
shore Tc^hled * until 1763^ giving much satisfaiction by *hls 
activity,., asaicluity, and successful practice ip physic ispd 
inidwifeiy, in a very extensive range of covntry* Hero 
also he formed some valuable connections, and in 1^5B 
married a young lady heiress to a small estate. Thia: laat 
advantage encouraged him to remove to London in tt^S, 
and after a short residence in Bedlbrd*street^ Covenir 
garden,' he settled ina hcmse in St. Martinis lane, where 
he continued :nearly fifty years. .His professional vi^ws m 

' Bioff. Brit« — JobasoB's Lires.— >Cibber's Lives.— Spence's Anecdotes, MS:; 

* • 

G > R T H S H O R £. SIJ 

doming to London were amply gratified*; but here h^ 
was soon assailed by a heavy domestic affliction, the loss 
of his wife, which took place the 8th of March, 1765. 
From this calamity Dr. G. sought relief in the practice of 
bis public duties. His natural susceptibility, the instruc- 
tion of his father, the correspondence of Mr. Maitland, an 
Mrly friend arid patron, had deeply impressed him with 
devotion to his Maker, and taught him to consider it a» 
inseparable from good-will and beneficence to men. Vo- 
lumes of his Diary, kept for the whole of his life in I^n« 
don, and amounting to many thousands of close- written 
pages, in contractions very difficult to decypher, consist 
of medical, miscellaneous, and eminently pious remarks, 
meditations, Mid daily <^abillations of praise and thanks- 
giving, with fervent prayers to be kept steady m that course 
of well-doing essential to happineiss in the pvesent life and 
in that which is to come. The tone and teniper, 'elevation 
and energy, acquired by thi^. sublime heavenly . inter- 
course, appeared indispensable to this good man, not only 
as the consolation of sorrow, and the disposer to patience 
and resignation under the ills of life, bat as ttie sprifig and 
principle of unwearied perseverance in active virtue i the 
liberal, charitable exercise of the profeaion t^ 
he was devoted* From this time forward he <»n« 
for nearly half a century cultivating nfedtcine in all 
its bnmches, most attentive to every new improvement in 
tbemf, physician to the British lying-in hospiul, feU 
low of the rojral and antiquarian societies, renderings his 
bowie an asylum for the poor, as well a^ a centre of cooT- 
■ranication for the learned i for Ins connection witb the 
kigfaer orders of men never prevented his habitual atten- 
tions and services to the less fortunate: in geneml, to ^nd 

^ Am ma aciBoadMury be wag ac- f In 1769 he read befcre th&jocifCy 

BQOirledged by the best judi^i to hare of physiciani a cate of fatal tleas, 

had tbe followiof very admirable qua- wfaich was publiihed in tiM foorth ysI. 

ktifM: << He wafestremelypatieat, as ofMed-Obt. and Boqairiei. Andia 

loQf as patience was a virtue ; and in the same year two cases of retrovert^ 

I of difficulty or of extreme danger. Uterus, which were published in the 

hi deeided with qsiekaess and great fifth volmne. la 17S9 he pablishedin 

Mgment | and he bad always a mind the I^oadoo Medical Journal, ObBer«> 

sufficiently firni to enable his hands to Tations on Extra-uterine cases and 

•a#ea*e that vhieh hid head had die- ruptmnes of the Tubes and Uterus; and ' 

fated." Sir O. Baker made him ae* In the same year sent to the royal so^ 

quainted with the celebrated Dr. Wil- cieiy.a remarkable case of numerous 

Mara Hunter, through whose recom* Births/ with obserrations ; printed in 

■Mndation and interest Dr. Oarthshora the 17th Toloma of the Philosophical 

«as4:hosett physiciai^- to. the hospitiil Toma^Qiiy* 
In Browolow-strcet. 

S16 G A R T H S H OR £*• 

in need of his asustonce was the surest recoQamendaliaOn 
to his partiality. 

To the last he maintaiDed bis gaiety and briskaesf ; and, 
in company with bis friends, was always ready to give wayr 
to those innocent sallies of pleasantry* that facetiousnea» 
and hilarity which are the natural fruity of an unblemished, 
lifei and of a benevolent disposition. In 1795 be married' 
a second wife 9 but she died long before him* The day. 
previous to his death he. said to a foend* in the wonls of: 
Grotius, ^^ Hen vitam perdidi . Qperose nihil agendo t\ 
adding,^ that be b^d firm reliance on God's goodpeas, 
througb Christ H^ died ne^it dayi the 1st MarcE* i&l2>, 
and was interred in BunbUUfields burying^gmund. . > 

. In person he bore fo striking a resemblance to the iirsti 
earl of Chatham, that he was sometimes mistaken for bim^ 
This likeni^ss once produced considerable ^nsation in tb.f^ 
house of commons. Lord Chatham was poioted to in the 
gallery ; all believed him to be (here ; the person really, 
present was Dr. Garthsbore. He died worth about 5$,Q00L 
and by his. will, made only a few day9 before hit deaths 
after the payment of a considerable number of legacies^i 
names as residuary legatee, John Maitlandf etc^ M. PJ . ..; 
. GARZI (Louia), born at Rome in 1640, was adiscipW 
of Andrea Saccbi» and consideir^d by many as an eqvM^^^ ii 
not superior rival of Carlo Marat. /. His painlings are not) 
much known in this country, but in Italy are cAAnXmA 
for the highest excelleoicies.of <:olouriiig, deaigni. and cokn4 
position* He ^ved a considerable time . at Naples^ but 
ir^turned before \ki» death t^o Romey where he Jnd «Mim<*. 
menced his career, ^ndat the age. of. eighty,, pointed. tho 
dome of the cburch of Stigppatie (by order of CiementXLX 
which was reckoned his mp&t. perfect, wodu He lived, io 
complete it, and died in 1721, having survived a son who 
attained great ex^cellence in painting, and much imitate4 
bis father's manner.^ 

GARZONI (THOMA9), anitaliati writer of some note, was 
bom in 1 549, at Bagnacavallo, near Ferrara ; be was a regi^^ 
lar canon lateran, and died in hsaown countryi 1589, let 40^ 
He had chiefly educated himself^ and learned Hebrew and 
Spanish without a master* He was author of several moKal 
works, printed at Venice, 1617, 4to. But the principal 
pro4uctiQn of this, active writer and general read^; ia §n^ 

> Qeot. Mag. toI. LXXXIt > iTArgeitvinei t^. L^^FUtiD^CMi, . 

G A R e O N L «i7 

jtitM '' La Piazza universale di tutti le profession!: dd 
mondo/' a work of infinite labour and considerable. use at 
th» time it was written, aa the author bad almost all the 
jnaterials ta seek, there being no direct model on so ex* 
tensive a seale then extant. It seems first to have been 
published at Venice, the year in which he died, and after- 
wards went dirougb innumerable editions. Superficial 
knowledge only is to be found in bis book ; but it points 
out where more and better information may be found. It 
has been truly said by Niceron, that the works of Garzoni 
prove him to have dipped into all the sciences, and suffi- 
ciently manifest the extent of his knowledge, and of what 
he would have been capable with a regular education and 
a longer life. His reflections, when he allows himself 
time to make them, and room in his book for their inser* 
tlon, are excellent But the task he had^ set. himself waa 
too great for a single, mind, or the bodily labour of an in* 
dividual. It is extremely difficult to render the title of 
this book in English ; the word Piazza has twelve or four* 
teen different meanings and shades of meaning in the 
Gru^ca ; it implies a square or market*place appropriated 
to commerceb Perhaps '' the universal commerce of all 
the arts and professions in the world*' may nearly express 
the author's meaning. ^ 

GASCOIGNE (Gkorqe), an old English poet of con** 
stderable merit, was born of an ancient and honourable 
family in Essex, and was son and heir of sir John Gas* 
coigne, who, for some reason not assigned by his bio<* 
grapher. Whetstone, chose to disinherit him. Previously 
to this ha»h step, he had been privately educated under 
a clergyman of the name of Nevinson, perhaps Stephen 
Nevinson, LL. D. prebendary, and commissary of the city 
and diocese of Canterbory* After this he was removed^ 
either to Oxford or Cambridge. Wood says, he <* had 
his education in both the universities, though chiefly, as 
he conceives, in Cambridge ;'' but Gascoigne himself, in 
his << Steele-Glasse/' informs us that he was a member of 
the university of Cambridge, without mentioning Oxford. 
Bis progress at Cambridge is unknown, but he reipoved 

. from it to Gray's-inn, for the purpose of studying the law. 

^t is probable that in both places he wrote a considerable 
Dumber of his poems, those of the amatory kind partica^ 

» Niceron, toK XXXVl.-*-MorerJ.— R«e$'s Cy^op«£s. 


larly, as he seems to include them aoKmg his yonthfut 


Wood now informs us, that Gascoigne '' having a ramb- 
ling and unfixed head, left Gray's*mn, went to varioua 
cities in Holland, and became a soldier of note, which fad 
afterwards professed as much, or more, as learning, and 
therefore made him take this motto, Tam Marti quam 
Mercuiio, From thence he went to France to visit the 
fashions of the royal court, there, where he fell in love 
with a Scottish dame.** In this there is a mixture of truth 
and error. The story of the Scottish dame has no better 
foundation than some lines in his <^ Herbes,*' written pro- 
bably in an assumed character. His being in France is y«t 
more doubtful, and perhaps the following is .nearly the 
fact. While at Gi*ay's-inn, he incurred the expences ot 
a fashionable and courtly life, and was obliged to sell his 
patrimony, whatever that might be, and it would appear 
that his father, dissatisfied with his extravagance, refused 
him any fartlier assistance, and probably about this, disia<« 
herited him. 

Without blaming his father, farther than by calling his 
disinheritance ^^ a froward deed,'' he now resolved to as^ 
sum^ the airs of independence, in hopes that his courtly 
friends would render him in reality independent; but hct 
soon found that their favours were not to be obtained with* 
oiit solicitations incompatible with a proud spirit* A more 
honourable resource then presented itself. William prince 
of Orange was at this time endeavouring to emancipate 
^he Netherlands from the tyranny of the Spanish monarchy, 
and Gascoigne, prompted by the hope of gaining lauretiT 
in a field dignified by pati'iotic bravery, embarked on the 
19th of March, 1572, for Holland. The vessel bein|f 
under the guidance of a drunken Dutch pilot, was run 
aground, and twenty of the crew who had taken to the 
iong*boat w^re drowned. Gascoigne, however, and his 
friends remained at the pumps, and being enabled again 
to put ^to sea, landed safe in Holland, where, haying obi 
tained a captain's commission under the prince of Orangey 
he acquired considerable military reputation, but ai| 
unfortunate quarrel with .his colptiel retarded. his career^ 
Oonscious of his deserts, be repaired immediately to Deli^ 
and resolyed to resign his commission to Uie hands Iroin 
;wbich be received it ; the prince in vain endeavouiiog i0 
^lose the breach between his officers. ' 

G A S C O I G,N E. 31^ 

Daring this nieg^iation a circumstance occnrred which 
bad nearly cost our poet his life. A lady at the Hague 
(then in the possession of the enemy) with whom' Gas- 
coigne had been on intimate terms, had his portrait in her 
hands, and resolving to part with it to himself alone, wrote 
A fetter to him on the subject, which fell into the hands of 
his enemies in the camp ; from this paper they meant t6 
hare raised a report unnivourable to his loyalty : but upon 
its reaching his hands, Gascoigne, conscious of his fidelity^,' 
laid it immediately before the prince, who saw through 
their design, and gave him passports for visiting the lady 
at the Hague : the bilrghers, however, watched his mo« 
tions with malicious caution, and he was called in derisionr 
•*the Green Knight." Although disgusted with the in^ 
gratitude of those on whose side he fought, Gascpigne still 
retained his commission, till the prince coming personally 
to the siege of Middleburg, gave him an opportunity of 
displayhig his zeal and courage, and rewarded him with 
SOO gilders beyond his regular pay, and a promise of fu-^ 
ture promotion. He was, however, surprised soon afiter 
by 3000 Spaniards, when commanding, under captain 
Sheffield; 500 Englishmen lately landed, but retired iii 
good order at night, under the walls of Leyden.; the jea- 
lousy of the Dutch was then displayed by their refusing to 
dpen their gates, and Gascoigne with his band were in 
consequence made captives. At the expiration of twelve 
days bis men were released, and the officers after aii im* 
{»risonment of four months, were sent back to England. 

On hts return to England, he resided partly in 'Gray's- 
inn, and partly at Walthamstow. In his ^^ Flowers" he 
infbrfkMi us, that be had, in the midst of his youth, deter* 
diined to abandon all vaine delights, and to return to 
Gray^8*inn, there to u ndertake. a^am the study of the com* 
inon law ; and that at the request of five gentlemen of the 
inn, namely Francis and Anthony Kinwelm^rsh, Messrs. 
Vaughan, Nevile, and Courtop, he wrote what he calls his 
" Memoires.*' These tasks, however, may have been per- 
formed at an earlier period of lif'e^ if it can be proved that 
he left the inn twice before this time^ but his general de4 
$ign now was to trust to his wit, and to publish his early 
pa^ms, and those other works, written in his more serious 
moments, that were intended to counteract the licentious 
tendency of his amatory verses. In the summer of 1575, 
be aocompefiied. queen Elizabeth in pne of her stately pror 

520 fi A S C O I G N E. 

gresses, and wrote for her amusement^ ia the month of 
July, a kind of mask, entitled ** The Princely Pleatofes of 
Kenelnrortb Castie/' Some of the verses were not only 
written, but spoken by him on this occasion ; but the whole 
of the entertaiomenty owing to the unfavourable weather^ 
was not performed. On his return from this progress, bis 
principal residence, while preparing bis works, was at 
Walthamstow. Here it appears, by Whetstone's accocmt, 
be wrote the <^ Steele Glasse,'* the *^ Glass of Government,** 
the *^ Delicate Diet," a book of hunting, and the '< Doom's 
Day Drum/' which last was not published until after his 
death. He left other pieces behind him, some of vdiich 
were afterwards printed in various collections, but without 
his name. 

Although hd enjoyed the esteem of many of his poetiail 
contemporaries, and the patronage of lord Grey of Wilton, 
the earl of Bedford^ sir Walter Rawleigb, and other per« 
sons of distinction ; yet during this period, he eotnpUtns 
bitterly of the envy of rivals, and the malevolence of 
critics, and seems to intimate that, although he appaciently 
bore this treatment with patience, yet it insensibly wore 
bim out, and brought on a bodily distemper which hi» 
physicians could not cure. In all his publications, bd 
takes every opportunity to introduce and bewail the errors 
of his youth, and to atone for any injury, real or suppos^d^ 
which might have accrued to the public from^ perusal of 
his early poems, in which, however, the proportion of 
indelicate thoughts is surely not very great. His biogra* 
phers, following the Oxford historian, have hitherto placed 
his demise at Walthamstow in 1578; but Whetstone, on 
whom we can more certainly rely, informs us that he died 
at StamfoM in Lincolnshire, Oct. 7, 1577. He had per* 
baps taken a journey to this place for change of air, ac- 
companied by his friend Whetstone, who was with him 
when he died, so calmly, that the tnoment of his departure 
was not perceived. He left a wife and son behind him, 
whom he recommended to the libenllity of the queen, 
wbedier successfully, or what became of them, cannot nbw 
be known. The registers of Stamford and of Waltham*. 
3tow have been examined without success. 

Akfaough his age is not mentioned by any of his bio- 
graphers, yet from various expressions in his wdrksi it may 
bd conjectured that it did not exceed forty years, and even 
a much shorter period might be fixed upon with great pro<^ 

G A S C O I 6 N E. 321 

babi1i^\ His stay at Cambridge was perhaps not long; iti 
1566, wben bis comedy of the-^* Supposes*' was acted at 
Gray's'iiui, be is denominated 6n€ df ihJe students. In one 
of his prefaces, he- caVU bitnself of middle age ; his •ex- 
ploits in the army are consistent with the prime of life ; 
and it is certain that he did not survive these afbove five 
years. The editix^nsof Gascoigne's works are all extremely 
scarce, and often imperfect An account of them may be 
seen in the late edition of the English poets, from which 
this article is taken. 

If we consider the general merit of the poets in the early 
part of the Elizabethan period, it will probably appear that 
the extreme rarity of Gascotgne'S works has been the chief 
cause of his being so much neglected by modern readers. 
In smoothness and harmony of versification, he yields to 
no poet of bis own time, when these qualities were v^ry 
common ; but bis higher merit is that in every thing he 
discovers the powers and invention of a poet» a warmth of 
sentimeiit tender and natural, and a fertility of fancy, al- 
though this be not always free from the conceits of the 
Italian school. As a satirist, if nothing remained but his 
^'Steele Glasse,*' he maybe reckoned one of the first- 
There is a vein of sly sarcasm In this piece, which appears 
to be original ; and his intimate knowledge of mankind, 
acquired indeed at the expence probably of health, and 
certainly of comfort and independence, enabled him to 
give a more curious picture of the dress, manners, amuse- 
ments, and follies of the times, than we meet with in almost 
any other author. 

• A pamphlet of uncommon rarity has lately been brought 
to light, after a concealment of nearly a century. Bishop 
Tanner is the first who notices this pamphlet, under the 
title of ^< A Remembrance of the welUemploy^d life and 
godly end of George Gascoigne, esq. who deceased at 
Stamford in Lincolnshire, ttb October, 1577, reported by 
Georgie Whetstone.** But it is very extraordinary that 
the learned prelate should inform us of this pamphlet being 
in his possession^ and ait the same time express his doubt 
whether it was the life of this, *6r of -another George Gas- 
coigne, when a very slight inspection must have convinced 
him that it could be no other, and that, in its prinqipal 
facts, it agreed with the account be had just transcribed 
from Wood. Since the antiquities of poetry have become 
a favourite study, many painful inquiries have been made 
Vol. XV. Y 

3S2 Q JkSG Ol an E. 

alter this tr^t, but it could aot be fouiMl ia Tanuei^s li^ 
brarjr, which fonm part of the Bodleiaiiy or io any odier 
collection, private or public, aod 4tuabt% begao to he 
entertained wbethinr 9uch a pamphlet had ever eaistedl^ 
About six or seven years ago, feudwever, it was discover* 
ed in the collectioo of a deceauied gentleoian, a Mr. Voigha 
of the Custoip-bous^ Loudon, and was purchased at ifais 
$ale by Mr. Malone* It consists oi about thirteen pages 
small quarto, black letter, and contains certainly not mwdt 
life, but some particulars unknown to his biogfapheesi 
A transcript of the whole is given in the late edition of the 
English Poets. ^ 

GASCOIGNE (Sir Wiluam), ditef justice of the kingfe 
beuch in the reign of Henry IV. was descended of a noble 
family, originally from Normandy, and born at Grawtbeep 
iu Yorkshire, about 1350. Beiug designed for the law, he 
became a student either at Gray Vina or the Ini^er Tern-*- 
pie * ; and growing eminent in his profession^ was made: 
one of tl^e king's Serjeants at law, Sept. 139S. In OctobeF 
following, he was appointed one of the attornies to Hfery 
IV. then duke of Hereford, on his going into banishmeiit r 
and upon the accession of that prince to the tfarone,^ in 
1399, sat as judge in the xourt of commoBf pleas. .In 
Nov. 1401, be was made chief justice of the king's beneh';. 
and how miich he distinguished himself in that office^ a|k-. 
pears from the several abstracts of his opinions, argumentSg 
distinctions, and d^sisisions, which occur in our aid boofcsr 
of law*reports. 

In July 1403, he was joined in a commission with Ralpb. 
Nevil,.earl of Westmoreland, and othen^ to issue tfa«ir 
power and authojity, for levying forces in. Yorkshire and' 
Northumb^rl^iidt against the insunrectioii of Henry Percys 
earl of tha| county, in favour of Richard IL and,* after tfaiati 
earl bad submittedi was poiuiuated April 14^5, in another 
commissi^a to. treat w^b his rebellious abettors, a.pioch^' 
mation to t\ie p^rp^se being issued ne^trday by. the king at 
Pontefract. These were legal trusts^, which he executed* 
from a principle of gratitude and loyalty,^ with spirit and* 
steadiness. But, on. the taking of archbishop Scroop ^in; 

,* jailer says, tbe latter: Dogdale risdic. p. 308^ edit 1 671* folio. . Tbe 
ttie fornMr, fcom his arms on one of the anus are. Argent, on tt pale Sable> a 
wjiifiiM in.OfSjr'irinQ-b^U. Oris* in- cteaiy-kice Or. 

• ^ JoUnaqnaod Chalmers's edition of theBftglish Poets, with the refereaee»^ 



armsiihe same year, when tiie king re<][mfed him* to pugs 
sentence upon that prielate as a traitor; ih Ms manor-housis 
at Bisboptborp near York, no prospect dt fear or favour 
^oras Mb to corrnpt him to' atny siich Tidlati6A of the sub- 
j^ctsr rights, ^or infringement of tfadse Islws, which sti£- 

ho religious.perdon to Ue brought to a secular or lajr 
trials unless he were a heretic, and first degraded by th^ 
church. He theirefbrei refased td obey the royal tomniand, 
ikid said to his Miajesty : '^ Neither you, my lord the king^ 
nor any liege subject of yours in your name, can legally, 
aecording to the rights of the kihgdom, adjudge si!ny bishop 
to death/' Henry was highly displeased alt this instance 
of his intrepidity ; but his anger must hav'e been shbrt, if, 
2ti Fuller tells uh, Gascoigne had the honotir of knighthood 
conferred on him the same year. HoWeVer that be, it is 
eartain, the king was fully satisfied with his fidelity and 
cin:umspection in treating with the rebels ; and on that 
ao:oant joitied him again in a commission as before, dated 
at Pdntefruct- castle, April 25, 1408. 

Besides the weight of his decisions in the King^s-bench, 
already mentioned, be w&s engaged in reforming and re- 
gulating other public afiairs, pursuant to the resolutions 
aud direction? of the parliament. Of this w6 shall give one 
instance. The attornies being even then growrl by their 
multitude and mal-practice a, public grievance"*^, an act 
was^madein 1410, not only for the reduction' and lijuita* 
tion of them to a certain number for every county, but also 
fer their amendment and correction ; as that they should 
be swotn evety term to deal faithfully alid truly by their 
jdients, and in breach thereof b^ idaprisoned for a twelve- 
mon&, and then make their ransom according to this king's 
will : and it being ferther enacted, that the justices of 
both benches should mak^ this regulation, sir' W. Giiscbigne 
must unavoidably have' had a principal part iu' proiUdting 
th^ general bienefit by redressing thaS grievance. 

Prom his general conduct, as related by historians, there 
ir sufficient reasdtl to phCe air William Oiiscoigne. in the 
rank of chief justices of th^ first merit, both for his ihte« 
grity and abilities, and he had once occasion to distinguisti 

* There wtre^but 140 Uuryeri- aod inccMsed in a little mom than 100 

attoniet Uk Eo^aody. in the time of yean to about 3000; but afterwards 

JBdward I. as appears' in a parlia* they were reckoned at 10,000 by lord 

nent-roli, ann. 20 pf that reigo, in Coke, in £piL to Inst. iv. . 
1292. Yeti Fortescue assures us, they 

y 2 


himself »bove hi$ bretbreo^ by a mexnorable transaction in 
the latter end of this king^s reign. A servant of the prince 
of Wales (afterwards Henry V.) being arraigned for felony 
at the bar of the ItiDg^s-bench ; the news soon reached bis 
tpaster^s ears, who, hastening to the court, ordered him 
to be unfettered, and offered to rescue him. In this i;>eii)g 
opposed by the judge, who commanded him to leave the 
prisoner and depart, he rushed furiously up to the bench^ 
and, as is generally affirmed, struck the chief justice, then 
fitting in the execution of his office. On this sir Williaiii, 
aftier some expostulations upon the outrage, indignity, and 
unwarrantable interruption of the proceedings in thatplace^ 
directly committed him to the king^s bench prison, ther^ 
to wait his father's pleasure; and the prince submitted ^ 
his punishment, with a calmness no less sudden and sur- 
prising, than the offence had been which drew it upon 
him. The king, being informed of the whole affair, in- 
stead of being displeased with the chief justice, returni^ 
thanks to God, ^'Tbat he had given him both a judge wW 
knew bow to administer, and a son who could obey jus- 
tice." This extraordinary event* has been recorded, not 
only in the general histories of the reigns of these two sqt 
vereigns, but celebrated also by the poets ; and particu- 
larly Shakspeare^i in th^ second part of " Henry IV.!' 

This unparalleled exaniple of firmness and civil intrer 
pidity upon that bench, happened in the latter ^cLijf 
Henry IVth's reign, which our chief justice did not long 
survive^ He. was called to the parliament whicb, met ia 
the first year of Henry V. but died before the expiratiqa 
of the year, D^c. 17^ 1413^ He was twice married, apd 
had a train of desqendants by both bis wives : by the for- 
mer, the famous earl of Strafford, in. the reign of Cbarleai I.* 

GASPARINO (Bauzizza), one of the revivers of Ut^» 
rature, and an able grammarian, took his name from the. 
village of Barizizza, near Bergapfio, whqre he was^b^rnia 
1 370. It is thought that he studied at Bergamo, and kept 
a private school tliere. He afterwards became professor 
of the belles lettres at Pavia, Vepipe, Padua^ and Milan* 
He was in this last mentioned city in 1418, when pope 
Martin V. passed through in his return from the council of 
Constance. Barzizza was on this occasion appointed to 
payyhim the compliments of the city, and the two univ^er- 

* Bioj. Brit.— Archawlogia, rol VI. p, 334.— -Gough's Sepulchral Mpnn- 

C A S P A R I N O. 325 

kities of Pavia and Padua having sent orators to the pope^ 
he was also employed in preparing their intended speeches. 
He was during the rest of bis life patronized by the duke 
Philip-Maria-Visconti, and enjoyed the esteem due to his 
ieaming and talents until his death at Milan about the end 
of 1430. 

" His Latin works, consisting of treatises on grammar and 
rhietorie, orations, ' letters, iScc. do not form the only title 
he has to be considered among the revivers of learning and 
elegant Latinity. He merited this honour also, like 
Aurispa and Guarino, for his ability in explaining the an- 
cient classics,' and ih decyphering the manuscript copies 
Hvhich at that time engaged the curious researches of the 
learned world. His ** Epistles" form an epoch in the his- 
tory of French printing. When two doctors of the Sor- 
))onne, William Fichet, and John de la Pierre, had en- 
gaged frdm Germany three printers, Gering, Crantz, and 
Friburger, t6 come to Paris, in 1459, a printing-press 
Was set up in the house of the Sorbonne, and Gasparino^s 
*^ Epistles'* were the first typographical production in 
France. The title was "TJasp. Pergamensis (Bergomensis) 
Epistolae," 4to, without date, but printed in 1470. All 
Gasparino's works were collected and printed by cardinal 
Furiettiat Ronie, 1725, 4to, with those of his son Gumi- 
1*0 RTE. This son was born at Pavia in 1406. He had not 
the same reputation for eloquence and elegance as his fa- 
iher ; but his works shew that he had studied the ancients 
Vith equal assiduity. He lectured at Novara on Cicero*s 
Offices, and Terence's comedies, when a lucky circum- 
stance introduced him to Alphonsb king of Arragon. Be-' 
hig admitted to addre$s him at Barcelona, in 143^, the 
king was so struck with hi$ eloquence, as immediately to 
appoint him one of his council, and Guiniforte in conse- 
quence had the honour to accompany him in his expedition 
to the coast of Africa. Falling sick, however, in Sicily, 
he obtained I^ave to return to Milan, but without any loss 
of the king's respect and friendship for him. Here the 
duke Philip of Milan gave him the title of bis vicar-general. 
With this he held the office of professor of moral philoso- 
phy, the duties of which were frequently interrupted by 
' Mis being employed in diplomatic affairs to the courts of 
Arragbn and Rome. After the death of Philip, his suc- 
cessor appointed Guiniforte to he ducal secretary, and he 

526 G A S P A R I N O. 

passed the rest of bis life in that office. It is diought he 
died about the end of 1459.* 

GASSENDI (P£T£r), a very eminent mathematician 
and philosopher, was born Jan. 22, N. S. 1592, at a village 
called Cbantersier, about three miles firom Digne in Pro- 
vence, in France. His father, Antony Gassendi, a Roman 
catholic, educated him with great piety, and the first 
words he learned to pronounce were those of his prayers. 
This practice made such an impression upon his infant 
mind, that at four years of age he demonstrated the good 
effects of it in reproving or exhorting his playfellows, as 
occasion prompted. In these first years of his youth he 
likewise took particular delight in gazing at the nioon and 
stars^ in clear uncloudy weather, and was so intent on 
these observations in solitary places, that his parents had 
him often to seek, not without many anxious fears. At a 
proper age they put him to school at Digne, to Godfrey 
Wendeline, an excellent master, under whose care he 
made a quick and extraordinary progress in learning. In 
a very short time he learned not only the elements of the 
Latin language, but was so far advanced in rhetoric as to 
be superior %o all the boys in that school ; and some friends 
who had witnessed his proficiency, recommended to have 
him removed, in prder to study philosophy under Fesay, a 
very learned Minorite friar, then at Aix. This proposal 
was. not much relished by his father, whose design was to 
breed up his son in his own way to country business, or 
farming, as a more profitable employment than that of a 
scholar, nor would he consent but upon condition that the 
boy should return home in two years at farthest. Young 
Gassendi accordingly, at the end of his allotted time, re^ 
paired to Cbantersier; but he did not stay there lon^ 
being invited to be a teacher of rhetoric at Digne, before 
he was full sixteen years of age ; and he had been en« 
gaged in this not above three years, when his master Fesay 
dying, . he was made professor of philosophy in his room 
at Aix. 

He was scarcelv yet past the bounds of childhood, when 
his merit raised him also above this professorship. Having 
at his leisure hours composed his *^ Paradoxical Exercita- 
tions,*' they came into the hands of the famous Nicolas 

'^ Ghigneii^-Hist Lit. d'ltalie. — Tirabosehi.-— Moreri. — Hody deOrscis illus- 
tribos.— Idit prefixed to Furietki*! edition of hit Work8.<-4SaxM Oooina^ 

G A S S & N D I. Sii 

Peiresc, mho jioined with Joseph Walter, prior 6f Valette, 
in a ries^lu^n to take hiiii out of the' way of losing bis time 
ia empty scfaolaartic «q«HEibbles, and procure biih a place in 
the churchy which would afford him sitth leisure and qniet 
as was nObessary for ctfltrvating ihci^e useful re^i^earcb^s. 
Being now of yea^s sufficient to receive the priesthood, h^ 
entered into holy orders; and aft^^ b^ftig first iki^de a! 
Canon of the church 6f Digne, and D. D. be obtained the 
wardenship or rectory of the siame chtn'cb, v^hith w^^ car- 
ried by the interest of his twt> fri'elids, though not wftfhent 
some difficulty, agikiA^t several competitors. He held this 
place for the space of twenty years; and during that time 
scvqral of those pieces were written which ifiafce up the 
eoiiectio«i of his works;. 

In 1 62S he aecompanied Fr^incts Luillere, ifnaster of ac- 
counts ai Paris, in hi^ journey to the Nethelrlands ; which 
wa^ the only time' he Waid ever out of France. In Holland 
be wrote bis £itereitavion against Fluddin d'l^'fence of Mer- 
seanus, who, upon bis setting; out! on this journey, had 
put Fiudd's book into fatS' hands for tb^t purpbse. During 
Im stay in^ tfhiii country, he also beoathe acquainted, amortg 
edi^rff^ with Des GarteS. and John Gerard Vos^io's ; against 
the former of whom he maintained a dispute lipon the sub- 
ject of inetlaphysics, and he convinced the latter of bii( 
great skill in mathematics. In 1640 he was nominated for 
prdotor of bis- diocese in the general synod of the Galliciln 
churchy but the elecltion was carried for another by the 
interest of caiKlinal Richelieu. 

Gassendi had from his infslncy a turn to astrotiomy, 
which grew up with his years ; and, in 1618, be bad be- 
gun to make observiktidns upon the sialic, and to digest 
them into a method. His reputation- daily increasing, he 
became so eminent in that science, that in 1645 be was 
appointed royal professor of mathematics at Paris, by the 
interest of Alpbonse du Plessis, cardinal of Lyons, and 
brother to cardinal Richelieu. This instittition being 
chiefly designed for ast^nomy, Gassendi not only em- 
ployed himself very diligently in obserrscticins, but read 
lectures with great applause to a crow*ded audience, He 
did not^ however, hold this place long ; for, contmcting a 
cold, which^ brought on li dangerous cough, and an in- 
fliimmatlon of his lungs, he found himself under a Necessity 
of qvitting Paris ; aiH) being advis^^d by the physicians to 
setorn to* Soigne for the' benefit 6f bis native air, he went 

328 G A S S E N p L 

there io 1647. This advice had the desired success ; wbidi 
was also effected the sooner by the kindness of Louis 
Valois, earl of Alais, and viceroy of Provence, who, ob«. 
serving the philosopher's circumstances, invited him to his 
house ; where G.assendi's conversation upon points of learn- 
ing gave him sq high an idea of his talents, that be fre-« 
quently made use of him as a friend and counsellor in po- 
litical aiFairs. After enjoying this honourable ease until 
this nobleman was called to court, Gassendi returned to 
Digne, where he began to write the life of bis patron, the 
famous. Nicolas Peiresc, a task which had been enjoined 
him by the earl of Alais. 

He resided at Digne till 1653; when, in company of 
Francis Bernier, physician, and Anthony Poller, his ama-* 
nuensis, he returned to Paris. Here he lived in the house 
of M. Monmor, ms^ter of the court of requests, at whose 
request he had formerly engaged to write thelifeof Tycho 
Brahe, and then inade several collections with that view y 
andrthis request being now renewed, he immediately set 
about the work, and published it at Paris, with the lives of 
Copernicus, Purbachius, and Regiomontanus, io 1654, 4ta 
But he neither suffered this nor any other business to pre-^ 
vent him from going on with his astronomical observations, 
and had no • sooner finished the last-n^entioned book than 
he proceeded to complete his system of the heavens. 
While he was thus employed, too intensely for the feeble 
state of his health, he relapsed into his former disorder, 
which had been relieved by the intermission of his studies; 
so that he was neither able to enjoy his garden-walks, nor 
the society of his friends^^ with his usual alacrity ; and in 
the autumn of his years, his ca^e became desperate. 

In the first attack be had been relieved by bleediug, 
wbich, however, so much enfeebled him, that he never 
recovered his former strength. Yet this, as the only re- 
Biedy in his case^ was judged necessary by his physicians. 
He had suffered this depletion for the ninth time, when, 
perceiving himself to be too much sunk, he modestly pro- 
posed to forbear a repetition, as thinking himself not able 
to undergo it ; and tvyo of his physicians had yielded to 
this suit, when a third, obstinately insisting on the con- 
trary, drew his colleagues into his opinion. Gassendi sub- 
mitted, and the operation was repeated even to the fourth 
time, at which, holding out his arm for the purposei he 
said to Peter his amanuensis, who constantly attended him. 

WW <i<»i»w „^m 1^ »■ I  w^ 

d A S S E N^ D I. 329 

^ tt ts more eligible by this deprivation of strength to 
sleep qaietly in Christ, than to be taken off with more pain 
by sunocation.'^ Having undergone the operation, he 
presently felt himself approaching to his last hour, and 
sent for a priest to administer the viaticum ; which being 
given, he expired about four in the afternoon, on Sunday, 
Oct 22, 1655, in the sixty-third -year of his age. At his 
death, his hand was found upon the region of his heart, 
Vvhich place be had frequently desired his amanuensis to 
touch, in order to mark its motion, which when this at-* 
tendant observed to be very faint and Buttering, hesaid, 
*^ You see what is man's life ;'* which were the last words 
be spoke. 

He had made his will Oct. 15 preceding, by which he 
appointed M. de Monmor hi$ executor, and left him all 
liis MSS. with leave to publish such as he should think fit 
for the press ; and that gentleman, with the assistance of 
another friend*, having carefully collected and perused 
them, came to the opmion, that he had written nothing 
which was not worthy of him, and the whole was published 
by Monmor's order at Leyden, 1658, in six volumes, folio. 
This honourable friend ^had before testified his great re- 
spect for Gassendi^s memory at his funeral, which was 
performed two days after his death, by depositing his 
corpse with those of his own ancestors, in the church of St. 
Nicholas in the Fields, at Paris. Here also he erected a 
bandsopne monument, exhibiting his bust, by Nanteuil, set 
upon a frame of black, inclosing a plate of white marble ; 
upon which was an inscription, in the close whereof his 
character is elegantly and literally expressed in three 
words, attesting his ^* piety, wisdom, and learning.^' His 
dirge and requiem, and funeral rites, according to the 
usage in the Romish church, were likewise performed in 
the church of Digne ; and a funeral oration pronounced by 
Nicolas Tixelius, his successor in that rectory, who printed 
it at Leytien in 1656. It appears by his letters, printed 
in the sixth volume of his works, that he was often con- 
sulted by the most famous astronomers of his time ; as 
Kepler, Longomontanus, Snellius, Hevelius, Galileo, Ker- 
cher, Bullialdi, and others; and he is generally esteemed 
one of the founders of the reformed philosophy, in oppo- 
sition to that of Aristotle and the schoolmen. 

The sound judgment, extensive reading, and capacious 
memory of Gassendi, indeed qualified him to attain great 

no G A S SiE N D I. 

^ifitinctidn amoog pbiloi<^beri. He is abo laiikeii by 
Barxow aaipng^ the most etininent m^tbemaliciaiv of^th^ 
age/ aad m^ntipned mth Galileo, Gilbert, and JDes CiNrtes* 
HU coauneatary pi>lbe tenth book of Diogeaea La^rtiua i» n 
sufficteqt proof of bis erudition. With uRcoauDpa ahilitiei^ 
for the tafik^ be undertook to fraaie from Lucretius, LaertiQSy 
?Dd other aucieet writers, a. cofisiatent schejne of Epicif^ 
reau doctrine,, in wbkk the phaenoineua of. natune arj$ un- 
ipo^diatdiy desivedi fi^m the faotkm of primary at«ms. But 
he v^^ .aiyajte of tbe/uftdamental djefeqt of this aysteno,. and 
added the. iin|ioctant doctrine ot a DtFinesuperiiw 
tending Muii4, frocn whom he conirei^ed the. first naotion 
and subsequent arrangement of atoms to have been d^r 
rifled,, and whom be regarded as the wise (^v^rtoof of the 
Y9rI4. Gassf ndti strenuously? oiaintaioed the atoosic doc*: 
trine in opposition to the fictions of tbe GartiisHin philoso^ 
phy, which were ^t that time obtaining gi^at credit ^ aiid 
particularly asserted, in opposition to Des Qartea^,* the doc« 
Urine of a vacuum* On the subject of morals^. Grassendi 
explained the permanenjt pleasure or indolence of Epieai'- 
rus^ in a manner perfectly consistent with the. priest pre-^ 
cepts of virtue. 

{jlis large ^aid valuable library, tog^er .with bist astro^ 
pomical and philosophicail appairatus, was purchaaed' by 
the emperor Ferdinand IIL and afterwards, deposited,, with 
9ther choice coUectians, in, the imperial library at Vienna. 
The edition of has wonks aboive mentioned contains the pbi^ 
losophy and li£e of Epicurus ; the author's own philosophy ;. 
bis astronomical works ; th^ lives of Peiresc, Copemiousy 
Tychp Brabe, Purbacb, Regiomootaiius,. John Mailer, &e.. 
^ refutation of the Meditatiei^s of Des Cartes ; Epistles f 
and other treatises. Bernier, a, celebrate French pbysi<» 
qian, has given an accurate view o£ the philosophy of Gas«« 
sendi in his abridgment of it, publi^d in French at Lyons,, 
in 16S4, in eight volumes 12mow The Life of Gassendi, 
accurately written by Bougerelle, a piiest of the oratory, 
was published at Paris in 1737. * 

GASTAUD (FaANCis), a French divine of the eigbteen^^ 
century, descended from a family of distinction, was born 
at Aixy in Provence, and being at an early age admitted 
into oriders, officiated (br some years. as. priest in the parish* 
church of St. *PauL Ai»ong his theological puhlicationa is 

1 Life by Bpagerene.-«>Huttoii's 0ict. — Margin's Biog. Pbilosophica.-^ 
Brocker.— SaiKii Oaomait. 

O A S T A U D. m 

^ A Collection of Homilies on the Epistles lo tbe RomsiQa/* 
in two Tolunies, ISmo, with a delineation of tbeobaracter 
joi St Paul prefixed. But on the death of bis elder .bro* 
ther, a celebrated advocate ip the parliament of Province) 
-he retired into the country, stu4^ law, and beings ad- 
mitted an advocate, practised with uncommon success* 
The interests of the poor he advocated without hope of 
reward ; and in 17 17 he gained a fomous cause against the 
Jesuits, of whom he was an active oppone^l. Not coa* 
tented with pleading professionally against them, be at-* 
tacked them by means of the press, and wrote a piece 
entitled << The Jesuits unmasked/' He pubKshed some 
treatises against the bishop of Marseilles, who procured 
him to be banished twice to Viviers, where he died in 1 73 1, 
and on account of his reputed heresy he was denied the 
rites of Christian burial. ^ 

GASTRELL (Faancis), a distingt^sbed English bishop^ 
was born about 1662, at Slapton in N<Nrthamptot%shire ; and^ 
being sent to Westminster school in 167^ W83 admitted 
on the foundation, and elected to Christ Churefa, in Ox-» 
ford, where he of course became a student in 1680. He 
took the degrees in lirts in 1687 ; after whiclp, entering 
into orders, and proceeding in divinity, he took a bache* 
lor^s degree in that faculty, June 29, 1694- The same 
year he was made preaohfsr to the hon. society of liocolo^a 
Inn, in which station he acquitted himself so well that he 
wag appointed to preach Mr. Boyle's lecture in 1697.* 
Having finished those eight sermons, he drew them up in 
the form of a continued dacourse, which be published the 
same year. The subject of this piece being a defence of 
religion in general against atheism, Gastrell prosecuted 
* the design further, in asserting the truth of the Christian 
religion against the deists. This he published in anothep 
discourse, in 1699, by way of continuation, or second part 
of the same subject. He commenced D. D. July IS, 1700 ; 
being then chaplain to Robert Harley, esq. speaker of the 
house of commons. The ferment that had been raised by 
the dispute between South and Sherlock upon the Trinity, 
being still kept up, Dr. Gastrell, in 1702, published^* Some 
Considerations concerning the Trinity, akid the ways o£ 
managing that Controversy :'' and the same year was col- 
lated to a caqppry of Christ Church in Os^ford. 

* Morerr^^Dict. Hist. 


Meanwhile, he continued to give public proofii of his 
hearty concern for religion; and pnblishedy in 1707, his 
excellent work entitled *^ The Christian Institutes, or the 
sincere Word of God, &c.*' collected out of the Old and 
New Testament, digested under proper heads, and de- 
livered in the wordsf of scripture. This has been repeatedly 
printed. The same year alsoj being appointed to preach 
the sermon at the aniversary meeting of the charity-schools 
io London, he printed that discourse; in which the pecu- 
liar advantage of theie charities is set in a new light, by 
contrasting tb^m with the popish monasteries. Mr. Col- 
lins, in his " Essay concerning the use of Reason," having 
animadverted on some things in the doctoi^s '^ Considera- 
tions concerning the Trinity," which had gone through 
two editions, he this year published a third, subjoining a 
vindication of the work, in answer to Collins. In 171 ( 
be was chosen proctor in convocation for the- chapter of 
Christ Church, and appointed one of the chaplains in or- 
dinary to the queen. In 1714 be published '< Remarks 
upon the Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity, by Dt. Samuef 
Clarke,'* who acknowledged that the objections to his doc- 
trine were there set forth to particular advantage;^ by the 
akill of a very able and learned writer, and proposed with a 
reasonable and good spirit. He resigned the preacher's 
place at Lincoln*s-inn this year, upon his promotion to' 
the see of Chester ; and he was allowed to hold his canonry 
of Christ Church in commendam. He had for some tiirie 
before been appointed one of the commissioners for build- 
ing the fifty new chtirches in and about London ; and had 
become a member of the society for propagating the gospel 
in foreign parts. 

Thus his merit found all the reward and encoiiragement 
which he could e^tpect, from the court and ministry of 
q\ieen Anne ; but this brought him under the di&rpleasnre 
of the administration in the succeeding reign, which, being 
shewn, as he conceived, without any just or reasonable 
gprounds, was resented by him. - At this period he became 
a patron to the university; and appeared warmly in its 
vindication in the house of lords, wheti it was attacked 
there for a pretended riot on the birth-day of the prince of 
Wales in 17 1 7. At the same time he testified the greatest ' 
abhorrence of thiff and all other marks of disloyalty, and 
used all his. influence to prevent and check them. 

He now engaged in a very remarkable contest with the 

G A S T R E L L. 333 

arehbisbop of Canterbury, about tbe degrees granted in 
virtue of his metropolitical power. - The occasion ,w^s thia : 
The presentation to the place of warden of the collegiate 
church of Manchester in Lancashire falling to the crown^ 
George I. nominated Mr. Slamuel Peploe, vicar of Preston^ 
in the s^me county. But that gentleman, being then only 
M. A. found himself obliged by the charter of the college, 
to take the degree of B. D. as a necessary qualification to 
hold the wardenship. To that end, having been bred at 
Oxford, where he had taken his former degrees, be went 
thither in order to obtain this ; and had actually prepared 
the best part of his exercise for that purpose, when he was 
called to Lambeth, and th^re created B. D. by the arch- 
bishop, who thought the university ought, in respect to 
the royal nomination, to dispense with the usual exercise. 
With this title, he applied to bishop Gastrell, in whose 
diocese tlie church of Manchester lies, for institution. 
But the bishop, being persuaded that his degree was not a 
sufiiciejut qualification in this case, refused to admit him ; 
and observed to him, that being in all respects qualified to 
take his degree regularly in the university, he might pro-' 
<;;;eed that way witSiout any danger of being denied; that,' 
However, if he desired any favour usually indulged lo^ 
other persons, he would endeavour to obtain it for him, 
and did not doubt but the upiv^rsity would grant it. On. 
the other hand, Mr. Peploe insisted on his qualification by 
the^ archbishop, and had recourse to the court of king's- 
bench,. where sentence was given in his favpujr. ,. On this, ' 
bishop Gs^trell, in his own vindication, published <' The 
bishop of Chester's Case, with relation to the Wardenship i 
of Manchester. In which. is shewn, that no other degrees 
but such as are taken in the university, can be deemed legal 
qualifications foic any ecclesiastical prefermejut in Euglaud*'- 
This was printed at Oxford , and that university, March ; 
22, 1720,, decreed in a full convocation,, that, solemn thanks 
should be returned to the biishop,^ for having so fully as«« * 
serted the rights, privileges, and dignities, belonging to 
tbe university degrees in this book* This was attempted 
to. be answered in a pamphlet entitled ^^ Considerations, 
&c.'' proving that bistfop Gastrell's pamphlet 'lis injurious, 
1. to ibe. prerogative royal of the imperial crQwn of Eng- 
land; . 2, tQ the prerogatives, powers, apd privileges, of , 
the archbisbops of Canterbury ; and 3. to the legal rights, 
privileges, and liberties of the reverend presbyters ottbe 

334 G A S T R E L L. 

church of Eoglaad ; wherein it is plidnly proved, that tl^ 
universities have ti6t the sote power df granting d€$grees.'* 
It is somewhat remarkable, that this Mr. Peploe succeeded 
him in the bishopric of Chester. 

This affitir was scarcely cdneluded, whetl the prosectt- 
tion comtnenced against Atterbtiry, bishop of Roche^er. 
Bishop Gastrell never liked the haaghty temper of that 
prelate, and had dways opposed bis arbitrary attedipt^ 
iriiile dean of Chricit Church; yet, being «iatisfied in his 
ocKHeiMce, that the prooeedings in parliament against him 
iMte pushed on with too much violence, he opposed them 
with great reflation ; and when the bill for inflicthig pains 
and penalties upon Atterbury was before the house of lords, 
he spoke against it trith earne^ess and warmth, not spa* 
ring to censiire the rest of his brethren the bishops, who all 
concurred with the bilL 

He survived the bishop of Rochester's bantsbment but a 
few years. The gont, with which he had been much af- 
flicted in the latter part of his life, put a period to it, 
Nov. S4, 17^5. He died at bis canon's lodgings In Christ 
Church, and wad buried in tbit cathedral wtthout any 
monttmene : but, as Dr. WilRs observes, he left a sufficient 
monument of himself in his writings, and his virtues are 
fiur from being yet forgotten. His widow died in 1761, 
and his daughter, married to the Her. Dr. Bromley, in 
1768. Besifdes the pieces ah'eady mentioned^ he pdblisfaed 
*• A moral proof of a Future State," in 8vo, which being 
printed withoi»t his name, gave occasion to ascribe some 
other pieces of a similar nature to him, but without any 

GATAKER (Thomas), a very learned English divine 
and critic, descended from a family of that name at Grat- 
acre^-hall^, in* Shropshire,' was born Sept. 4, 1574, hx the 
paesonage-house of St. Edmund the King, in Lombard- 
street, M>n4ort, where his father, an eminent Pmitan' di- 
vine (who died in^ 1593) was then minister. At sijcteen 
years (^age tae was sent to St. John's college in Cambridge; 
wkeiee, ill due time, he took both the degrees in arts. He 
was greatly distinguished by his abilities, learning, ^ and 
piety; it^^^omtieh that the foundation of "Sfdney colleges 
being laid about this time, he was, by ai'chbtshop Whitg;iflfj ■; 
Mid Dv. Goodtoan dean of Westminster, the trustees of' 

' . ■"■ ' - . - 

' JSio^ Brft.— ?ft€U<>h'»,Attetlsursr, 9n4 Slower. .<- , «* ^ 

6 A T A K E R, 83S 

tbat fQundfttion, appointed -■ a M\ow of that societ}^ even 
beferf^ the building was finSshed. In the mean while he 
went into Essex, as tutor tathfe eldest son of Mr; (afterwards 
sir) WiUiam Ayloffy of Berksted, who himself learned He^ 
brew of him at the same time; . During his residence here» 
he usually expounded a portion of scripture to the family 
every morning ;: in this task, after rendering the text into 
Enj^Iikh from the original language, he explained the sense 
of It, -and concluded with some useful observations. In 
the spaee of two years be went through all the prophets in 
the. Old Testament, and dl the apostolical epistles in the 
New, Dr, Stern, then suffragan bishop of Colchester, 
being nearly related to the mistress of the fsmily, hap-^ 
pened in.a visit to be presentat one of these performances; 
and, being struck with* admiration^ instantly exhorted t^he 
expounder to enter into the priesthood ; and Mr. Gataker 
was ordained by that suffragan. 

This step was conformable tathe statutes of his new col- 
lege ; and as soon as the building was finished^ about 1 599, 
he settled there^ and bee^me an eminent tutor. At the' 
same time he engaged with Mr. WiHiem :§edell, afterwards 
bishop of Kilmore, in a desigui then set on foot, of preadb* 
ing in such places adjacent to the university as were des-^ 
titute of ministers; Id performing this engagem^t he 
pfeached every' Sunday at Everton^ a village upon the* 
borders of Cambridge, Bedford, and Huntingdomshires ; 
the vicar of which parish was said to be one hundred and 
tlurty yeais old. He had not executed this charitable of* 
fice above six months, when he went to London, and re^ 
sided as chaplain in the family of sir WiUiam Cook, at 
Cbarifig-eiiMs^ to whose lady he was nearly related. This 
situaiioo made bim known to several persons of fashion and 
fortune, and, among* others, to some principal members 
of LkieolnU-inn ; of which society he was chosen preacher, 
about 1601:. He thaugbt it his duty to reside there during' 
ten»*tiflle^ when he was obliged to attend the chapel ; bu€' 
in the vacationa h# went down te^ sir WiHmm Cook's in 
NoetfaMBptOMbire, and constantly preached there, eitbef 
in their private chapel or in the parish-churchy without 
any salary, but afterwards sir William settled on hint an ' 
annuity <k 20iF. a jwar. In 1603 be commenced B. D. and 
waaaftefwaitis ofte» solicited to proceed to doctor; but be 
dedined it; Qe did not at ali approve (^ pluralities ; and 
upon thst principle refused a considerable benefice ioi 

336 G A T A K E R. 

Kent, which wais offered him by sir William Sedley, vrfaile 
he held the preacfaership at* Liiicc^ Vinn. Having mar- 
ried in 1611, he quitted that place for the rectory of Ro^^^ 
therhithe in Surrey ; yet yielded to the acceptance of this 
Jiving, only in the view of keeping it out of the hauds of a 
very unworthy perspn. 

In 1616 and 1617, he wrote two letters to archbishop 
Usher, concerning some curious MSS. of the fiuBous Robert 
Grostbead, bishop of Lincoln, and others. It is true, that 
some mistakes in those letters are corrected by his corre- 
spondent, who, however, thought the whole very worthy 
of his notice ; and they are men^ned here chiefly, as 
they shew at once bis own modesty and erudition, as well 
as the esteem which Usher had for him. AH this, how^ 
ever, he possessed in private, his ^modesty being yet un* 
conquerable by any solicitations to commit any thing to 
the press ; but this backwardness was at length subdued. 

He had, in some of his discourses at Lincoln's*inn, de* 
Uvered his opinion concerning lots and lotteries, and shewn 
the lawfulness of the lusorious, and the unlawfulness of 
divinatory lots ; which being misrepresented, he published 
^' A Discourse of the nature and use of, Lots ; a treatise 
historical and theological, 1619,'* 4to. This publication, 
made a great noise, and drew him afterwards into a con- 
troversy; but before that happened, he made a toor 
through the Low Countries, in company with twa friends, 
and a nephew of his, then a young student They set out 
July 13, 1620, and arriving at Middleburgh in Zealand^ 
Gataker preached in the English church there ; and in his 
travels confuted the English ps^ists in Flanders. His 
mother, yet alive, was apprehensive of some mischief be* 
falling him, as he was a known adversary to the popish 
cause; but be returned with his companions safe Aug. 14, 
having viewed the most considerable places in the Low 
Countries. During this short stay he bad an opportunity 
of seeing the distressed ststte of the protestants in HoUa&d; 
with which be was so much affected, that he even thought 
it behoved the English to give up some national interests 
then disputed by them, for fear of ruining the protestknt 

After his larrival at Rotberhitbe, several objections hav 
ing been made to bis vindication of lusorious lots, bepub^ 
lisbed a defence of it in .1623, In 1624 he. printed; a tract 
against tran^ubstantiatioB^ and hiai short catechism came: 


6 A f A It 6 R". 337 

out the same year. In 16^6*, anS the foflowing years, he 
engaged in the controversy concerning justification; and 
being appbihted one of ihe assembly of divines who met at 
Westminster, he gave his attendance there, and amon^ 
other conferences supported his opinion upon the iast*- 
mentioned article ; but the "point "bepg determined by the 
majority against hiis sense, he submitted, and subscribed 
the covenant also, though he declared his opinioti ' in fa-r 
vour of episcopacy. . He engaged likewise with the assem- 
bly in writing an tiot^Bbns upon the Bible ; and the bcioks 
of Isaiah, JeremiaU, and riie Lamentations, fell to his 
share, which, in the opinion of Calamy, are exceeded by 
xi6 commentator, ancient or modem, on those books. In 
the mean time, upon the removal of Dr. Comber, he was 
offered the mastership of Trinity-college, Cambridge ; but 
declined it on account of his health. Yet the ill state of 
this did not hinder him from prosecuting his studies. 
Though confined tp his chamber, he drew up his treatise 
♦* De Nomine Tetragrammato,** in defence of the common 
way of pronouncing the word Jehovah in England. This 
Was printed in 1^45, and was followed the next year by 
another discourse, ** De Diphthongis sive Bivocalibus ;'* 
wherein he endeavours to show, that there are no diph- 
thongs, and that two vowels can never unite in such a 
manner as to form one $yllable,'^but in this has certainly not 
given universal satisfaction. Mr. Johni Saltmarsh having 
published a treatise, the preceding year, in defence of the 
Antinomian doctrine concerning " free grace,'* Gataker 
this year, 1646, wrote an answer to it, entitled " A Mis- 
take, or Misconstruction removed, &c.'* In 1647 be re- 
covered i^ strength so far, as to be able to go to church, 
and he ventured into the pulpit, wherein preaching he 
burst a vein in his Ungs, the mischief of which was how- 
ever prevented for the present, by letting blood. He soon 
sifter resumed his preaching; but this threw him again 
into a spitting of blood, which, though relieved again by 
opening a vein,, made the pulpit duty too dangerous. Yet 
he continued to administer the sacraments, and to give his 
usual short discourses at funerals, suitable to the occasion. 
Being thus disabled from preaching, he supplied that de- 
fect as far as possible, by publishing several learned works; 
most of which, besides others already mentioned, were 
printed among his ^^ Opera Critica," at Utrecht, in 1698^ 

Vol. XV. Z 

3S$ 6 A T A K £ a 

He was the first of the forty •seven ministers, who ia 
1648, subscribed the remonstrance to the army and thf 

feneral) against the design of trying and executing th« 
ing. He was not. at all pleased with the principles and 
proceedings of the independent faction, which prevailed 
then and afterwards ; and declared his opinion in defence 
of the doctrine and discipline of the presbyterian polity* 
both in private conferences, and openly from the pulpit;' 
Among, these he had some friends still in power, that 
maintained him in the possession of his legal rights, But^ 
as soQu as it appeared that, he was rather suspected than 
i;ounteuapced by the state, some of his parishioners refused 
'payment of their share of the composition for the tithes of 
their houses ; which, upon an amicable law-suit, had been 
decreed him in the court of exchequer, and in satisfaction 
for which, he consented to accept of 40^ per ann. This 
refusal he bore with patienpe, and diverting himself in his 
study, produced several other learned works; among 
which his edition of ^^ Marcus Antoninus^s Meditations^ 
with his Preliminary Discourse of the Philosophy of the 
Stoics, and Commentary,^* is most esteemed, anci the first 
.edition of Cambridge 1652 is far preferable to thesubse-* 
queot one printed at London. 

In 1653, he was drawn into a dispute with Lilly the 
astrploger, about the certainty of his art, which that im-r 
f ostor had maiutained was revealed to mankind by the 
good angels* Our author, in his , annotations upon Jere«« 
miah| taking notice of this . profaneness, had used the 
astrologer a litde roughly, calling him blind buzzard, &c« 
in return to which, Lilly in his ^^ Annus Tenebrosus,". ie« 
fleeted upon the.divine; who replied, in <^ A Vindication 
of the Anncftations,^' &c. 1653, 4to. It is said that ha had 
thought proper before he had publish^ this pi^qe^ to con^ 
anlt Mr. Briggs, for his opinion in the point, who returned 
^ decisive and ready answer, that he conceived it to be % 
'mere system of groundless conceits. To this Lillv print"" 
ing an answer, in which he charged bis antagonist with 
covetousness, and prostituting his function to worldly 
views *, GataJcer wrote ^ A Discourse Apologetica 1/' viadi- 

* ThisledhimtOfitre tnatoountof had for charging him with avarice, 

••feral traosactions of his life, and how Yet the a8trolo||er» in defenoe of hir 

he oame by hi* preferments. He was craft, persecuted him after his death. 

Ver^ temperate in his diet and way of See bis article, 
liribg, which was all the reason Lilly 

G A T A It £ R. 339 

4Hiting himself from those calumnie?. ThrsJast pi^ce was 
}}ublished in 1654; and the same year he died, being iii 
his 90th year. His corpse was interred at his own church, 
Mr. Simon Ashe preaching his funer^il sermon : this was 
))rinted'in 1655, with a narrative of his life, which has 
been the ground-work of this memoir. He would never 
suffer his picture to be drawn, and probably it is 6w\ng to 
the same cause, that no stone marked the plade of his 

' Mr. Ashe gives him, the fotlowidg character. As to his 
person, he was of a middle stature, a thin habit of body, a 
lively countenance, and fresh complexion, of a temperate 
diet, of a free and chearful conversatioif, addicted to study^ 
but not secluding himself from useful company « of a quick 
apprehension, sharp reason, solid judgment, and so extra* 
cA'dinary a memory, that though he used no common -place 
book, yet he bad all his reading in readiness, as his pro^ 
digious number of quotations shew. He was a man io^ 
teoderate and conscientious, that he tvould not go ilys 
length of any party, which was the true reason of his not 
accepting preferment, and also of his being disliked siic-^ 
cess^vely by all parties. In the reigns of James find 
Charles I. he disliked the high notions of churchman, atid 
^ the maxims of the government, which he rightly foresaw 
would be fatal both to them and the church. Wheii he 
tame amongst the divines at Westminster, for which he 
never received any thing, he drew upon himself the diV 
frfeasure at leasr, if not the hatred, of su(;h as were zealous 
for the hierarchy : but when' be declared himsieif in that 
iaselmbly in favour of episcopacy, and excepted Against 
tbe solemn league and covenant, till the words were s6 
^tered as to be understood only of ecclesiastical courts, arid 
tbe exorbitant power* of bishops, he lost the affections of 
Ihe other party, who were for destroying episcopacy root 
imd'braneh. His open declaration against the subsequent 
Broeeedings of those who resolved all powei' and authority 
mto that <yf the sword, heightened the aversion of the pre^ 
dominant faction, and exposed him to much ill-treatm6nt 
from their tools; who charged him- with inconstancy, 
ebanging sides, and squaring his doctrihe t6 the times i 
t^eredLS he was always cbn^istetit in his principles; and, 
instead of shifting from party to party, was never the in-» 
^trumedt of ^ny ; but lived contefited upon a very sopalL 
provision, at most 100/. a year^ and was reviled for eveti 

Z 2 

3i0 G A T A K E R. 

keeping that. Echard says '^ be was remarkable for bit 
skill ia Greek and Hebrew, and the niost celebrated among 
the assembly of divines ;" and adds, " it is hard to saj: 
which was most remarkable, bis exemplary piety and 
charity, bis polite literature, or his humility and modesty 
in refusing preferment." 

His extensive learning was admired by the great men 
abroad^ as Salmasius and others, with whom he held a coir* 
respondence. Axenius styles him a man of infinite reader 
ing and «xact judgment ; and Colomies tells us, that of 
dll the critics of that age, who have written for the ad- 
vancemeiu of polite learning, there is none' superior to 
him in the talent of explaining authors. Morhoff speaks 
of all his Latin works with bigb commendation : and BaiU 
let has a chapter concerning bis writings^, io wbicb be ac* 
knowledges bis profound skill in the learned langiiages,"bi« 
great accuracy and admirable sagacity ; but adds, that he 
was too bold in his conjectures. Gataker left several MSS» 
some of which were pu}>lisbed by his son. In the course 
of his long life be bad four wives. ^ 

GAITAKER (Charles), son of the preceding, was bon> 
at Rotherhi the in Surrey about 1614, and educated at St. 
Paul's school, from whence be was sent to Sidney college 
in the university of Cambridge at abo^t sixteen years of 
age, and put under the tuition of Mr. Richard Pugard> 
B. D. fellow of that college^ and a.fterwards rector oC 
Fulletby in Lincolnshire. After he had taken the de* 
gree of bachelor of arts, be retired to Oxford, and waa 
enteted a commoner of Pembroke college, $tnd took^thct^ 
degree qf master of arts June 30, 16316. About Ifaaj^ 
time he became acquainted with Lucius lord viscoutift 
Falkland, who having a respect for his ingenuity and 
learning made him bis chaplain^ with intention to procure^ 
him preferment ; but the civil wars breaking out^. in whicl)^ 
that nobleman lost bis life^ the expectation of our aqtbac' 
was frustrated. At last, by the favour of Charles eairk 
of Caernarvon, he became rector of Hoggeston, near Win- 
slow in Buckinghamshire, about. £647, and « continued 
there till his death, which happened on the 20th; of No<» 
vember 1680, in the sijcty seventh year of bis age. HjB^ 
was interred in the chancel of the church of Hoggeston^ 

• * 

t Biog. Brit.-«>Foiieral SermOD, by Aihe«««CUrk*8 lires «l- the tvA of iui - 

G AT A K E K. 341 

He wrote several treatises upon Calvinistical principles, of 
which the following are the principal : 1. At the eod ^of 
bi« father's^* Antidote against errour concerning Justifi* 
tjation/* which he poWlshed at London 1670, in ^to, he 
subjoined a piece written by himself, entitled *' The Way 
of TVuth and Peace: or, a reconciliation of the holy 
Apostles St. Paul arid St. James, concerning Justification^ 
&c." The imprinjatur is dated December the 6th, 1669. 
t&. ** An Answer to frv^ captious' questions propounded by 
a Factor for the Papacy, by parallel ques'tions and pgsitive 
res6lutions," London, 1673, 4to. To which is added, a 
letter to Mr. Pr. M. ann. 1636, written by Lucius viscount. 
Falkland. This Fr. M. is the said " Factor for the Papacy.'* 
3. " The Papists' bait; or their usual method in gaiiii^ig 
proselytes answered," London, 1674, 4to. To which i& 
added a Letter of the Lord Viscount Falkland to the same 
gentleman. 4. ** Examination of the case of the Quakers 
Goneerniiig Oaths, propounded by them, ann. 1673, to the 
consideration of the king and both houses of parliament," 
^c. Lendon, 1675, 4to. 5. ** Ichnographia doctrinse de Jus- 
tific&tionesecundum typum in monte," London, 1681, 4to. 
Our aiithdr wrote likewise some animadversions on Mr. 
BuU'd ** Hatmbnta Apostolica," which Mr. Gataker, con- 
cealing his name, communicated to several bishops, stirring 
them up by letter to make use of their authority againjrt 
the dootrities tnaintained by Mr. Bull, as pernicious and 
heretical, 'and contrary to the decrees of the Church of 
£ngland, and of all other reformed churches. These 
** Animadversions," which are commonly cited by Mr. 
Bi)U ucider the name of Censura, were communicated to 
biflit in' 167G by Dr. Nicholson, bishop of Gloucester; and 
in 1671 they were discovered to Mr. Bull to have been 
writtert t>y Mr. Charles Gataker, who in these ^* Animad- 
versionsj*' endeavours to reconcile St. Paul with St. James 
by the distinction of a twofold Justification, as respecting a 
tiwofold ftccusatioii, according to the different conditions of 
tlae covenant of works aiid the covenant of grace. For he 
maintains, that we are accused before God, either as sinners 
ov a:s unbelievers ; and that we are justified against the first 
accusation by faith alone, laying bold on the grace and right- 
eousness of Christ ; and against the second by works, and 
not by £aith*only, as these are the signs and evidences of 
our being true believers. Mr. Nelson observes, that Mr. 
Gataker <^ appears to have been a person of great violence in 



34% G A T. A K. E R 

his tamper, but one welUintentioned, and a very zealous 
^rotestant; and had he had but more coolness of thought^ 
and had be withal read more of the ancients,' and fewer of 
tbeinodernsy he would have made no inconsiderable writer.^ 
Mr. 6i;ill wrote an answer to these *^ Animadversions,^ 
which he entitled ^^ £xamen .Centura/' in which he re- 
iTects severely on Mr. Charles Gataker for publishing his 
father^s posthumous tract abovementiooed, since he had 
not thereby consulted the reputation of a parent, who by 
his great critical knowledge and other learning had made 
himself more considerable, than to . deserve that such 
\.7udities should be published under his name, at least by 

GAUBIL (Antony), one of the French missionaries 10 
China, whose knowledge of that country was carried to a 
wonderful extent by an active spirit of inquiry, was bora 
at Caillac, in 1708, and in 1721 was sent by the Jesuits^^ 
to which order he belonged, to China, where he resided 
thirty -eight years. He acted as interpreter at the court of 
Pekin ; and his knowledge of the sciences and History of - 
China were matter of astonishment to the Chinese them* 
selves. He sent many curious memoirs on the subject |o 
Europe, besides which, he published a good history of 
Gengiskhan, in 4to, 1739; and after his death appeared 
a translation of the " Chou King,*' in 1771, a work hcdd 
in the utmost veneration by the Chinese. Gaubil died at 
Pekin July 24, 1759, His eulogium may be found in the 
31st volume of the " Lettre^ curieuses et edifiantes.'** 

GAUBIUS (Jerome David), an eminent German j>pyr 
sician, was born at Heidelberg in 1705, and was edueated 
partly among the Jesuits, arid partly in the orphan-lidnse 
at Halle, nnder the celebrated professor Franke, He be- 
came afterwards a pupil of the learned Boerhaave, and a 
professor of medicine in the university of L^yden, where 
he took the degree of doctor in 1725. He died Nov. 29, 
J 7 80, leaving several works of considerable value. 1. 
*^ Diissertatio Jnauguralis de solidis bumani corporis parti-^ 
bus,*' Leyden, 1725. 2. '^ Libellus de methodo concin- 
nandi formulas ipedicamentorum,'* ibidem, 1739, 1767; 
Franckfort, 1750, and in French, Paris, 1749. 3. " De 
r^gimine Mentis, quod Medicorum est," Leyden, 1747, 

» Atli, Ox. vol. II,— Gen. pict « Dict^Hiit, 

G A U B I U S. 343 

1763^ In this work he describes the effects i^^sulting from 
the empire of the body over the mind. ^ 4: ^^ Institdtiones 
PatbologioB Medicinalis/' ibid, 1758. This work also 
passed through several editions and translations. 5. *^ Ad- 
▼ersariorum varii argument! Liber unus/* ibid. 1771. 6. 
'< Oratio Panegyrica in auspicium ssbcqU tehii Academic 
Batavfls qilse Leids est," &c. 1775, fol. an excellent his- 
torical sketch of the rise and progress of the university of 
Leyden ' 

GAUCHER (Charles Stri»H£K), a French engraver 
and man of letters, was born at Paris in 1740, and became 
the pupil of Le Bas, who taught him the arts of design and 
engraving. Being early convinced of the importance of 
leiarning in his professiony^ he devoted much of his time to 
study, and became so celebrated for the productions of his 
pen as well as his graver, that he was elected a member of 
vafioos literary societies both at home and abroad. As an 
artist he succeeded principally in engraving portraits ; and 
his portrait of the queen of Louis XV. is considered as a 
ehef*d'a&uvre ; nor was he much less esteemed in France 
as a . writer. In Fontenay's Dictionary of Artists, published 
in 4770, he wrote the articles concerning engravers, with 
much candour, spirit, s^ftd discrimination. His other pub- 
lications are, 1. '' Observations sur le Costume Frangaise," 
iu the "Journal des beaux arts," 1774. 2. " De Tori- 
gioe et de la suppression des Cloches.^' 3. *' Voyage au 
Havre." 4. " Amour maternel," a successful dramatic 
piece. 5..** Iconologie, ou Trait^ complet des allegories 
et :emblemes," 4 vols. 8 vo. 6. " Essai sur la gravure." 
7...*VTraite d*anatomie a I'usage des artistes," fol. with fine 
lengravings. He is also said to have written " Le Desaveu 
Aes^ artistes,'* i 7 7 6, 8 vo. He died at Paris Nov. 28, 1803.' 
.. GAUDEN (John), an English prelate, of more fame 
tban character, was son of John Gauden^ vicar of Mayfield 
ia Essex, where he was born in 1 605. He was first edu- 
cated at Bury St. Edmunds in Suffolk, whence he was re* 
moved to St. JohnVcoUege in Cambridge ; and having 
made a good proficiency in academical learning, took his 
degrees in arts. About 1 630, he married a daughter of sir 
William Russel of Chippenham' in Cambridgeshire, and 
was presented to that vicarage. / He also obtained the rec- 
tory of Brightwell in Berkshire, which bringing him near 

> Pict. Hist.-^Rees's Cycl«p«dia. > DictiHist. 

344 GAUD. EN; 

Oxford, he entered himself of Wadb&in<*(tu)Uj$ge. in th;at 
nniversity, and becanie tutor to two of bi^ fath^F-h}rIaw!t 
sous ; other young gentlemen^ and .some nobieoaen, w^re 
also put under his care« He prpceeded B* D* July 1635 1 
apd D.p. July 8, 1641. 

He had now been some years cK^pJain to Robert epdrL of 
Warwick ^ and that nol^lf man aiding with the parliament 
against the king, fras follpv^ed in t^is , by. bijs chaplain, wbo 
being appointed, Nov. 29, 1640, to preach before the 
house x>f commoqs, adapted .bi$ discourse so ^^a|::tIy to the 
humour of the prevailing party^ ths^t they mitde him a 
present of a large silyer tankard^ whi^h was generally made 
ijse of in his house, with this inscrip.tipn ;, *' Ponun^ bono-r 
rarium populi Anglicmii ii\ p^rliup^^nto congregati, Jq« 
bahiji Gauden.'* Thjs vyas only fin earnest of future fa« 
vours. In that discourse he inveighed against pictures^ 
images, and other .superstitJiop$ of popery : and the par-*- 
liament next year presented him to the rich deanery of 
Booking in Essex. He accepted the^pomination, but did 
not choose to depend entirely upon it > a^nd tbei^fore made 
interest with Laud, then prisoner in the Tower, and pro^ 
cured a collation from that archbishop, undoubtedly, the 
rightful patroup Wood says that the house of Jords sent 
the archbishop an order to do it. 

Upon the abolitipp of the hierarchyji and establishment 
of the pr^sbyterian forpA of church government, he com^ 
plied with the ruling powers, wa$ chosen one of the assem-* 
bly of divines, who met at Westminster in 1643, and took 
the covenant as enjoined by their au^ority; though 
he was far from approving it^ jBLt^d offered his scruples: 
^and objections against it, both as to matter and aiitbo-% 
rity ; and though his n^une was amit^og those who were, to 
constitute the. assembly of divines^ yet it. was afterwards 
struck off the list, and Mr. Thomas Godwin put ihto: his 
room. He publis^hed the same year a piece entitled 
^' Certain Scruples and Cfpubts of Conscience about taking 
the solemn League and Covenant, tended to the consider^ 
atipn of sir (.awrence Bromfield and Zacharias Crafton,'*' 
4to: and though, at lengthy he forbore the use of the Li«' 
tiirgy of England, yet he. persevered ia it. longer iu his 
church than any of his neighbours. Nor did he continue 
any longer op<enly to espouse the cause of the parliament, 
than they stuck to their first avowed principles of reform- 
ing only, and not rooting out monarchy and episcopacy. 

A U D E N. 34^ 

. Wilh theie ddtspositiohry be' was, one of those' divines, 
who signed the protcsution which was presented to the 
lirmy, against trying and destroying the king; and dot 
content with joining among others in that cause, he distin** 
gaisbed himself above the. rest by publishing a piece en*- 
titled ^^ The religious . and loyal Protestation of Joha 
Ganden, doctor in divinity, against the present declared 
purposes and proceedings of the army, and others, about 
the trying and destroying of our sovereign lord the king; 
3ent to a colonel, to be presented to the lord Fairfax, and 
his general couociLof officers^ the Sth of Januarys 1648,*^ 
Lend. 1648, 4to, Nor did bis zeal stop here: presetltijr 
after the king^s death be. wrote what be called << A just 
Invective against those of the army and their abettors, 
who murthered king Charies I. on the 30th of January^ 
1.^46, with some other poetical pieces in Latin, referring 
to dose tragical times, written February 10, 1648$*' but 
this was not published until after the restoration in 1662. ^ 
He went still further: for, having got into his bands hit; 
majesty's meditations, &c. written by himself, he took a 
copy of the MS. and immediately resolving to print it with 
all speed, he prevailed with Mr. Royston, the king^s 
printer, to undertake the work. But when it was about half 
printed, a discovery was made, and all the sheets then 
wvought .off were destroyed. However, this did not damp 
Ga«iden^ spirit 'He attempted to print it again, but 
could by no possible means get it finished, till some few 
days after his^ mi^eaty's destruction ; when it came out 
under the title of '^ Eimw BdrnxMrn," or, ^^ The Portraiture 
ol his sacred majesty in his solitude and sufferings." Upon 
it8:fivst appearance, the powers then at the helm were 
immediately sensible, how dangerous a book it was to their 
cause; and therefore set all their engines at work to dis<- 
ceiirer the publisher ; and having seized the MS. which had 
been dispatched to the king, they appointed a committee 
ta examine into the business. Gauden, having notice of 
this proceedings withdrew privately in the night from hik 
own house to sir John Wentworth's^ near Yarmouth, with 
a^ design to convey himself beyond sea: but Mr. Symond% 
his majesty's chaplain, and Vector of Rftine in -Essex, near 
Baking, who had commiunitiated the MS. to the doctor, 
and had been taken up in a disguise, happening to die he*' 
ifore his intended examination, the committee were not 
able- to make any discovery. Upon this, the doctor 

S46 G A U D E N. 

changed his resolution, and stayed in England ; wher^ he 
directed his conduct with so much policy, as to keep his 
preferments daring the several periods of the usurpation^ 
although he published several treatises in vindication of the 
Church of England and its ministers, among which are, 

I. '* Hieraspistes, or An Apology of the Ministers of the 
Church of England,'' 1653. 2. << The Case of Ministers' 
maintenance by tithes (as in England) plainly discussed in 
conscience and. prudence,'' 1663. . N. B< Tubes were abo- 
lished about this time. 3. <' Christ at the Wedding, or, 
a treatise of Christian tnarriages to be soleouily blessed by 
ininisters." N. B. Justices. of the peace were empowered 
to perform that rite in those times. 4. '^ A Petitionary 
Kemonstrance presented to Q. P. by John Gauden, D. D. 
a soii, servarxt, and supplicant for the Church of Engluid, 
in behalf of many thousands, his distressed brethren, mi- 
nisters of the gospel, and other good scholars, who were 
deprived of all public employment," 1659. Abp. Usher 
went to the protector at the same time to intercede for them. 
Besides these, he published, with the same spirit of vindi- 
cating the doctrine of the Church of England, ^' A Dis- 
course concerning public oaths, and the lawfulness of 
swearing in judicial proceedings, in order to answer the 
scruples of the Quakers," 1649. 

In 1659, as soon as the first .dawn of the restoratioa be- 
gan to shew itself, the doctor printed ^^ Ufa iam^mt, Eccle- 
sisB AnglicansB suspiria ;" ^^ The tears, sighs, complaints, 
and. prayers of th^ Church of England, setting .forth, her 
former constitution, compared with her present .condition, 
^Iso the visible causes and probable cures of her distem- 
per," in four books, folio. The same year, upon the 
death of bishop firownrigg in 1659, whose funeral seraion 
he preached and published, with his life, he succeeded him 
as preacher to the Temple ; and upoa the return of Charles 

II. he .'Succeeded the same bishop, in the see of Exeter, 
Nov. 1660, having been made king's chaplain before. The 
yalue of a bishopric was greatly enhanced at this, time, by 
the long intermission that had happened in renewing, the 
}eases of their estates, during the abolition of episcopacy. 
In this view,, the nomination to Exeter might be looked 
upon as a present' from his majesty of 20,000/. since, thei 
bishop received that sum in fines on the renewal of leases. 

But he did not sit down content here ; thinking his ser- 
vices deserved sojmething more. He bad ahres^dy puhlisbed 

G A U i) E N. S47 

'his' ^f And^saeritegus/' or, *^ A Defensative against the 
plausible or gilded poison of that nameless paper, sup- 
^posed to be the plot of Cornelius Surges and his partners, 
which tempts the king's majesty by the offer of 500,000/. 
to make good by an act of parliament, to the purchasers of 
Bishops* Lands, &c. their illegal bargain for 99 years, 
1^60,*' 4to: As also, his f^ Analysis, against the covenant 
in defence of the Hierarchy ;" and his " Anti-Baal- Berith, 
or, the binding of the covenant and aU the covenanters to 
their good behaviour, &c. With an answer to that mon-' 
strous paradox of no sacrilege, no sin, to alienate church 
lands, without, and against all laws of God and man.V 
These were all printed before his promotion to the see of 
Exeter. His zeal continued to glow with equal ardour the 
two following years ; in his " Life of Hooker,** prefixed 
to an edition of Hooker's works, published by him in 166 1 ; 
and, again, in his ^^ Pillar of Gratitude^ humbly dedicated 
to the glory of God, the honour of his majesty, &c. for 
restoring Episcopacy," in 1662. But, above all, he par- 
ticularly pleaded his merit in respect to the ^^ Emuv Bacri^im*^ 
De. applied to the earl of Clarendon, in a letter dated Dec. 
28, 1661, with a petition to the king; in which having 
declared the advantages which had accrued to the crowa 
by this service, he adds, that what was done like a king^ 
should have a king-like retribution. In another letter to 
the duke of York, dated Jan. 17, the same year, be 
strongly urges the great service be had done, and impor*** 
tunately begs his royal highness to intercede for him wit^ 
the king. Chancellor Hyde thought he had carried hia 
merit too far, with regard to the king*s book: and, in a 
letter to him, dated March 13, 1661, writes thus: "The 
particular you mention, has indeed been imparted to me as 
a secret : I am sorry I ever knew it ; and when it ceases to 
be a secret, it will please noue but Mr. Milton.'' 

He adhered, however, closely to the court, and in com- 
pliance with the measures which were then pursued, dre>Yf 
up a declaration for liberty of conscience extending to 
papists, of which a few copies were printed off, though 
presently called in ; he wsrs about the same time employed 

- to draw up another declaration of indulgence to the qua* 
' kers, by an exemption from all baths. He also wrote, 

<* Considerations touching the Liturgy of the Church of 

- England, in reference to hid Majesty's . late Declaration, 
mid ia'order to a liappy union i6 church and state," 16^0^ 

' • ' * 

He then obtaified a removal to the see of Worcester, to ' 
which he was elected Ma^^ 23, 1662. But with this pro- 
motion he was so far from being satisfied, that he looked 
upion it as an injury ; he had, it seems, applied to the king 
for the rich bishopric of Winchester, and flattered himself 
with the hopes of a translation thither ; and the regret and 
vexation at the disappointment is thought to have hastened 
bis end^ for he died on September 20, that year. After 
his death, his widow, being left with five children, in con- 
sideration of the short time he h^d enjoyed Worcester, 
and the charge of' removing from Exeter, petitioned the 
king for the half yearns profits of the last bishopric; but 
her petition was rejected as unreasonable, on acpount of 
bis larg^ revenues and profits at his first coming to Exeter. 
As to his character, it is certain he was an ambitious man ; 
which, as is usually the case, occasioned the moral part 
to be severely sifted ; and in this respect the behaviour of 
his relict, though otherwise intended, was far from being 
of service to his memory. In a letter to one of her sons, 
aTter the bii^hop's death, she calls the Eocay Baa-iT^mf 
** The Jewel ;*' said her husband had hoped to make a 
fortune by it ; and that she had a letter of a very great 
man's, which would clear up that he. wrote it. This asser- 
tion, as Clarendon had predicted, W5.s eagerly espoused , 
by the anti-royahsts, in order to disparage Charles L 
This, on the other hand, kindling the indignation of those 
who thought his majesty greatly injured, they took every 
opportunity to expose the dark side of the bishop's cha- 
racter ; and represented him as an inconstant, ambiguous, 
and lukewarm man, covetous of preferment, hasty and 
impatient in the pursuit of it, and deeply tinctured with 
fcliy and vanity ; upon the whole, an unhappy blemish 
and reproach of the sacred Order. Nor is bishop Kennt;t's 
censure less severe, though conveyed in a somewhat less 
intemperate language, when he tells us that Dr. Gauden 
was capable of underwork, and made himself a tool to the 
court, by the most sordid hopes of greater favour ir\ it 
This charge is supported by two instances, namely, his 
drawing up the two declarations already mentioned ; one 
for liberty of conscience to the papists, the other for in- 
dulgence to the quakers in respect to taking an oath ; the 
latter of which we jiave seen passed into an act. of parlia- 
ment, and the policy and justice of the former attested by 
a connivance to' all loyal papists, or such as deny the' 

G.A U n E N; Ud 

pipe's power of. dissolving their allegiance to their lawful 
soTereigti, which was the express motive for. making the 
declaration. The mo^t candid character of him is that left 
us by Woody who says^ ^^ that he was esteemed by all 
who knew faiin, to be a very comely person, a man of vast 
parts, and one. that had strangely improved himself by 
unweariied labour; and was particularly much resorted to 
for his most admirable and edifying way of preaching.'* 
It is certain, however, he had too luxuriant an imagina* 
tion, which betrayed him into an Asiatic rankness of style; 
and thence, as bishop Burnet argues, that not he, but the 
king himself, was the true author of the Eucw lia<ri>dxti ; in 
which there is . a nobleness and justness of thought, with a 
greatness of style that caused it be esteemed the best 
written book in the English language. But Burnet had 
BOt the advantage, of proofs which have since been pub-* 
liihed, particularly in Clareiidbn^s State Papers, vol. III. 
from which, an opposite conclusion may be drawn. Those, 
however, who would . examine this, question in all its 
bearings, may be referred to Nichols's " Literary Anec- 
dotes" for the arguments against Gauden, and to Laing'i^ 
** History, of Sec^and," for what can be alleged in favour 
of Gauden's being the real author of the ^* Icon." Our 
own opinion 'is, that the matter may still be questioned^ 
nor can we^ agree with Mr. U^^S in presuming ^^ that no 
One;.wiH now venture to defend the authority of the Icon.'^ 
We think there is a strong probability that it was composed 
finbm materials written by the king; and that Gauden, a man 
so ambitious and avaricious as to claim high rewards for all 
bi&.services, was very likely to attribute the whole to him* 
self. We agpreey however, with Mr. Laing, that " if ever 
a. literary imposture were excusable^ it was undoubtedly 
Gauden's^ amd had it appeared a week sooner, it might 
have preserved the king." 

Soon after his death there came out, written by him^ 
'* A Discourse of artificial Beauty in point of Conscience 
between two Ladies," a 662. This was followed by ano- 
ther tract, published together with some on the same sub« 
|ect,. by Whitgift, Hooker, and Sanderson^ under the 
title of ** Prophecies concerning the Return of Popery," 
1663'. These were aimed at the sectaries, who were said 
to be opening a doqr, at which popery would certainly 
enter; )astly^ iti 1681, there appeared in l2mo, " The 

MO G A U D E K^ 

whole Duty of a Connnunicaut," &c. with bishop OdXideatU 
DMne prefixed to it. ^ 

GAUDENTIUS (St.), bis&op of Brescia, about the end 
of the fourth and the beginning of the fifth century, was 
elected to that see by the prelates and the people of the 
provincei while performing a journey of devotion to the 
east, but it appears that he was very reluctant to take upon 
him the office. Having at length £^ccepted it, he was sent 
in the year 405 to Constantinople, with the legates of 
pope Innocent, to re-establish St. Chrysostom in his see^' 
and to hold a general council. The time of his death i» 
fixed by some at the year 410, and by others at 427. The 
25th of October is celebrated as his day. He was author 
of several works, a life of his predecessor Philaster, and- 
of letters and other pieces, which are . inserted in ike 
fifth volume of the ^^ Bibliotheca Patrum ;*' but the itiosc 
complete edition of hh works was published at Brescia, in 
1738, by Paul Graleardi, acanoaof Brescia. Hb style k 
plain, but neither animated nor correct* < . - 

GAULMIN (Gilbert), a French mhior author, who 
while he lived, contrived to establish a fame superior to' 
his real deserts, by haranguing in societies of beaux and 
ladies, was born in 1587. He became a counsellor of 
state, and died in 1667. His works are, 1. '^ Notes aed 
Commentaries on Psellus, and on Theodore Prodoan(s;**> ' 
2. << Notes on the Treatise of an anonymous Rabbi, con*- 
cerning the life and death of Moses," 1 62£^,' 8vq; 3. *^ Re^ 
marks on the false Callisthenes.*' 4^* '< An edition of the 
Romance of Ismenus and Ismenias^ in Greek and LAtin/' 
1618, 8vo. 5. ** Poems, consisting of Epigrams^ Odes, 
Hymns, and a Tragedy.^' He had a competent know^* 
ledge of ancient and modern languages, and is allowed 
to^ have had some fire in his compositions, though such 
as greatly wanted the regulation of judgment. Another. • 
instance of his imprudence occurs in the case of hts mar« . 
riage. His curate having refused to marry him, li^ de- 
clared in his presence that he took that woman for Jiis  
wife, and he lived with her afterwards as such. This oc^ . 
casioned an inquiry to be made into the validity of similar ' 

1 Biog. Brit.-*4LUi. Ox. vol. XL— NichoU*s Bowyer.-.Maty'8 Review, voU If. 
p. 253.— Gent. Mag. vol. XXIII. and XXIV.— Burnet's' Own times.— Laios'S , 
Hift. of Scotland.— Dean Barwick's Life. — LIoyd*s MemolTS, fof. 

' Cavt.— Mor«ri.-i<-B«raB. Annal, £cde8.-i-F«brie. BiU. Med. IM* • 

G A U L M I N. 351 

aainiagesy which were called marriages ^' A la Gauhnin/* 
and were disallowed by the law. ^ 

GAULTIER, or GAUTHIER (John Baptist), was 
horn about 1685, of a noble family, at Louviers. His 
refusing to sign the Formulary having put a stop to his 
degrees in the Sorbonne, he retired to the seminary of St. 
Magloir, and devoted himself to the study of theology. 
On his return home, he was appointed subdeacon of £v- 
reux, but opposing the bull Unigenitus, was . obliged to 
quit that diocese, upon which de Langle, bishop of Bou- 
logne,- gladly received him into bis house, and ordained 
him priest ; from that time Gaultier was the prelate's 
counsellor, proctor, grand vicar, friend, and secretary. 
De Langle dying in 1724, Colbert bishop of Montpellier, 
took Gaultier to be his librarian, as was supposed, but in 
fjsct to be bb adviser, confessor, and secretary ; while he 
was looked upon at Montpellier merely as a quiet inoffen^- 
siye man, with just abilities sufficient to take down the 
bishop's books and put them in order again. Colbert died 
in 1738, and Gaultier went the same year to Paris, where 
he lived as retired as at Montpellier, only visiting his na» 
tive place once a year for relaxation. In the last of these 
journies, returning to Paris with a friend, their post-chaise 
was overset, and Gaultier being dangerously hurt by his 
fall, was carried to Gaillon as the nearest place, where he 
died five days after, October 30, 1755. Besides what he 
wrote for messrs. Langle and Colbert, he left various works 
OB the a£Fairs of his time, all anonymous except the largest, 
which has been published since his death, and is entitled 

^^ Lettres Thiologiques centre le systSme impie et 

Socioien des Peres Berruyer et Hardouin," 1756, 3 vols. 
l2mo. This book is the most forcible, and the most es«- 
teemed of all that have been written against P. Bemiyen 
Among his other works are, 1. *^ Relation de ce qui s^est 
passi duraot la Mfladie et la Mort de M. de Langle, 
£veque de Boulogne,'^ 1724, 4to. 2. << The Preface to 
M. Colbert's works," 1739, 4to. 3. ^< Lettre a M. Berger 
de Charancy, Eveque de Montpellier,'' 1740, 4to; it is 
known by the title of " Verges d'Heliodore." 4. " Rela-> 
tion de la Captiviti de la Soeur Marie Desforges," 1741, 
12mo. 5. *^ Les Jesuites convaincus d'Obstination a per- 
wettre Tldolatrie dans la Chine/M743, l2mo. 6. << Lettre 

1 Morerl«-*Pict. Higt ' 

2iS% G A U L T I E R. . 

^u sujet de la BvMe de N. 8^ P. le pipe, cbncemsnt hsa^ 
Rits Malabares/' 1745, 12ibo. 7. '^^ Pope's Eyay on- 
Maa proved to be iiAfHous/V 1746, i^mo. 8. '^ The Re- 
futation of a Libel eotided Lavoix du Sage et du Peiapte/*' 
1750, i^ao, 9. '^ Vie de M. Somen, fiveqaede Scbe^/' 
1750, 4to and 12aio. 10. '^ Les LettreB Persaimes con-^^ 
vaincues 'd*Iinpiei6,'' 1751, 12mOi il« ^Hist. abreg^- 
du Parlement de Paris, durant les Troubles du Coin*^ 
mencement du Regne de Louis XIV.'^ 1754, 12mo.^ 

GAUPP (John), an able divine and naldieiiiatician, was' 
born at Lindau, in Swabia, in 1667, and after some edu^^ 
cation -here, was sent to Ulm, and afterwards to the uni- 
versity of Jena, where he took the degree of M. A; and' 
became a considerabie proficient in mathemaitios. After 
this he spent ^ome lime in diflPerent German universities,' 
improving himself in theology and mathematics, and then 
visited Amsterdam and London. In 1693 he was ordained,' 
and appointed in 1728 principal pastor of Lindau. Hia 
leisure hours Be devoted to mathematical and phitoi!K)phical; 
pursuits, became a lecturer in these branches of science,* 
in which character his reputation pvocared him the cor-^ 
respondence of many of the most learned mathematician^^ 
in foreign countries. He was a practical meobanie, as. 
welLas an able illustrator of the higher branches of sci- 
ence ; and many of the instruments which he made tfse of 
were constructed by himself. He had begun the- erection' 
of an observatory, but death terminated his labours in ifSWJ 
He was the authpr of ^^ Gnomonica Mechanica Univer*^ 
salis ;-' of various calendars, and c^lcukitions amd descrip-' 
tions of eclipses ; of other philosophical treatises, and of 
sermons. His Ephemerides and astronomical observations 
were received by tihe roysd academies of sciences at Paris 
and Berlin, and several of them were inserted in the' Me** 
raotrs of those learned societies. ' ' 

GAY (John), a very popular English poet> was bom ini 
16^8, near Barnstaple, in Devonshire; and at the free- 
school there, acquired a taste for classical literatdre; but 
his family estate being much reduced, his fortune was not 
sufficient to support him as a gentleman ; and his friends, 
therefore^ boiiud him apprentice to a silk-mercer in* Lon- 
don, feut this step being tiken without consulting tbe^ 
taste and temper <)f: the youth, the shop soon beeaooe hi^ 

i Moreii— L'ATocaes piet: ftfst. * Moreri.— Diet. Hist. 

GAY* 353 

averstoD) and in a few years his master, ujion the cfEer of 
a small consideration, willingly consented to give up his 
indentures. Being thus released, he indulged himself in 
that course of life to which he felt himself irresistibly in- 
clined : poetry became at once his delight and his talent; 
and he suffered not' his muse to be disturbed by any 
disagreeable attention to the ex-pence- of cultitating his 

These qualities recommended hipi to such company and 
acquaintance as delighted him most ; and among others to 
Swift andsPope, who were struck with the sincerity, the 
simplici^ of bis manners, and the easiness of his temper. 
To the latter he addressed the first-fruits of his muse, 
entitled '< Rural Sports, a Georgic/' printed in 1711*. 
This piece discovered a rich poetical vein, peculiar to 
himself, and met with some agreeable attestations of its 
merit, that would have been enjoyed with a higher relish, 
had not the pleasure been interrupted by the state of bis 
finances ; which, by an uncommon degpree of thoughtless- 
ness and cuUibility t, were reduced now to a low ebb. 
Our poet's purse was an unerring barometer of his spirits ; 
which, sinking with it, left him in the apprehension of a 
servile dependence, a condition he dreaded above any thing 
that could befal him. The clouds were, however, shortly 
dispelled by the kindness of the duchess of Monmouth, 
who appointed him her secretary in 1712, with a hand- 
some salary. This seasonable favour seating' him in a 
coach, though not his own, kindled his muse to new ef- 
forts. He first produced his celebrated poem called. 
*< Trivia; or the Art of Walking the Streets,'' and the fol- 
lowing year, at the instance of Pope, he formed the plan 
of his *^ Pastorals." There is not perhaps in history a 
more remarkable example of the force of friendship in an 
author, than was the undertaking and finishing of this in- 
imitable 4>oem. Pope, in the subscription of the Hano- 
ver-club to his translation of the ** Iliad,*' had been ill 
Used by Pbihps their secretary, and his rival in this species 
of poetry. The translator "highly resented the affront; 
and, meditating revenge, intimated to Gay how greatly it 

* ^ 

* In the same year he p«iblished La yean afterwardSi who there obiervet, 

pTOie *' The preteDt State of Wit;" a that Providence never designed him, 

clfaracter of the then periodical paptrt. for this reason, to be above two and 

See Swift'* Worka. twenty. Pope'i Worki, vol IX. Lai- 

f These are the words of Swif\ many ter 33. 

Vol. XV. A a 


was in b» power to jdiuck die bays (torn this envied irmk^S) 
forehead. Gay immediately engaged in his fioend^a quar-* 
rely and executed his request even beyood.his ezpeetatioo:.- 
The rural' simplicity neglected by Pope, and admired in 
Philips, was found, though mixed with some burlesque, 
only in the ^< Shepherd's Week/' Thiaexquisite' piece of 
nature and humour came eut in 1714, widi adedicatien 
to lord Bolingbroke, which Swift facetiously called. the- 
author's original sin against the court. 

In the mean time the most promising views opened to 
him at court ; he was caressed by some leading persons 
in the ministry; and his patroness rejoiced to see him 
taken from her house the same year, to. attend the earl of 
Clarendon, as secretary in hia embassy to the court of 
Hanover. But, whatever were his hopes from this new 
advancement, it is certain they began and ended ,.alaM»t 
together; for queen Anne died in fifteen daya after their, 
arrival at Hanover. This, however, did not prove an ir-. 
reparable, loss ; his present situation made ^him personally 
known to the succeeding royal family ; and retuming^. 
home he made a proper use of it, in a handsome compli- 
ment to the princess of Wales, on her arrival in England* 
This address procured him a &vourable admittance at the 
new court ; and that raising a new flow of spints, he 
wrote his farce, ^^ The What d^ye call it," which ap« 
peared upon the stage before the end of the season, and was 
honoured by the presence of the pjrince and princess. The 
profits, likewise, brought some addition to his fortune ; and 
his poetical merit being endeared by the sweetness . and 
sincerity of his nature, procured him an easy access to 
persooa of the first distinction. With these he passed his 
time with much satisfaction, notwithstanding his disap- 
pointment in the hopes of favours from the new court, 
where he met with nothing more valuable than a smile. 
In 1716 he made a visit to hi& qative county at the ex- 
pence of lord Burlington, and repaid his lordship with an 
humourous account of the journey* The like return waa 
made for Mr. Pulteney's favour, who took him in his com«» 
j^any the following year to Aix, in France. 

Th\s easy travelling, with some decent appointments, 
was one of the highest relished pleasures of Gay's life, and 
never failed of calling forth his muse. Soon after his re* . 
turn from France^ he introduced to the stage ^^ The Three 
Hours after Marriage." tiis friends Pope and Arbuthpot 

G A Y^ 335 

bad both -a hand in this perfortnance, end the tvir6 prin* 
cipai charaoters were acted by two of the best comedians 
at that time, Johnson and Mrs. Oldfietd; yet, with all 
these helps and advantages, it was very ill received, if not 
dondemned the iSrst night Gay stood the brunt with an 
linusual degree of magnanimity, which seems to have been' 
inspired by a hearty regard for his partners ; especially 
Popcj who was greatly affected with it. In 1718 he ac- 
companied Pope to lord Harcourt*s seat in Oxfordshire, 
where they united in consecrating to posterity the death 
of two rustic lovers, unfortunately killed in the neigh« 
bouring fields by a stroke of lightning. In 1720 he again 
recruited his finances by a hiindsome subscription to his 
poems, which he collected and printed in 2 vols. 4to ; but 
falling into the general infatuation of that remarkable year, 
bfe lost all his fortune in the South-sea scheme, and con- 
sequently all his spirits. Secretary Craggs had made him 
a^ present of some S. S. stock, and he was worth at one 
time 20,000^. but neglecting to sell obt, lost the whole. 
This stroke had almost proved fatal to him ; he was seized 
with a violent colic ; and after languishing some time, re- 
moved in 1722 to Hampstead, for the benefit of the air 
and waters ; but, by the assistance of Dr. Arbuthnot, who 
constantly attended hifin, at length he recovered. He 
th^n began to write his tragedy called " The Cap- 
rites j" which,' when finished, he had the honour of read- 
ing in manuscript to the princess of Wales, in 1724, 
Her royal highness also promised him further marks of her 
favour, if he would write some fables in verse for the use 
of the duke of Cumberland ; which task he accordingly 
undtlrtook, and published them in 1726, with a dedication 
to that prince. All this was done against the advice of 
Pope, the duke being then only an infant ; and the result 
was, as that friend presagedj very disagreeable to him. 
Swift says that in these fables *^ he was thought to be some- 
thing too bold with the court*.*' 

* Upon the accession of George II. to the throne, he was 
offered the place of gentleman-usher to the then youngest 
princess Louisa ; a post which he thought beneath his ac- 

4^ JSvift was contmoed tbftt tbe mi« diigrace by trusting too much to Mrs. 

Bister (Sir Robert Wa(pole) had pre- Howard, of whose interfereoce tbe 

Yented tbe boanty of queen Caroline queen was jealous. See this matter 

from being shown to Gay ; but in fact explained in Coxe's *' Memoirt of ^al- 

Q*j was the innocent cause of his own pole.*' , 

AA 2 

356 O A Y. 

ceptance : and, resenting the ofFer as an affront^ in that 
ill-humour with the court, he wrote the '^ Beggar*s Opera ;'^ 
which, being brought upon the stage Nov. 1727, was re- 
ceived with greater applause than had ever been known on 
any occasion. For, besides being acted in London 63 
days without interruption, and renewed the next season 
with success, it spread into all the great towns of England, 
. was played in many places to the 30th and 40th time ; at 
Bath and Bristol 50, &c. It made its progress into Wales, 
Scotland, and Ireland, where it was performed 24 days 
successively ; and lastly, was acted in Minorca. The la- 
dies carried about with them the favourite songs of it in 
fans, and houses were furnished with it in screens. The 
fame of it was not confined to the author only : Miss La* 
vinia Beswick, who acted Polly, till then obscure, became 
Ht once the favourite of the town ; her pictures were 
engraved, and sold in great numbers ; her life written ; 
boo&s of letters and verses to her published, and pamphlets 
made of her sayings afiid jests ; and, to crown all, after being 
the mother of several antenuptial children, she obtained 
the title and rank of a duchess by her marriage with Charles 
third duke of Bolton. There is scarcely to be found in 
history an example, where a private subject, uodistin* 
etiished either by birth or fortune, had it in his power to 
feast his resentment so richly at tl^e expence of his sove* 
reign. But this was not all ; Gay went on in the same hu* 
mour, and cast a second part in a similar mould; which, 
being excluded from the stage by the lord chamberlain, he 
wa^ encouraged to print with the title of ** Polly,** by sub- 
scription ; and this too, considering the powers employed 
against it, was incredibly large ; and in fact he got nearly 
1200/. by it,^ while the Beggar*s Opera did not yield more 
than 400/. Neither yet did it end here. The duke and 
duchess of Queensberry took part in resenting the indig- 
nity put upon him by this last act of power ; resigned their 
respective places at court ; took the author into- their house 
and family ; and treated him with all the endearing kind- 
ness of an intimate and much-beloved friend. 

These noble additions to his fame, his fortune, and his 
friendships, inspired him with fresh vigour, raised him to 
a degree of confidence and assurance, and he was even 
prompted to think that '' The Wife of Bath,** despised and 
rejected as it had been in 17i4, when first acted, might, 
xvhh some improvements which be could now give it, be 

GAY. 8St 

made to taste the sweets of this happy change in his for* 
tune. In this temper he revised and altered it, and brought 
it again upon the stage in 1729, but bad the mortification 
to see all his sanguine hopes of its success blasted ; it met 
with the same fate in the play-house as formerly. This 
I'ebuflP happened in March 1729*30 ; and as he was easily 
depressed, produced a degree of melancholy, which, with' 
* the return of his constitutional distemper the colic, gave 
a new. edge to the sense of bis disappointments at court, 
with respect to the ^ Beggar^s Opera/' By that satire, 
he had flattered himself with the hopes of awing the Court 
into a disposition to take him into favour, in order to keep 
so powerful a peu in good humour. But this last refine- 
ment upon his misery, added to former indignities, threw 
him into a dejection, which be in vain endeavoured to re* 
move, by another tour into Somersetshire, in 173 K The 
state both of his body and mipd cannot be so forcibly de- 
scribed, as it is in his own account pf it to Pope. " My 
melancholy,** says he* ** increases, apd every hour threa- 
tens me wiik spm^ return of my distemper* Nay, I think 
I may rather say, I have it on me. Not the divine looks, 
the kind favours and expressions of the divine duchess, who 
hereafter sh^I be in place of a <^ueen to me, nay, she shall 
be my queen, npr the inexpressible goodness of the duke, 
can in the least chear me. The drawingrroom no more 
receives light from these two stars. There is now (what 
Milton says in hell) darkness visible. O that I had never 
known what acovrtwast Dear Pope, what a barren soil 
(to me so) have I been striving to produce something out 
of ! Why did not I take your advice before my writing 
fables for the duke, not tp write them, or rather to write 
them for some young nobleman ? It is my hard fate, t must 
get nothing, write for them or against them.** In this d^s* 
position, it is no great wonder that we find him rejecting 
a proposal, made to him by this last-mentioned friend in 
1732, of trying his muse upon the hermitage, then lately 
built by queen Caroline in Richmond-gardens ; to which 
he answers with a fixed despondency, that *^ he knew 
himself unworthy of royal patronage.'* 

In the delightful retirement of Amesbliry, however, a 
seat of his aioble patron, near Stonehenge upon Salisbury- 
plain, 1)0 found lucid intervals enough to finish his opera 
called f* Achilles ;** and coming with the family to his 
grace's bouse in Burlington-gardeus, to pass the winter 

S58 GAY. 

neasou, be gave that piece to the play^boiAe. The w€&dk 
after, he was suddenly seized with a violent, inflammatoiy 
fever; which, ending in a mortification of the bowels, in 
three days put a period to his life, Dec. 11, 1732. In bis 
short illness he was attended by two physicians, besides 
Dr. Arbuthoot, who particularly observed, that it was tbe 
most precipitate case he ever knew ; meaning, nher the 
fever shewed itself : for there were prognostics enough to ' 
{Mredict his approaching end lot>g before, and he himself 
was sensible of it. In October, >he sent Pope his last gift, 
as a token to be kept in remembrance of his dying friend ; 
declaring, that he found by many warmngs, diat be had 
no continuing city here. '^ I begin,*' says he, ^^ to look 
upon myself as one already dead ; and desire, my dear 
Mr: Pope, whom I love as my own soul, if you survive me, 
as you certainly will, if a stone should* mark the place' of 
my gi*ave, see these words put upon it : 

Life is a je6t« and all things shew it^ 
I thought so once^ but now I know it. 

With what else you may think proper*" This dying re- 
quest was accordingly executed ; and the whole epitaph 
inscribed on a very handsome marble monument, erected 
to his memory by the duke and duchess of Q.ueensberry, 
who took care to have his body interred with a suitable 
funeral solemnity. The corpse was brought from his 
grace^s house to Exeter-change in the Strand; where, 
after lying in state, it was removed to Westminster*abbey, 
'^d interred in tbe Soutb-cross-isle, against. tbe tiunb of 
Chaucer, near the place where stands bis monument. 

The opera of '^ Achilles*' was brought upon the stage 
soon after bis death, and met with a very good reception, 
which was greatly promoted by the duk^ of Queensberry, 
who was uncommonly assiduous in patronizing it; and 
who, as Pope observes^ acted in this, and every thing else^ 
more than the part of a brother to his deceased friend. It 
was also through the influence of his e^sample, that the 
profits of the representation were given by the' managers 
of the play-house to our author's two widow sisters, Katha- 
rine and Joanna, relicts of Mr. Ballet and Mr. Fortescue, 
who, as heirs at law, shared his fortune (about 3000A) 
equally between them ; which disposition was agreeable to 
his own desire, and therefore he made no will. He left 
several MSS. behind him^ some ^ which came into the 

G A Y. SS9 

ii«nd» of Pope, who took core no douBt (at he (Kromiied 
.SMFift) to ttippress such w he judged unworthy of him. - A 
ifew years after his deaths there was publitfaed under bis 
.name a^^omedy, called ^^The DiatreisBed Wife^^'tbese- 
eond odilioQ of which waa piinted in 1750; and in 1754^ 
<a humorona pieee^ with the title of *^ The Rehearsal at 
Gotbaou^' . 

. The character o£ Gay may be iairty eatimated from sbfe 
preceding facts* He wanted firm.neBs and conii^tetxfy; 
^aod jknew not, when it was iti bk power^ to support the 
independence which he affected. Pope said ^' he was 
jquiteja natural many wholly without art, or design, and 
;spQke J4Kt what hectbongbt, and as he<tbonght it/' From 
the same authority ise> learn that fais- affectionate friend, 
the duhoofOneensberry, finding what a wretcbod matiagi^r 
he was, took, his money into bis keeping, beginning with 
;what:he gotbythe <' Beggar'^ Opera'' aad << Polly ,"^aad let 
.him. have only* what was necessary, which, as he lived with 
:the dnke,( could nd^er be much. It is this only that cto 
accoiiDt for his dying worth SOOOl. Pdpe also infdrms xls 
tfaait/^he was remarkkblie for an unwillingness to offend tbe 
great by any of his writings. He bad an untommon tinfidity 
in relation to any thing of that sort ; and yet you- see what 
ill Inek be had in that way, after all bis< care tiot to offend.^* 
Gay'sf character seems in many respects to have resembled 
»tbat of Goldsmith. * 

. Gay's. merit as a poet baS not been rated ^ery high bV 
vmodern critics. He wrote with terseness and neatness, 
bat. withoot any elevwtioh, and fri&quently withoiit an^ 
spirit. *^ Trirta'^' appears to be the best of his poern5,;sntl 
vbis ^< Fables'' the moi^ popular of all bis wbrk^*. ' Tbte 
/^£e^:gar!s.OperaV has, on the otbe^ hand, been extolled 
heyond its merits, and its immoral tendency cannot t^e 
denied. Dr* Jbhnson sayb, " We owe > to Gay the battild 
\opera, and wibether this new drama '«^as' tb^ product Of 
judgnaient or goddiock, the praise of it must be giren tb 
.4be ihventor." Dr* Warton, more justly in -our opirfioft, 
Arraigns it as tbe parent of that most fnobistrods of alt dra- 
Thatieiibsurdities, the^^Comto Opera>^''wbi%fa, n is c'iifrtait), 
:has dehiged the"^age With more n'ofasO^fse 'than' cbuftl 
Jiave .gained admittauoe^ nnde^ any^ oth^f namef. ' ' * / * ^' ^ 

1 Biog. Brit. — Johnson's Poets. — Swift's Works, by Nichols, passim ; see 
Index.-^Bowles's edition of Pope's Wocks.-^Mis<hief arising from his Bexar's 
Opera, Gent. Mag. toI. XLlU.-^Spence's Anecdotes, MS. 

3«0 G. A y O T. 

GAYOT ]>B PiTAVAL (FiuNCis), a Fremdi aiiUMir, re^^ 
markable rather for the magnitiide of bis. work ^eiflitM 
^ Causes C^bres," io tweniy volmnas duodeemo, tbaa 
for any merit as a writer, was bom at Lyons in 1673, of a 
noble famiiy of the lobe, and was educated at Paris, bot 
seemed destined to fiul in every walk of Itfe. He began 
by taking orders, and became an abb£; he thto qottted 
the church for the army, where he obtained no distinction, 
and at the age of fifty, became an adirocsate. Not sod- 
oeediog in. this occapatioo,*he applied himself diligently to 
his pen ; in which employment he rather proved his assi* 
doity than his powers. His great work, though interest<- 
ing in its subject, is rendered iat<derable by the heaviness 
and badness of the style, with die puerilities and bad 
verses interspecsed* it has been two or three time^ 
abridged. Hb other works ace not more admired. They 
are,. 1. '^An Aceotint of the Campttgns of 1713 and 
1714;'' a compilation from the Memoirs of Vilbart Q. 
*' The Art of adorning and improving the Mind,'* a foolish 
coUectioo of witticisms; and 3. A compilation entitled 
'< Bibliotbeque des Gens de Gour.'' He died in 1743, 
after repeated strokes of palsy. * 

GAYTQN (Edmunp)i or, as he sometimes styled him- 
self, De SP£Ciosii VILLA, t>ne of those authors of the se- 
venteenth eeotucy, who contributed somewhat to the 
amusement of the republic of letters, without adding much 
to its credit, was the son of George Gayton of Little Bri- 
tain,, io London, where be was born in 1609« He was 
jeduc^ited at Merchant Taylors' school, whence, in I6fi5, 
he was elected scholar of St. John's college, Oxford, be- 
came a fellow of that house, and master of arts. He was 
^afterwards superior beadle of arts and physic, and took 
the degree of MiB. in 1647 ; but next year the parlia- 
,mentary visitors ejected him from the beadleship. He 
now went to London^ married, and maintained himself 
and wife by his writings. After the restoration, be was 
replaced in his. office of beadle ; but, according to Wood*s 
account, followed more ^^the vices, of poets.^^. His resi- 
dent, howfiYer, was still at Oxford, where he died in 
. CJat-sl^eet, D^c 19, 1666, and. was buried in St. Mary's 
church, at the. e^peace of the .yioe-chancellor^ Dr. Fell, 
not having *'but one farthing in his pocket when hedied.^* 

> Moreri.— Diet Hist 

G A Y T O N. S6t 

AmoiigliM works 'Wood enumerates, 1. ,<^ Cbarte Sbirip' 
tm^ or a Nevr Game at cards, called Play by the Book/^ 
L€45, 4to. . 2. ^* Pleasant notes upon Don Qaixote,** 1654^ 
SMio, which hi^re been often reprinted, and are not without 
humour, although not of the most refined cast Prior^s 
SUnry of the ladle was taken from this work. 3* *^ Hymna 
de febribus," Lond. 1655, 4to. 4. ** Will Bagnars Gfaost^ 
or the Merry Devil of Gadmnnton/Mbid. 1655, 4to. 5. 
^^ The Art of Longevity, or a dietetical institution," Lond. 
1659. 6. *^ Walk, Knaves, walk," a discourse intended 
to have been spoken at court ; the name of Hodgd Tur* 
bervil is in the title of this worir, but it was written by Gay^ 
ton, when in the king^s bench prison, and published in 
:1659, 7. ^' Wit revived ; or a new ^cdlent way of Di^ 
vercisemeiit, digested into most ingenious questions and 
Itnswers," Lond. 1660, 12mo, published under the name, 
very allusive to the author's habits, of Asdryasdust Touaff* 
wan. 8. ^< Poem upon Mr. Jacob Bobart^s Yew^meu of 
the Guards to the Physic garden, &c." Oxon. 1662. Most 
of the above are in prose and verse, and he wrote a£ae 
many single songs for satirical or festival purposes, which 
are now objects of expensive curiosity with collectors. ' - 

GAZA (Theodore), a very eminent promoter of the 
revival of letters in Europe^* was born at Thessalonica in 
Greece in IS96. Some have erroneously called him The* 
odore d^ Gaza, as if he had been a native of that village. 
His country being invaded by the Turks in 1430, he went 
into Italy, and applied himself, immediately on bis arrival 
there, to Jeam the Latin tongue, under the tuition of Vrc* 
.torinus de Feltre, who taught it at Mantua. He was^ in^- 
4eed, past tbe^ age when languages are usually attained, 
yet be made himself such a master of Latin, that he spoke 
and wrote it with the same facility and elegance as if it 
had been hia native tongue : though Erasmus is of opinion, 
that he could never fairly divest himself of his Greek idiom. 
His uacomoion parts and learning soon recommended him 
to public notice ; and particularly to the patronage of car« 
dinal Bessarion. Gaza had taken a very fair. and exact 
^opy of Honier^s '^ Iliad,'! which the cardinal was ex- 
tremely desirous to purchase ; aind he obtained either that, 
or one like it, which was long extant in his library at 

* Ath. Ox. Yol. II.-— Qent, Mag. vol. LVII. p. 399. 

s$a o 1 z A. 

• About 1^50, Gflusa wentto Boihe^ in cdneoqueBce of an 
intitition from pope NtchoUu V. with many otiier pfofttst 
4Kur9 of tbe Greek langfaage, scattered about Italy, to tran^ 
late . tbe Greek autboft into Laiib, bm unfortunately jea^* 
lottties and dLMonsiona arose among tbem, and in particular 
m quarrel between Gaza and G«orge Trapezuntius. Paul 
Joviui assinea us, that Gaza not only &r surpassed all the 
Greeksi bis fellow'^lscbourevs. and confeemporanea, inlearn^ 
lag and solidity o£ judgment, but also tn the knowledge p'f 
idle Latin': which, says Jorius, be attained to that degree 
of .perfection, that itwaanot easy to diaeeru, whether he 
wxote best in that or kb native tongue. On account of 
these extraordiaary qualities probably,^ be was^adniiiited to 
such a faniliarity with cardinal Bessation, • as" to be called 
by bim in soeie' of bis writingB hia fri^isd and cotefianion. ' 
. Nicholas V. dying in 14(56,' Gasto^weiit to<Naiples, where 
he was honourably reoeired by king' Alpbon^ns, to > whom 
he had. been well reoomoiendeid ; but this prinrce <dy ing in 
14M, he returned tahjs patron. the* eaidinai asBboiev 
irho aeon/ after gave him a benefice in Calabria.: This 
would have been a very oohipetent provision for a. man of 
his temperauce^' but he was always poor afid in distress-^ 
for he waa« so extremely attentive to letters, that be lefttbe 
management 'Of his substance to servants. It is related,' that 
towards the latter end of bi»>life'he went to Rome^ with 
one of/hisperformsmcesfinely written upon vellum^ vAich 
he .presented to Sixtus IVi expecting to receive from his 
holiness an impoense resmrd for so curious and valuable a 
present.: But tbe pope, baring coolly asked him the eX'* 
pence he had been at,, gave him but just what was sufficient 
to defray it : which moved himto say, with iodigAetiDn, that 
''it was high time to return to hia own eountry, sine^ 
these. over-ȣed asses at Kome.faad not i;he least relish for 
any thing but weeds and thistles, their caste being toode*** 
pravedfor what was good and wholesome.'^ '• iPierhis Vale*'* 
nanus, wboTehttes tbisin his book <^ De^InMicitate Li- 
teratorum,'* adds, that. Gaza flung the .money into the 
Tiber, and died of disappmn tihen tend grief^ at Rome, in 
147S. There is not, however, ^uch ' reason to credit this 
cauee of bis deaths' as be^bad nttained^theeighdetfa year 

of his ag& "* 

His works may be divided into original pieces and t«ans- 
lations. Of the former are, 1. ** GrammaticsB Grsecm Li-^ 
bri quatuor." Written in Greek, and printed first «t Ye* 

GAZA. 1363 


juce in 1495 : afterwards at Basil in 1522, i^ith a Latin 
4mnslatioa by Erasmus. 2. ** Liber de Attiets Mentibitt 
Gr^e;'' by way of supplement to bis ;grammar, widi 
which it was printed with a Latin version* 8. * ** Epistolk 
ad Frauciscum Philelpbum de origine Turcarum^ Grswd^ 
icurn Versione Leonis Aliatii." Printed in tbe.G^nitptR 
<»f the translator at Cologne in 1653. His translations are 
also of two sorts ; from Greek into Latin, and from Laidn 
into Greek. Of the latter sort are-Cicero^s pieces, > De 
Senectute,'* and ** Qe Sbmnio Scipionis :'' both printed Hi 
Aldus's: edition . of Cicero's works in 1523, Sro. Of tbie 
former sort are, *^ Aristotelis Libri novem Historias Ani^ 
malium : de Partibus Animahum Libri quatnor: & de Ge« 
neratione Animalinm Libri quinqne. Latind verii. Venet* 
14T6.'' > It was Aristotle's ^< History of Animals,'', whiob ia 
said to have caused the enmity between tGatza and»Tra* 
pesuntius^ Trapezimtius, it was alleged,, had traasUited 
the sametWork before Gazat and though Gaza bad' made 
^eat use of IVapeafcuntins's versaon,; yet in his pr^eface h^ 
boasted, that he had neglected to consitlt any translations 
whatever,; and .declared contempttiously,.tb^t'hi8'desfgfi 
was not to enter the list with other tratislalxMrs,. or>to vi# 
with those whom it would be so easy to conquer^ This 
conduct, if the statement be true, Trapes^ontius might 
very jjistly res«)t. The same ^' Histoi^ of Animals,'' or 
rather,, as P. Valeriaatis, says, hisdiriiie lucubrations upoil 
it, wece ipemorable on . another account ; for it is !said to 
have be^n the work which he presented in a Latin trMst* 
lation to pope Sixtas, and for which he underwent sic^se^ 
vere a disappointment. He translated also other* Greek 
books into Latin : as, ^' Aristotelis Prd>lefBata," Tbeo^ 
phrasti HistorisD Plantarum Libri decern," <^ Alcxandri 
Problematute Libri duo," ^f jBliani Lib^ de InstruencHs 
Aciebus," ^^J. Chrysostomi Homilise qumque de income 
prehensibili Dei .Natura.'V There are extant also 4tom0 
works of Gaza which have never been published. 

There is no ihan* of learning spoken of in higher temf^ 
and more 'uoiversaliy,' than Gtea; Scatiger used to^y^ 
that ^* Of all those who i?evived the belles lettres in italy^ 
there were not above three that he was inclined to envy t 
the first was Theodore Qaza, who was certainly a great $nii 
learned man, though he has committed some mistakes in 
hi!« version' dfAlristotle^s ^ History of Animals?* The se-r 
cond was Angelus Politianus ; and the third was Picus of 

S64 GAZA. 

MiranduW.* In another place, he calls him '< doctissi- 
mus,^' a most learned man ; ' commends his grammar, and 
says, that he ought to be ranked among the best trans^ 
lators of' Greek authors into Latin/* ' Huetius observes^ 
that though he does not differ from the judgment of Jo* 
sepfa Scaliger, in regard to Gaza's translations, where he 
allows that some things might be better, and some entirely 
altered ; yet, that upon the whole he should be glad, if all 
translators would do as well, would exhibit the same fide- 
lity, perspicuity, and elegance, that Gaza has displayed/* 
He is with propriety recorded by Pieriiis Valerianus in his 
work '^ De infelicitate literatorum." ^ 


GEBELIN (Anthony Court db), an eminent French 
writer of the last century, was bom at Lausanne in 1727. 
His father, who was a protestant clergyman of that place, 
took extraordinary pains in cultivating his mind, and at 
the age of twelve years, young Gebehn could read Ger^ 
man, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew ; and at fifteen, he spoke 
German and Latin with ease, as well as French in compli* 
ment to his parents, who were natives of France, but had 
left it on account of their religion. His thirst of knowledge 
was such as to prevent his hours of rest ; and when bis pa- 
rents, ill order to break him of the habit of studying at 
night, would not allow him candles, he used to pore over 
bis books as well as he could by moon -light. In 1763, 
after the death of his father, he came to Paris, bringing 
with him nothing but a great stock of learning, and the 
greatest simplicity of manners ; and as the persons to whom 
he had recommendations happened to be absent, he re- 
mained for some time idone and friendless in that great 
metropolis. The first acquaintances he made were two la* 
dies who lived opposite to him, and who lived together in 
such harmony 9^ to desire no other connections, but were 
yet so pleased with Gebelin's amiable manners, as to adr 
mit him into their friendship, and furnish him with every 
assistance he could wish in carrying on his great work, 
^^ Le nionde primitif,'* in digesting the materials of which 
he employed ten years. One of these ladies, mademoi- 
selle Linot, learned engraving solely with the view of be- 
ing useful to him in his labours, uid actually engraved 

. • 

< Hodius de Grecis Utaslribat.— Niceroq^ toI. XXIX.^MQr^i,T-*SaiMi.0^f 

O E B £ t I N. .365 


some of the pUtes in his work ; vhile the either, mademoi- 
selle Fleury, contributed 5000 livres towards the expences 
of the first volume of hU work. After bis death they trans* 
ferred their kindness to his relations, a sister and two 
nieces whom he bad sent for to reside at Paris, but to 
whom he was not able to leave much. 

The love 6{ study and retirement was so strong in him 
that he entirely neglected opportunities of making his way 
in the world. " I like better," he ,used to say, " to pay 
court to the public, than to individuals whom that, public 
despises.*' In his need, for he was long unprovided for^ 
he knew how to contract his wants, and never was ashamed 
^o own that in the first years of his residence at Paris he 
brought himself to live on bread and water, which he pre- 
ferred to the more painful necessity of soliciting his 
friends. His modesty was equal to his learning, which all 
acknowledge was extensive and profound. In the fifst 
volume of his great work, *^ Le monde primitif,*' we find 
him acknowledging with the greatest exactness, as well as 
gratitude, every assistance he derived from books, or liv- 
ing authors. The French ac^ademy, knowing his merit 
and modesty, adjudged him twice the prize of 1200 livres, 
which was founded by count de Valbelle as a recompense 
to authors who had made the best use of their talents. 

At length the first volume of his ** Le monde primitif " 
made its appearance in 1773, and was continued until it 
extended to 9 vols. 4to, in which he endeavours to t^ace 
the history of the moral and physical world to its origin. 
Perhaps no man ever endeavoured to compass so great a 
variety of objects ; and although the author has indulged in 
some paradoxical notions, yet his learning, extensive read- 
ing, and sentiment, create a reverence for his talents, and 
it is not without reason that the French rank this work 
among those which have done the greatest honour to their 
nation. D^AIembert was so struck with the first volume,, 
that he asked if it was the academy of forty (the number 
of the French academy) that were employed in executing 
fo vast an undertaking, and expressed the greatest asto- 
nishment, when told that Gebelin was the sole author. 

The continual labour, however, which Gebelin bestowed 
on this, and his other works, is supposed to have hastened 
ibis death, although this was not the only cause to which 
that event has been attributed. A stone had formed in 
bis kidnies, which although voided by nature, brought on 

S66 O B ti S L I N. 

syoptoiiit of discay, and he iinfortdfiately had rectottr^ to 
Mesmer, the tioted qaaieky who by hte aiiidial magnetism 
seemed to aAbrd bim mlief. Gebcjin was so grztefti), a» 
to write a book in favour of Mesmer and bis r6medy> and 
had: scarcely iiuisbed it^ <when a return of bift codiptaints 
put an end to bis useful life. May 10, 1784. -As a protes* 
tant be could not be buried in catholic ground. His re- 
mains were therefore temoved to the gardens of his friend 
and biographer comte D^Albon at Franconville, where a 
bandspme monument was erected to- bis memory, with this 
inscription : " Passant, venerez cette tombe — Gebeliti y 

Gebelin was one of the most learned men of his time^ 
and not only familiar with the ancient and modern lan- 
guages, but with natural history, mathematics, mythology, 
ancient monuments, statues, gems, inscriptions, and every 
species of knowledge and research which goes to form the 
accomplished antiquary* Besides the *^ Monde primitif, 
he published, 1. ^^ Le Patriote Frangais et impartialej 
1753, 2' vols. l2mo. 2. <^ Histoire de la guerre des Ce« 
vennes, ou de la guerre des Camisards,'* 1760, 3 vols. 
12mo. 3. <^ L^Histoire Natureile de la Parole, ou precis 
de laGrammaire Universelle,'* 1776, Svo. This forms a. 
part of his <* Monde primitif,** 4. ** Dictionnaire etymo- 
logique et raJsonn6 des racines Latifies, a I'usage des 
jeunes gens,*' 1780, Svo. *5. ^^ Lettre sur le Magnetisme 
Aniisial," 4to ; bis defence of this quackery, which for a 
time was too much encouraged even in this country. 6. 
<< Devoirs du prince et du citoyen," a posthumous piibli* 
cation which appeared in 1789, 8vo. ' 

GEBER (John), a physician and astronomer, who wrole 
a commentary on the*" Syntaxis Magna" of Ptolemy/ ih 
nine books^ and several other works, is supposed to have 
been a Greek by nation ; some call him ** the Arabian,*' 
and others say that he was born at Seville In Sp^ih of Ara-* 
bian parents. There is as much diversity of opinion as to 
the age in which he flourished, some contending for the 
seventh, some for the eighth, and some for the ninth cen- 
tury. His commentary above mentioned was published at 
Nuremburg in 1533. In it he endeavoured to correct the 
astronomy of Ptolemy, but Copernicus called' him rather 

^ Diet Hist, in Court— Keister's Portraiti des Hommes lilustret.— Efoge 
par Oprnte D'AIbon. 

G E B E It %t1 

i)aie calumniator of Ptolemj* He was a learned cfaemtst^ 
and as such baa been mentioned with respect by the gneat 
Qoerhaave; but be was also addicted ,to the reveries of 
Alc.bei^yy . and condesoended to use occasionally a Jtfrgon 
s|iited to the.mj^stio pretensions. of those .{iandftil writers. 
Dr. Johnson was of opinion, that gibberish is best deri^red 
from this uniQtel%ible cant of Geber and his followers ! 
anqi^ntlji be alledges, it was written gebrish* Notwith^* 
standing this, it is allowed that his writings contain mtich 
useful knowledge, and that the accuracy of many of his 
operations is surprizing* . The other works of Geber now 
extant are, 1. ^^ His Astronomy, or denonstrattve work of 
Astrology** in, nine books^ printed at Nuremberg in 15S3, 
2* *^ His three Books on Alchymy,*^ published at Stras^ 
bnrgy with one ^f De inrcstigatione perfeoti Magisterii," in 
1530 ( and also in Italy from a MS. in the Vatican. 9^ 
^' On the Investigation of the truth of Metals, and on Fur« 
tiace$» with other works,*' Nuremberg^ 1545. 4. <^ A 
book called Flos Naturarum,*' published in 1473. 5. Also 
his *^ Chymica,^^ printed by Perna, with the chemical works 
of Avicenoa. All these were published in English at Ley-* 
d^n, by Hicbard Russel in 1668. His Almagest is also 
extant in Arabic. As a specimen of his language, he used 
to say, ^< mp /object is to cure six lepers^^^ meaning that he 
w^bed to convert six inferior metals into gold.^ 

GED (William), an ingenious though unsuccessful 
artist, who was a goldsmith in Edinburgh, deserves to be 
recorded for his attempt. to introduce an improvement in 
the art of printing. The invention, first practised by Ged 
in 172i5, was simply this. From any types of Greek or 
RoQian, . or any other character, he formed a plate for 
ev^ry. page, or sheet, of a book, from which he printed, 
instead of using a type for every letter, as is done in* the 
coouQOii way. This was first practised on blocks of* wood^ 
by the .Chinese and Japanese, and pursued in the first 
essays of Coster, the European inventor of the present 
4rt. *^This improvement,** .says Jgimes Ged, the inven- 
tor^s son, *Ms principally considerable in three mo5tim«' 
portant articles, viz. ei^penpe^ correctness, beauty, and 
uniformity.'* In July 1729, William Ged entered into 
partnership with William Fenner, a London stationer, who 
was to have half the profits, in consideration of his ad^ 

1 Moreri. 

368 G E D. 

vancing all the money requisite. To supply this, Mr. John 
JameSj then an architect at Greennrich (who built sir Ore* 
gory Pagers house, Blpomsbury church, Jtc.) was taken 
into the scheme, add afterwards his brother, Mr. Thomas 
James *, a letter-founder, and James Ged, the inventor^s 
son.. In 1730, these partners applied to the university of 
Cambridge for printing bibles and common-prayer books 
by block instead of single types, and^ in consequence, a 
lease was sealed to them April 23, 1731. In their attempt 
they sunk a large sum of money, and finished only two 
prayer-books^ so that it was forced to be relinquished) and 
the lease was given up in 1738. Ged imputed his disap- 
pointment to the villainy of the press-men, and the ill- 
treatment of his partners (which he specifies at large), par- 
ticularly Fenner, whom John James and he were advised 
to prosecute, but declined it. He returned to Scotland in 
1733, and had no redress. He there, however, had friends 
who were anxious to see a specimen of his performance ; 
which. he. gave them in 1744, by an edition of Sallustf, 
Fenner died insolvent in or before 1735, and his widow 
married Mr* Waugb, an apothecary, whom she survived. 
Her effects were sold in 1768. James Ged, the son, 
vtrearied with disappointments, engaged in the rebellion of 
1745, as a captain in Perthes regiment ; and bieing taken 
at Carlisle, was condemned, but on his father^s account 
(by Dr. Smith's interest with the duke of Newcastle) was 
pardoned, and released in 1748. He afterwards worked 
for some time as a journeyman, with Mr. Bettenham, 
and then commenced master; but being unsuccessful, he 
went privately to Jamaica, where his younger brother Wil- 
liapi was settled as a reputable printer. His tools, &c. he 
left to be shipped by a false friend, who most ungene- 
rously detained them to try his skill himself. James died 
the year after he left England ; as did his brother in 1767. 
In the above pursuit Mr. Thomas James, who died in 1738^ 
expended much of his fortune, and suffered in his proper 
business ; '^ for the printers,^' says Mr. Mores, ^^ ^ould 
not employ him, because the block-printing, had it auc* 
ceeded, would have been pr^udicial to theirs.'' Mr. 

* George Jdmes, another brother, rifaber Edtnensis, noo TypU mobilU 
waspriater to the city of London; a bus, at vulgb fieri solet, sed Ta- 
inan of letters, aQ^ resided aiany years bellis seu Lamion fusis, excudebat* 
in Little-Britain, mdcgxliv." The daughter's ^arrati\e 

f "£diabttr(fi| Gulielmtts Ged, Au- »ay.s it was finished in 1756. 

G E D. 360 

M^UIiain Ged di^d, in very indifSsrent circniiistances/ Ocr 
tober 19, 1749, after his utensils were sent for Leitb to bd 
shipped for .London, to have joined with his son Jaimes as a 

(printer there. Thus ended bis life and project, which has 
ately been revived both in France and England, under the 
name of stereotype, although its application to the print- 
ing of books has hitherto been partial, and indeed chiefly 
tonfined to such asUre supposed not to admit of change* 
of improvements,, such as Bibles, and some school-books.^ 
GEDDES (Alexander), a Roman catholic dlviue, who 
attempted to translate the Bible, with a view to destroy its 
credibility, was born in 1737, in the parish of Ruthven, 
pnd coanty of BamfF, in Scotland. His parents, who were 
Roman' catholics^ in very humble life, possessed but a few 
boobs, among which was an English Bible, to the study of 
which their son applied very early, and id said to have 
known ail its history by heart before he was eleven years 
old. At the age of fourteen he was sent to Scalad, ia free 
Roman catholic seminary in the Highlands, of obscure 
fame, where be acquired only an acquaintance with the 
Vulgate Latin Bible. Having attained the age of twei^ty- 
one, he was removed to the Scotch college at Paris, where 
he made such proficiency in his studies ad very much- at« 
traeted the attention of his preceptors. Hete s>::ho6l di- 
vinity and biblical criticism occupied th^ principal part of 
bis time ; and he ^endeavoured also to make himself master 
6f the Greek and Latin languages, and of the French, 
Spanish, German, and Low Dutch. * 

In 1764 he returr\ed to Scotland, and was ordered to 
Dundee to officiate as priest among the catholics in the 
eounty of Angus, but was scarcely settled when he re« 
oeived an invitation to become a resident in the family of 
die earl of Traquaire^' in what capacity, unless a^ a friend, 
does net appear. He accepted, however, an oifer so fa« 
vouraUe to the pursuit of hh studies ; and hbre,* a^ well ai 
at Pavis, iie regulated bis inquiries so as to be preparatory 
to the filan he had long^^conc^ived, df giving a new trans* 
l^ttidn of the Biblei < His residence here was unfortunately 
interrupted by an attachment he formed for a ieniale relative 
of the earl of TraquaTre*s, and which was reciprocal ; but 
vegavding his vow of celibacy as sacred, and his passion 

Qth^i^wtse invincible, he left the' fantiiy, and went again to 

.••'.■.- . ' /••.•<' 

1 Siographical Memoirs ot WiUiftin Ged, HQi. Svov— Nichol|'^s Bqwyptf. 

Vol. XV. B b 

t10 G ED D E S. 

Paris, wbere be cdntinued about eight or nine mpntbs, airi 
returned to Scotland in the spring of 1769, «He now ac- 
cepted the charge of a catholic coDgregatk>n at Auchin- 
balrig in- the county of BamfF, where he engaged the af- 
fections of his flock by many pastoral offices, reconciling 
differences, adininbtering to the poor, and rebuilding th^ir 
ruinous chapel. All tbis^ however, seems to have ifi^ 
voived him in pecuniary difficulties,* from which he w^ 
extricated by the late duke of Norfolk,, the last catholic 
peer of that illustrioos family. To prevent similar embar- 
rajBsments, Mr. Gedd^ now took a small farm, which again 
involved him iti debts^ which he endeavoured to discharge 
by anapplicatien^to the muses. *^ Some daBmon/*^ be says^ 
^^ whispered him that be had a turn for poetry,*' which 
produced in 1779, ** Select Satires- of Horace, translated 
into English verse, and for the. most part adapted to the 
present times and manners," 4to. The impreaston of this 
work extended only to 750 copiesy yet be reaped a profit 
of lOOL whic^ be received with exttllation, and applied td 
the liquidation of bis arrears* .This suceess determined 
bim also to relinqoisb bis retiredient, and try what his 
abilities might obtain for bim io London,^ and his .removal 
was probably accelerated by bis having incurred the dis^ 
pleasure of the bishop of his diocese^. Dr. Hay, on account 
of his attending the ministry of a presbyteriaii friend. The 
bishop bad betofe wartied him to desist, and finding him 
refractory, deposed; him from his oflSice, and prohibited 
him from preaching within the extent of bis diocese. He 
left his charge ^oordingly, and prenou» to bis leaving 
Scotland) received the degree of LL. D. from one of the 
colleges of Aberde^. His reputation for learning, in- 
deed, was very considerable in Scotland, and he was^tiine 
of the literati who took a very active part in the institutioA 
of a society of antiquaries at Edinburgli. In their volume 
for 1 792 he wrote ** A dissertation on the Seoto-Saxoit 
jUalect," and "The first Eklog of Virgil,'' and V The first 
IdyllioD of Theocritup, trajislatitt into 86otti» vers,'' in the 
former of which the Edinburgh dial<$ct is chiefly imitated^ 
and in the Utter the B|icban« >He also composed a " Car^ 
p>eii ;SeCQlare" for the society's anniversary of 1788. 

He arrived in London in the beginning of 1780, arid wai 
foon incited to officiate as priest in the Imperial ambassa* 
dor's chapel, and preached occasionally at the chapel in 
Duke^ltreet^ Lincoiu's Inn Fields^ oniil the Easter holi^ 

G E b 1> £ Si S71 

-ddya^ l7SSj after which he voluntarily mthdreir fitom every 
flutated ministerial fuoctiou^ and seldom officiated in iany 
>bapel whatevier. The principal reason was, that on his 
arrival in London- he was introduced to men of literature 
of every class, obtained easy access to public libraries^ 
and in his design of translating the Bible, obtained the 
patronage of brd Petre- This nobleman engaged to allow 
him . a salary of 200/. and took upon himself the entire 
expence of whatever private library Dr. Geddes might judge 
requisite to collect in the prosecution of his favourite object* 
With such miinifici^nt encouragement, he published in 
1780 his ^* Idea of a New Version of the Holy Bible, foe 
the use of the English Catholics.'' This was an imperfeefc 
sketchy as he had not settled what versions to follow. 
Among his encouragers, who then thought favourably^ of 
him, were Br. Kennicott, . and bishop I^wth. To th6 
latter be presented, in 17.85, bis ^^ Prospectus," who re»* 
turned it with a polite note^ inwjiieh he recommended him 
to publish it^ not only as an introduction to his worfcy but 
)as a useful ai|d edifying treatiie foe young students indi^ 
vinity^ He accordingly published it at Glasgow, and it 
was very &vourably received by biblical scholars in general; 
Being thus encouraged, he first published ^^ A Letter to 
the eight re?, the bishop of London, containing queries, 
doubts, and difficulties, relative to a vernacular version of 
the Holy Scriptufes." This, was designed as an appendix 
to his Prospectus,, and .was accompanied with a success 
equal to tk^t of his fornter publication. After this he pub^ 
liflihed several pamphlets on temporary topics, of which it 
will be sufficient to give the titles in our. list of bis.workjs* 
In 1788 appeared his ^^ Proposals for printing by subscrip/* 
tion, a New Trauslati<)in of the Bible, from corrected texts 
of the original ; with various readings, explanatory notes^ 
and critical observations." In this he solicited the opinion, 
hints, &c« of literary characters, and received .so many 
that, in July 1790, be thought proper to publish ^^Dr« 
Geddes' general Answer to the queries, counsels, and cri- 
licnms that have been communicated to him since the pub- 
lioalion of ^is Proposals for printing a New Translation of 
the Bibie." In this pamphlet, while he resists the ge« 
nerality of counsels and criticisms communicated to him^ 
from motives ' which he very candidly assigns, be yields 
to several^ and liberally expresses bis obligations ta the 
correspondents who proposed them. It appe^rsy hew^vec^ 

B B 2 

372 GEDDE& 

that bis bretbren of tbe ca^Kc persuasion were already 
suspicions, and that be lost whatever sbare of popularity 
be formerly bad witbin the pale of tns o«m church. He 
acknonrledges that be receimd more encouragement from 
tbe established cbmrch and tbe protestant dissenters. His 
subscribers amounted to 345, among which were Tery few 
Roman catholics. In 1792 the first volume of the transla- 
tion appeared, under the title of << Tbe Holy Bible, or the 
books, accoonted sacred by Jews and Christians ; otherwise 
called tbe Books of the Old and New Correnants, faithfully 
translated from corrected texts of the originals, with Ta« 
nous readings, explanatory notes, and critical remarks :^ 
and a second volume appeared in 1797. The manner in 
which Dr. Geddes executed bis translation, brought upon 
bim attacks from various quarters, but especially from 
bis catholic brethren. Tbe opposition and dif&culries be 
bad, on this account, to encountier^^ were stated |;>y bimini 
^* An Addreis ti tbe Public.'' Indeied, his orthodoxy hav- 
ing bten questioned before his volume appeared, bewa* 
stinmoned by those whom he adhtitted ta b^ tbe organs of 
legitimate authority; ^tlis- tbr^e judges, however, were 
dither satisfied or silenced, bkuch to the doetor^s satisfac-^ 
fioii. Shortly after tbe firH vohiineof his- tranrtatvon was 
pcibiished, an ecclesiastical interdict, under the title -cif 
<* A l^astoral Letter,'* signed By Walmstey, Gibson, and 
Douglns, as apostolic vicars t>f the western^ viorCheh), and* 
London districts, was published^ id which ' Geddc^^s work 
was prohibited to tbe= faithful « Agaitist tiiis prohibition 
(Which bishop Thomas Talbot 'refu«e4 to i subscribe) the 
doctor, first giving bishop ^Douglas ndtice, published a' 
renionstrance in a letter addressed to^brm^; but notMth«- 
standing this, he was suspended f roa» mtt eede'siastieal 
funetionto. In 1800^ he published the first, and only vo^ 
lunie b6 lived to finish, of << CriticallCem^s 6n tbe He* 
brew Scriptures; corresponding witb^a New Translation of 
the Bible,^ 4to. How far Dr. Cedded m^ritkl tbe cenni 
sores bestowed upon him both >by R€fm«i catbofies 'i^* 
proteiltants, in his hanstetion and ' Critical RMiarhs, the 
reader ihay judge, when he|s told that in- thia volume .he 
attacks the credit of M9ses in eirtery pan{ of bib dbaracter^. 
as an historian^ a legisbtor, and at moralist* He even 
doubts whether he wiui^the author of the Peniaseucb ;-but' 
Ib^ writer, Whoever he mtgbt be, is bn#,' he tells us, who 
ij^n all occasions ^ives into the mliirveUous^ adoitis bir- 

G E D D E SL 37S 

narratioQ with fictions of the interference of the Deity, 
when every thing happened in a natural wiiy ; and^ at 
Other times, dresses up fable in the garb of true history. 
The history of the creation is, according to him, a fabulous 
cosmogony. The story of the &I1 a mj/thosy in which uo«* 
thing but the inere imagination of the commentatorSi posw 
sessing more piety than jadgment, could have discovered 
either a seducing devil, or the promise of a Saviour. It ia 
9 fable, he asserts, inteiided for the purpose of persuading^ 
the vulgar, that knowledge is the root of all evil, and the 
desire of it a crime. Moses was, it seems, a man of great 
talents, as Numa and Lycurgus were. But like them, he 
was a false pretender to personal intercourse with the 
Deity, with whom he had no immediate communication* 
He had the art to take the advantage of rare, but natural 
occurrences, to persuade the Israelites that the immediate 
power of God was exerted to accomplish his projects. 
When a violent wind happened to lay dry the head of the 
Gulph of Suez, he persuaded them that God had made a 
passage for them through the sea; and the narrative ot 
their march is embellished with circumstances of mere 
fiction. In the delivery of the ten commandments, he 
took advantage of a thunder-storm to persuade the people 
that Jehovah bad descended upon moiunt Sinai \ and hd 
counterfeited the voice of God, by a person, in the heighc 
of the storm, speaking through a trumpet, &c. &c. With* 
oui proceeding farther in accumulating the proofs of arro-« 
gance, ignorance, and iinpiety, with which this ^< Transla- 
tion^' and ^^ Critical Remanrks*' abound, we shall only add,, 
that even Dr. Priestley seemed to doubt ^' if such a man as 
Geddesy who believed so little, and who conceded so much^ 
<x>uJd be a Christian.** 

An attack had been made upon him as an infidel, in 
the Gentleman*s Magazine^ soon after his death, and it 
was said that ^< his dying recantation^ like that of Voltsure, 
iiad been studiously concealed.'^ In answer to this, his 
learned, but somewnat too affectionately partial biographer^ 
John Mason Good, F. R. S. gives an account of an inter* 
view between Dr. Geddes and M* St. Martin, a catholic 
priest, which we shall transcribe^ 

*^ M. St. Martin found the doctor extremely comatose^ 
and believed him to be in the ^utmost danger ; he endea- 
voured to rouse him from bis lethargy, and proposed to. 
him to receive absolution* Dn Geddes observed, that ia 

$74 G E D D £ a 

such case it was necessary be should first make his confea« 
sk>o. M. St. Martin was sensible th^t he had neither 
strength nor wakefulness enough for such an exertion^ and 
replied that in extremis this was not necessary ; that he . 
bad only to examine the state of his own mind, and to . 
Bii^kie a sign when he was prepared. M. St Martin is a 
gentleman of much liberality of sentiment, but strenuously, 
attached to what are denominated the orthodox tenets of 
the catholic church ; he had long beheld with great grief 
of heart what he conceived the aberrations of his learned 
friend ; and had flattered himself that in the course of this 
last illness he should be the happy instrument of recalling 
bim to a full belief of every doctrine he had rejected ; and 
with this view. he was actually prepared upon the pre« 
sent occasion with a written list of questions, in the hope 
of obtaining from the doctor aii accurate and satisfactory 
xeply. He found, however, from the lethargic state of 
Df. Geddes, that this regular process was impracticable. 
He could not avoid, nevertheless, iexatnining the state of 
his mind as to several of the more important poiuts upon 
which .they differed. * You fully,* said he, * believe in 
the Scriptures ?' He roused himself from his sleep, and 
said, *, Certainly ,'-T-* In the doctrine of the trinity?' — » 
Certainly, but not in ,the manner you mean/ — * In the 
mediation pf Jesus Christ ?'-t-< No, no, no— »-not as you 
mean ; in.Jesus Christ as our saviour — ^but not iii the atone** 
ment.^ I inquired of M. St. Martin, if in Che course of 
what had occurred, he bad any reason to suppose that his 
.]:eIigious creed either now, or in any other period of his 
illness, had sustained any shade of difference from what 
he had formerly professed* He replied, that he coold not 
positively flatter himself with believing it had; that the 
9iiDst comfortable words he heard him utter were imme- 
diately after a short pause, and before the administration 
oi absolution, ^' I consent to all;.'' but that to these he 
could affix no definite meaning. I showed h^im the pas* 
s,age to which I now refer, in the Gentleman's Magazine : 
he carefully perused it, and immediately added that it 
was false in every respect. ' It would have given me great 
pleasure,' said he, ' to have heard, him recant, but I can« 
i^ot with certainty say that I perceived the least disposition 
in him to do so; and even the expression ^ I consent ta 
ally' was rather, perhaps, uttered from a widh to oblige 
m^ Its his f|:iead> or a desire to shorten the conversation^ 

G E D D £ S. 


than from any change in his opniions. After having tfang 
esamined himself, however, for some minutes, he, gave a 
sign of being ready, and received absolution as I had 
proposed to bim. I then left him ; he shook my hand 
heartily upon quitting him, and said that he was happy he 
had seen me." 

Dr. Geddes died the day after this interview, Feb. 26^ 
1'802, and was buried in Paddington chnrch-yard. He 
was unquestionably a man of extensive (earning, although 
not entitled to the superiority which his friends have as'- 
signed to him, and which indeed he too frequently arro^ 
gated to himself. It was this want of -knowledge of his 
real powers and the vanity superinduced upon it, that 
made bim ambitious of the character of a wit and a poet,^ 
without either temper or genius. His wit was ipere flip* 
pancy, and his poetry had rarely any other attribute tbaii 
that of rhyme. The list of his works wiU show that in the 
employment of bis talents there was something undignified 
and triAing> that showed a mind vexed with restlessness^ 
rather than seriously and uniformly employed for the 
public good. While engaged in so important a work as 
4he translation of the Bible, he was perpetually stooping 
to pick up any little paltry anecdote of the day, ad the 
subject for a pamphlet or a poem, and while he was suf- 
fering by the neglect or censure of those whose' reli- 
gious opinions he bad shocked, he was seeking comfort in 
ridiculins: the. characters of men who had never offended 
him by any species of provocation. Ot his private cha- 
racter, while he is praised for his benevolence and catholic 
spirit, we find also, and not V4exy consistently, that itd 
leading feature was irritability upon the most trifting jpro<- 
^rotations, if they deserved the name,, wiiich discovered 
itself in the most gross and offensive language. One in- 
stance of this species of insanity, for such it appeared to 
Jbe in him, is ^iven by his biographer, which we shall 
throw into a note, for its excellence a« a genuine portrait 
-of the man *• . 

 " It was about this period, 1793, 
I- first became acquainteii -witb Dr. 
Geddes. I met him aecideafcaily at 
jibe iioose of miss * Hamilton, who has 
lately acquired a just repntation for 
ber «3Mclleiit Letters on Education; 
and I freely confess that at th« firK. 
interriew J was ^by no means plisased 

wiih him. I 'beheld a man of about 
five ieet five inches high, in a blark 
dress, put on with uncommon negli- 
gence, and apparently never fitted t^ 
his form ; his fignre was lank, bit 
face meagre,, his hair black, long, and 
loose, without having been sufficiently 
submitted to the operations of the 

376, G £ D D E & 

Dr. Geddes publish^, 1. f' Select Satires of Gbnice/^ 
&c. London, 1779, 4to. 2. ** Linton, a Tweedale Pasr- 
toral,'* Edinburgh, 4to. 3. '< Cursory Remarks on a lat« 
fanatical publication entitled a Full Detection of Popery,'' 
Lond. 1783, 8vo« 4, PfX)spectus of a New Translation of 
the Bible,'* &c. ibid. 1786, 4to. 5. " Letter to the. 
Bishop of London, containing doubts, queries, &c. rela- 
tive to a vernacular translation of the Holy Scripture$,'^^ 
ibid. 1787, 4tQ. 6. "Letter to the Rev. Dr. Priestley, 
in which the author attempts to prove by one prescriptivQ' 
argument, that the divinity of Jesus Christ was a primitive 
tenet of Christianity," ibid. 1787, 8yo. 7. "Letter to ^ 
member of parliament on the case of the Protestant Dis- 
senters, and th^ expediency of a general repeal of all 
penal statutes that regard religrous opinions^" ibid. 1787, 
8vb. 8. " Proposals, &c." for his translation, ibid. 1788^ 
4to. 9. 'f Dr. Oeddes's general answer to queries, coun« 
sels,^ &c. ibid. 1790, 4to. . 10. *^ An answer to the bishop 
of Comana's pastoral letter, by a protesting catholic,'* 
I790, Svo. 11. " A Letter to the right rev. the arch* 
bishops and* bi^fhopa of England ; pointing out the only 
sure meaiis of preserving the church from the* dangers that 
now threaten her.- By an Upper Graduate," 1790, .8vo. 

12. " Epistola macs^ronica ad fratrem, de iis quae gesta 
sunt in nupero Dissentientium conyentu," 1790, 4to. 

13. ** Carmen seculare pro Gallica gente tyrannidi aristo-* 
oraticap erepta," 1790, 4to. 14. *^ Encyclical letter of 

tOalet-*aiid bis eyn, tbough qoick and united with myself and a friend- 

and vivid, sparl^linj^ at that time ra- who sat on m? other side in discoursing 

tiier witt